Harold Lamb

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Harold Lamb
Born(1892-09-01)September 1, 1892
Alpine, Bergen County, New Jersey, U.S.
DiedApril 9, 1962(1962-04-09) (aged 69)
Rochester, Monroe County, New York, U.S.
Notable awardsGuggenheim Fellowship (1929)

Harold Albert Lamb (September 1, 1892 – April 9, 1962)[1] was an American historian, screenwriter, short story writer, and novelist.


Lamb was born in Alpine, New Jersey[2] to Eliza Rollinson and Frederick Lamb.[3] He was the nephew of the architect Charles Rollinson Lamb. He attended Columbia University, where his interest in the peoples and history of Asia began. Lamb's tutors at Columbia included Carl Van Doren and John Erskine.[4] He received a Guggenheim Fellowship for twelve months, starting on April 1, 1929.[5]

Lamb built a career with his writing from an early age. He got his start in the pulp magazines, quickly moving to the prestigious Adventure magazine, his primary fiction outlet for nineteen years.[6] In 1927 he wrote a biography of Genghis Khan, and following on its success turned more and more to the writing of non-fiction, penning numerous biographies and popular history books until his death in 1962 in Rochester, N.Y. The success of Lamb's two-volume history of the Crusades led to his discovery by Cecil B. DeMille, who employed Lamb as a technical advisor on a related movie, The Crusades, and used him as a screenwriter on many other DeMille movies thereafter. Lamb spoke French, Latin, Persian, and Arabic, and, by his own account, a smattering of Manchu-Tartar.

During World War II, Lamb was an OSS agent in Iran.[7]


Although Harold Lamb wrote short stories for a variety of magazines between 1917 and the early 1960s, and wrote several novels, his best known and most reprinted fiction is that which he wrote for Adventure between 1917 and 1936. The editor of Adventure, Arthur Sullivant Hoffman, praised Lamb's writing ability, describing him as "always the scholar first, the good fictionist second".[4] The majority of Harold Lamb's work for Adventure was historical fiction, and can be thematically divided into three broad categories of tales:

  • Stories featuring Cossacks
  • Stories featuring Crusaders
  • Stories with Asian or Middle-Eastern Protagonists

Lamb's prose was direct and fast-paced, in stark contrast to that of many other contemporary adventure writers. His stories were well-researched and rooted in their time, often featuring real historical characters, but set in places unfamiliar and exotic to most of the western audience reading his fiction. While his adventure stories had familiar tropes such as tyrannical rulers and scheming priests, he avoided the simplistic depiction of foreign or unfamiliar cultures as evil; many of his heroes were Mongolian, Indian, Russian, or Muslim.[6] Most of his protagonists were outsiders or outcasts apart from civilization, and all but a very few were skilled swordsmen and warriors.

In a Lamb story, honor and loyalty to one's comrades-in-arms were more important than cultural identity, although often his protagonists ended up risking their lives to protect the cultures that had spurned them. Those holding positions of authority are almost universally depicted as being corrupted by their own power or consumed with greed, be they Russian boyars or Buddhist priests, and merchants are almost always shown as placing their own desire for coin above the well-being of their fellow men. Loyalty, wisdom, and religious piety is shown again and again in these stories to lie more securely in the hands of Lamb's common folk.

While female characters occasionally played the familiar role of damsel in distress in these stories, Lamb more typically depicted his women as courageous, independent, and more shrewd than their male counterparts. Their motives and true loyalties, though, remained mysterious to Lamb's male characters, and their unknowable nature is frequently the source of plot tension.

Lamb was never a formula plotter, and his stories often turned upon surprising developments arising from character conflict. The bulk of his Crusader, Asian, and Middle-Eastern stories (as well as the latter stories of Khlit the Cossack) were written in the latter portion of his pulp magazine years, and demonstrate a growing command of prose tools; the more frequent use, for example, of poetic metaphor in his description.[6]

Cossack tales[edit]

By far the largest number of these tales were short stories, novellas, and novels of Cossacks wandering the Asian steppes during the late 16th and early 17th century, all but a half-dozen featuring a set of allied characters. Two early books (Kirdy and White Falcon) reprinted the longest of these Cossack adventures, and two later books (The Curved Saber and The Mighty Manslayer) reprinted fourteen of the short stories; the four large Steppes volumes published by The University of Nebraska Press present all of Lamb's Cossack tales in their chronological order.

The most famous of these Cossack characters is Khlit, a greybearded veteran who survives as often by his wiles as his swordarm; he is a featured character in eighteen of the Cossack adventures and appears in a nineteenth. He chooses to wander Asia rather than face forced "Cossack retirement" in a Russian monastery, and launches into an odyssey that takes him to Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan. He comes to befriend and rely upon folk he has been raised to despise, and briefly rises to leadership of a Tartar tribe before he wanders further south. His greatest friend proves to be the swashbuckling Muslim swordsman, Abdul Dost, whom he aids in raising a rebellion against the Moghul emperor in Afghanistan. In later stories Khlit returns as a secondary character, an aged advisor to both his adventurous grandson, Kirdy, and other Cossack heroes featured in separate stories.

Crusader tales[edit]

Unlike Lamb's Cossack stories, only a handful of his Crusader stories are inter-related. Two novelettes feature the young knight, Nial O'Gordon, and three short novels are centered around Sir Hugh of Taranto, who rediscovers the sword of Roland, Durandal. Durandal, published in 1931, reprinted all three novels of Sir Hugh with new linking material. Grant books' Durandal and The Sea of Ravens each reprint a single of these three novels.

While Lamb's Crusaders sometimes battle against their traditional Muslim foes, the majority of these tales feature forays into deeper Asia.

All of Lamb's Crusader stories have been collected in the 2009 Bison volume Swords from the West except for Durandal, The Sea of Ravens, and the forthcoming Rusudan, all from Donald M. Grant Co. Related stories with occasional Crusaders are collected in Swords from the Desert (Bison, 2009).

Asian and Middle-Eastern tales[edit]

Lamb also wrote a variety of stories featuring or narrated by Muslim, Mongol, or Chinese protagonists, set for the most part during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.[6] "The Three Palladins" is a story of young Genghis Khan, told mostly from the viewpoint of one of his boyhood comrades, a Chinese prince.

Naval stories[edit]

Lamb produced several stories of naval warfare with a historical setting. These included a number of fictions revolving around John Paul Jones in eighteenth century Russia.[8]

Biographical historical novels[edit]

Lamb wrote several novels which were almost in the nature of dramatized biographies. Very little was invented beyond known history.

Lost world novels[edit]

Lamb produced several fantasy novels featuring lost worlds. These included Marching Sands, about a lost city of Crusaders in the Gobi Desert.[9][10] A Garden to the Eastward features a hidden tribe living in a volcano in Kurdistan.[10]

Reception and influence[edit]

Robert E. Howard described Lamb as one of his "favourite writers".[11] Cecelia Holland has described Lamb as "a master of pace, he had a gift also for the quick glimpse of a landscape that throws everything into perspective", and has praised Lamb's plotting and action writing.[12]

Writers influenced by Lamb's work include Robert E. Howard,[13][14] Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson,[15] Norvell Page,[14] Gardner Fox,[16] Thomas B. Costain,[17] Harry Harrison,[14] Ben Bova,[18] and Scott Oden.[19]



Realistic historical novels[edit]

  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1951)
  • Theodora and the Emperor: The Drama of Justinian (1952)
  • Durandal (1931)
  • Nur Mahal (1932)
  • Kirdy (1933)
  • Omar Khayyam (1934)

Non-fiction and historical biographies[edit]


  1. ^ "Finding Aid for the Harold Lamb Papers, 1915-1960" (UCLA Library, Department of Special Collections). Online Archive of California. c. 1999. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  2. ^ Miller, John J. (August 26, 2009). "Shepherding a Lamb's Lost Legacy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  3. ^ "Harold Lamb: Adventure short story writer, Novelist, Historian - PulpFlakes Blogspot - 25 May 2012". 25 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b Twentieth Century Authors, a biographical dictionary of modern literature, edited by Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft; (Third Edition). New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1950 (pp. 784-5).
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-09-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) . Guggenheim Fellowship.
  6. ^ a b c d Hulse, Ed. The Blood n' Thunder Guide to Pulp Fiction Middletown, DE : Muraina Press, 2018. ISBN 9781726443463 (p.53)
  7. ^ Sutton, Matthew Avery (2019). Double Crossed: The Missionaries Who Spied for the United States during the Second World War. New York: Hachette Book Group. p. 174. ISBN 9780465052660.
  8. ^ Charles Grayson, Half-a-hundred : tales by great American writers. Philadelphia : The Blakiston Company, 1945 (p.248)
  9. ^ David Pringle, The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Fantasy : the definitive illustrated guide. London, Carlton. 1998 ISBN 9781858683737 (p.30).
  10. ^ a b Robert Reginald, Douglas Menville, Mary A. Burgess, Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature A Checklist, 1700-1974 : with Contemporary Science Fiction Authors I .Wildside Press LLC, 2010 ISBN 9780941028769 (pp. 303-4)
  11. ^ Rusty Burke, "A Short Biography of Robert E. Howard", in The Savage Tales of Solomon Kane, New York : Del Rey/Ballantine Books, 2004, ISBN 9780345461506 (p.395)
  12. ^ Cecelia Holland, "Swords from the West" Review. , Historical Novel Society, May 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Influenced by the work of Harold Lamb in particular, Howard was fascinated with the variety of exotic locations and situations suggested by history..." Don D'Ammassa, "Howard's Oriental Stories" in Darrell Schweitzer, The Robert E. Howard Reader. Wildside Press LLC, 2010. ISBN 9781434411655 (p.114).
  14. ^ a b c "Lamb's fiction, almost forgotten now, was an enormous influence over later writers of popular fiction such as Robert E. Howard, Norvell Page, and Harry Harrison, to name just three." James Enge, "Introduction", in Harold Lamb, Swords from the east Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 2010. ISBN 9780803219496 (p. xi)
  15. ^ "Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson (1890-1968) is best remembered as the founder of D.C. Comics. He was also a prominent writer of adventure fiction for pulp magazines...One series he had featured Alan de Beaufort, a Crusader who ends up riding with Genghis Khan’s Mongols just like Harold Lamb’s Hugh of Taranto."The Pulp Swordsmen: Alan de Beaufort" by Morgan Holmes, at REHupa Website, Archived from the original on 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2019-02-28.
  16. ^ Fox told an interviewer that he had "read all of Burroughs, Harold Lamb, Talbot Mundy," in his youth. See Seuling, Phil (ed.) "Jim Steranko & Gardner Fox at the 1971 Comic Art Convention Luncheon – July 1971" – Interviews by John Benson and Phil Seuling, (transcribed and edited by Benson) in 1972 Comic Art Convention Programme (Seuling, 1972) pp. 70–78
  17. ^ " I have kept many books in front of me all through the arduous work which has gone into the writing of this story: Three volumes by Harold Lamb, Genghis Khan, The March of the Barbarians, The Crusades," Thomas B. Costain, "Introduction" to The Black Rose, Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1945. (pp. ix-x).
  18. ^ "ASM: What authors have influenced you the most? BB:....More contemporary writers? Ernest Hemingway, Dashiell Hammett, Harold Lamb, Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain, Rudyard Kipling…it’s a long list."Troughton, R. K. "Interview with Science Fiction Legend Ben Bova". Amazing Stories, July 23, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  19. ^ "I first encountered Lamb’s work in grade school; it has had a profound effect on me, as his was the first work I’d read that made history more than the dry recitation of dates." Scott Oden in "Writing: Historical Fantasy and the Book Deal". Black Gate, December 6th, 2010. Retrieved May 14th, 2019.

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