Harmane

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Harmane
Harmane.svg
Names
IUPAC name
1-Methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole
Other names
Harman, Aribine, Aribin, Locuturine, Locuturin, Loturine, Passiflorin, 1-Methylnorharman, NSC 54439
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
EC Number 207-642-2
KEGG
Properties
C12H10N2
Molar mass 182.23 g·mol−1
Melting point 235–238 °C (455–460 °F; 508–511 K)
Soluble to 10 mM in 1 eq. HCl[1]

methanol: soluble 50 mg/ml

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Harmane (harman) is a heterocyclic amine found in a variety of foods including coffee,[2] sauces,[3] and cooked meat.[4] It is also present in tobacco smoke.[5]

Chemistry[edit]

Harmane is a methylated derivative of β-carboline with the molecular formula C12H10N2.

Biological effects[edit]

Harmane is a neurotoxin[6][7] that is strongly associated with essential tremor, one of the most common neurological diseases in the elderly.[8]

Additionally, harmane is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor[2][9][10] and believed to be the main endogenous ligand for the benzodiazepine receptor.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Harmane". tocris.com. 
  2. ^ a b Herraiz, T; Chaparro, C (2006). "Human monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibition by coffee and beta-carbolines norharman and harman isolated from coffee". Life Sciences. 78 (8): 795–802. PMID 16139309. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.074. 
  3. ^ Herraiz, T. (2004). "Relative exposure toβ-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke". Food Additives and Contaminants. 21 (11): 1041–50. PMID 15764332. doi:10.1080/02652030400019844. 
  4. ^ Louis, E. D.; Zheng, W; Jiang, W; Bogen, K. T.; Keating, G. A. (2007). "Quantification of the neurotoxic beta-carboline harmane in barbecued/grilled meat samples and correlation with level of doneness". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 70 (12): 1014–9. PMC 4993204Freely accessible. PMID 17497412. doi:10.1080/15287390601172015. 
  5. ^ Herraiz, Tomas; Chaparro, Carolina (2005). "Human monoamine oxidase is inhibited by tobacco smoke: β-carboline alkaloids act as potent and reversible inhibitors". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 326 (2): 378. PMID 15582589. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.11.033. 
  6. ^ Louis, E. D.; Zheng, W; Jiang, W; Bogen, K. T.; Keating, G. A. (2007). "Quantification of the neurotoxic beta-carboline harmane in barbecued/grilled meat samples and correlation with level of doneness". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 70 (12): 1014–9. PMC 4993204Freely accessible. PMID 17497412. doi:10.1080/15287390601172015. 
  7. ^ Celikyurt, I. K.; Utkan, T; Gocmez, S. S.; Hudson, A; Aricioglu, F (2013). "Effect of harmane, an endogenous β-carboline, on learning and memory in rats". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 103 (3): 666–71. PMID 23107644. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.10.011. 
  8. ^ Louis, E. D.; Zheng, W; Jurewicz, E. C.; Watner, D; Chen, J; Factor–Litvak, P; Parides, M (2002). "Elevation of blood β-carboline alkaloids in essential tremor". Neurology. 59 (12): 1940–1944. PMC 4992345Freely accessible. 
  9. ^ Rommelspacher, H; May, T; Salewski, B (1994). "Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type a in rats". European journal of pharmacology. 252 (1): 51–9. PMID 8149995. 
  10. ^ Adell, A; Biggs, T. A.; Myers, R. D. (1996). "Action of harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) on the brain: Body temperature and in vivo efflux of 5-HT from hippocampus of the rat". Neuropharmacology. 35 (8): 1101–7. PMID 9121613. 
  11. ^ Rommelspacher, H; Nanz, C; Borbe, H. O.; Fehske, K. J.; Müller, W. E.; Wollert, U (1980). "1-Methyl-beta-carboline (harmane), a potent endogenous inhibitor of benzodiazepine receptor binding". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 314 (1): 97–100. PMID 6255348.