Harold Shipman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harold Shipman
Shipman c. 2000
Harold Frederick Shipman

(1946-01-14)14 January 1946
Died13 January 2004(2004-01-13) (aged 57)
Cause of deathSuicide by hanging
Other names
  • "Dr. Death"[2]
  • "The Angel of Death"[2]
  • "The Good Doctor"[3]
Alma materUniversity of Leeds
OccupationGeneral practitioner
Primrose Oxtoby
(m. 1966)
Criminal penaltyLife imprisonment (whole life tariff)
Victims218 confirmed (15 convicted), possibly up to 250[1]
Span of crimes
Date apprehended
7 September 1998

Harold Frederick Shipman (14 January 1946 – 13 January 2004), known to acquaintances as Fred Shipman, was an English general practitioner and serial killer. He is considered to be one of the most prolific serial killers in modern history, with an estimated 250 victims. On 31 January 2000, Shipman was found guilty of murdering fifteen patients under his care. He was sentenced to life imprisonment with a whole life order. Shipman hanged himself in his cell at HM Prison Wakefield, West Yorkshire, on 13 January 2004, aged 57.

The Shipman Inquiry, a two-year-long investigation of all deaths certified by Shipman, chaired by Dame Janet Smith, examined Shipman's crimes. It revealed Shipman targeted vulnerable elderly people who trusted him as their doctor, killing them with either a fatal dose of drugs or prescribing an abnormal amount. As of 1 December 2023, Shipman, also nicknamed "Dr. Death" and the "Angel of Death", is the only British doctor to have been convicted of murdering patients, although other doctors have been acquitted of similar crimes or convicted of lesser charges; some nurses have also been convicted of murdering patients in their care.

Early life and education[edit]

Harold Frederick Shipman was born on 14 January 1946 on the Bestwood Estate, a council estate[4] in Nottingham, the second of the three children. His father, also Harold Frederick Shipman (1914–1985), was a lorry driver; his mother was Vera (née Brittan; 1919–1963).[5][6] His working-class parents were devout Methodists.[5][6]

Shipman was particularly close to his mother, who died of lung cancer when he was aged seventeen.[6][7][8] Her death came in a manner similar to what later became Shipman's own modus operandi: in the later stages of her disease, she had morphine administered at home by a doctor. Shipman witnessed his mother's pain subside, despite her terminal condition, until her death on 21 June 1963.[9]

On 5 November 1966, he married Primrose May Oxtoby; the couple had four children. Shipman studied medicine at Leeds School of Medicine, University of Leeds, graduating in 1970.[10]


Shipman began working at Pontefract General Infirmary in Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire, and in 1974 took his first position as a general practitioner (GP) at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Centre in Todmorden. The following year, Shipman was caught forging prescriptions of pethidine for his own use. He was fined £600 and briefly attended a drug rehabilitation clinic in York. He worked as a GP at Donneybrook Medical Centre in Hyde, Greater Manchester, in 1977.[10][11]

Shipman continued working as a GP in Hyde throughout the 1980s and established his own surgery at 21 Market Street in 1993, becoming a respected member of the community. In 1983, he was interviewed in an edition of the Granada Television current affairs documentary World in Action on how the mentally ill should be treated in the community.[12] A year after his conviction on charges of murder, the interview was re-broadcast on Tonight with Trevor McDonald.[13]


In March 1998, Dr Linda Reynolds of the Brooke Surgery in Hyde expressed concerns to John Pollard, the coroner for the South Manchester District, about the high death rate among Shipman's patients. In particular, she was concerned about the large number of cremation forms for elderly women that he had asked to have countersigned. Police were unable to find sufficient evidence to bring charges and closed the investigation on 17 April.[14] The Shipman Inquiry later blamed Greater Manchester Police for assigning inexperienced officers to the case. After the investigation was closed, Shipman killed three more people.[15] A few months later, in August, taxi driver John Shaw told the police that he suspected Shipman of murdering 21 patients.[16] Shaw became suspicious as many of the elderly customers he took to the hospital, while seemingly in good health, died in Shipman's care.[16]

Shipman's last victim was Kathleen Grundy, a former mayor of Hyde who was found dead at her home on 24 June 1998. He was the last person to see her alive; he later signed her death certificate, recording the cause of death as old age. Grundy's daughter, solicitor Angela Woodruff, became concerned when fellow solicitor Brian Burgess informed her that a will had been made, apparently by her mother, with doubts about its authenticity. The will excluded Woodruff and her children, but left £386,000 to Shipman. At Burgess' urging, Woodruff went to the police, who began an investigation. Grundy's body was exhumed and found to contain traces of diamorphine (heroin), often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients. Shipman claimed that Grundy had been an addict and showed them comments he had written to that effect in his computerised medical journal; however, police examination of his computer showed that the entries were written after her death.

Shipman was arrested on 7 September 1998, and was found to own a Brother typewriter of the type used to make the forged will.[17] Prescription for Murder, a 2000 book by journalists Brian Whittle and Jean Ritchie, suggested that Shipman forged the will either because he wanted to be caught because his life was out of control, or because he planned to retire at 55 and leave the UK.[18] The police investigated other deaths Shipman had certified and investigated fifteen specimen cases. They discovered a pattern of his administering lethal doses of diamorphine, signing patients' death certificates, and then falsifying medical records to indicate that they had been in poor health.[19] In 2003, David Spiegelhalter et al. suggested that "statistical monitoring could have led to an alarm being raised at the end of 1996, when there were 67 excess deaths in females aged over 65 years, compared with 119 by 1998."[20] In addition, an abnormally large number of the deaths occurred around the same time of day (when Shipman was on his afternoon visits) and in the doctor's presence.[21]

Trial and imprisonment[edit]

Shipman's trial began at Preston Crown Court on 5 October 1999. He was charged with the murders of 15 women by lethal injections of diamorphine, all between 1995 and 1998:

  • Marie West
  • Irene Turner
  • Lizzie Adams
  • Jean Lilley
  • Ivy Lomas
  • Muriel Grimshaw
  • Marie Quinn
  • Kathleen Wagstaff
  • Bianka Pomfret
  • Norah Nuttall
  • Pamela Hillier
  • Maureen Ward
  • Winifred Mellor
  • Joan Melia
  • Kathleen Grundy

Shipman's legal representatives tried unsuccessfully to have the Grundy case tried separately from the others, as a motive was shown by the alleged forgery of Grundy's will.

On 31 January 2000, after six days of deliberation, the jury found Shipman guilty[22] of 15 counts of murder and one count of forgery. Mr Justice Forbes subsequently sentenced Shipman to life imprisonment on all 15 counts of murder, with a recommendation that he be subject to a whole life tariff, to be served concurrently with a sentence of four years for forging Grundy's will.[23][24] On 11 February, 11 days after his conviction, Shipman was struck off the medical register by the General Medical Council (GMC).[25][26] Two years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmed the judge's whole life tariff, just months before British government ministers lost their power to set minimum terms for prisoners. While authorities could have brought many additional charges, they concluded that a fair hearing would be impossible in view of the enormous publicity surrounding the original trial. Furthermore, the 15 life sentences already imposed rendered further litigation unnecessary.[27][28] Shipman became friends with fellow serial killer Peter Moore while in prison.[29]

Shipman denied his guilt, disputing the scientific evidence against him. He never made any public statements about his actions. Shipman's wife, Primrose, maintained that he was not guilty, even after his conviction.[30]

Shipman is the only doctor in the history of British medicine found guilty of murdering his patients.[31] John Bodkin Adams was charged in 1957 with murdering a patient, amid rumours he had killed dozens more over a 10-year period and "possibly provided the role model for Shipman"; he was acquitted and no further charges were pursued.[32] A historian, Pamela Cullen, has argued that because of Adams' acquittal, there was no impetus to examine potential flaws in the British legal system until the Shipman case.[33]


Shipman hanged himself in his cell at HM Prison Wakefield at 6:20 a.m. on 13 January 2004, aged 57.[34] He was pronounced dead at 8:10 a.m. A statement from His Majesty's Prison Service indicated that he had hanged himself from the window bars of his cell using his bed sheets.[35] After Shipman's death, his body was taken to the mortuary at the Medico Legal Centre in Sheffield by undertaker's van for a post-mortem examination. West Yorkshire Coroner David Hinchliff eventually released the body to his family after an inquest was opened and adjourned shortly after.[36]

Some of the victims' families said they felt "cheated", as Shipman's suicide meant they would never have the satisfaction of a confession, nor answers as to why he committed his crimes.[37] Home Secretary David Blunkett admitted that celebration was tempting: "You wake up and you receive a call telling you Shipman has topped himself and you think, is it too early to open a bottle? And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it."[38]

Shipman's death divided national newspapers, with the Daily Mirror branding him a "cold coward" and condemning the Prison Service for allowing his suicide to occur. However, The Sun ran a celebratory front-page headline; "Ship Ship hooray!"[39] The Independent called for the inquiry into Shipman's suicide to look more widely at the state of UK prisons as well as the welfare of inmates.[40] In The Guardian, an article by General Sir David Ramsbotham, who had formerly served as Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons, suggested that whole life sentencing be replaced by indefinite sentencing, for this would at least give prisoners the hope of eventual release and reduce the risk of them ending their own lives by suicide, as well as making their management easier for prison officials.[40]

Shipman's motive for suicide was never established, though he reportedly told his probation officer that he was considering suicide to assure his wife's financial security after he was stripped of his National Health Service pension.[41] Primrose Shipman received a full NHS pension; she would not have been entitled to it if Shipman had lived past the age of sixty.[42] Additionally, there was evidence that Primrose, who had consistently protested Shipman's innocence despite the overwhelming evidence, had begun to suspect his guilt. Shipman refused to take part in courses which would have encouraged acknowledgement of his crimes, leading to a temporary removal of privileges, including the opportunity to telephone his wife.[42][43] During this period, according to Shipman's cellmate, he received a letter from Primrose exhorting him to, "Tell me everything, no matter what."[30] A 2005 inquiry found that Shipman's suicide "could not have been predicted or prevented," but that procedures should nonetheless be re-examined.[42]

After Shipman's body was released to his family, it remained in Sheffield for more than a year despite multiple false reports about his funeral. His widow was advised by police against burying her husband in case the grave was attacked. Shipman was eventually cremated on 19 March 2005 at Hutcliffe Wood Crematorium.[36] The cremation took place outside normal working hours to maintain secrecy and was attended only by Primrose and the couple's four children.[44]


In January 2001, Chris Gregg, a senior West Yorkshire Police detective, was selected to lead an investigation into 22 of the West Yorkshire deaths.[45] Following this, The Shipman Inquiry, submitted in July 2002, concluded that he had killed at least 218 of his patients between 1975 and 1998, during which time he practised in Todmorden (1974–1975) and Hyde (1977–1998). Janet Smith, the judge who submitted the report, admitted that many more deaths of a suspicious nature could not be definitively ascribed to Shipman. Most of his victims were elderly women in good health.[1]

In her sixth and final report, issued on 24 January 2005, Smith reported that she believed that Shipman had killed three patients, and she had serious suspicions about four further deaths, including that of a four-year-old girl, during the early stage of his medical career at Pontefract General Infirmary. In total, 459 people died while under his care between 1971 and 1998, but it is uncertain how many of those were murder victims, as he was often the only doctor to certify a death. Smith's estimate of Shipman's total victim count over that 27-year period was 250.[1][46]

The GMC charged six doctors who signed cremation forms for Shipman's victims with misconduct, claiming they should have noticed the pattern between Shipman's home visits and his patients' deaths. All these doctors were found not guilty. In October 2005, a similar hearing was held against two doctors who worked at Tameside General Hospital in 1994, who failed to detect that Shipman had deliberately administered a "grossly excessive" dose of morphine.[47][48] The Shipman Inquiry recommended changes to the structure of the GMC.[49]

In 2005, it came to light that Shipman may have stolen jewellery from his victims. In 1998, police had seized over £10,000 worth of jewellery they found in his garage. In March 2005, when Primrose asked for its return, police wrote to the families of Shipman's victims asking them to identify the jewellery.[50][51][52] Unidentified items were handed to the Assets Recovery Agency in May.[53] The investigation ended in August. Authorities returned 66 pieces to Primrose and auctioned 33 pieces that she confirmed were not hers. Proceeds of the auction went to Tameside Victim Support.[54][55] The only piece returned to a murdered patient's family was a platinum diamond ring, for which the family provided a photograph as proof of ownership.

Garden of Tranquillity in 2007

A memorial garden to Shipman's victims, called the Garden of Tranquillity, opened in Hyde Park, Hyde, on 30 July 2005.[56] As of early 2009, families of over 200 of the victims of Shipman were still seeking compensation for the loss of their relatives.[57] In September 2009, letters Shipman wrote in prison to friends were to be sold at auction,[58] but following complaints from victims' relatives and the media, the sale was withdrawn.[59]

Shipman effect[edit]

The Shipman case, and a series of recommendations in the Shipman Inquiry report, led to changes to standard medical procedures in the UK (now referred to as the "Shipman effect"). Many doctors reported changes in their dispensing practices, and a reluctance to risk over-prescribing pain medication may have led to under-prescribing.[60][61] Death certification practices were altered as well.[62] Perhaps the largest change was the movement from single-doctor general practices to multiple-doctor general practices.[citation needed] This was not a direct recommendation, but rather because the report stated that there was not enough safeguarding and monitoring of doctors' decisions.[citation needed]

The forms needed for a cremation in England and Wales have had their questions altered as a direct result of the Shipman case. For example, the person(s) organising the funeral must answer, "Do you know or suspect that the death of the person who has died was violent or unnatural? Do you consider that there should be any further examination of the remains of the person who has died?"[63]

As of 1 December 2023, Shipman, also nicknamed "Dr. Death" and "The Angel of Death", is the only British doctor to have been convicted of murdering patients, although other doctors, such as Isyaka Mamman,[64] have been acquitted of similar crimes or convicted of lesser charges[65][66] and nurses such as Lucy Letby, Beverley Allitt, Colin Norris, Benjamin Geen[67] and Victorino Chua have also been convicted of murdering patients in their care.[68]

In media[edit]

Harold and Fred (They Make Ladies Dead) was a cartoon strip in a 2001 issue of Viz comic, also featuring serial killer Fred West. Some relatives of Shipman's victims voiced anger at the cartoon.[69][70]

Harold Shipman: Doctor Death, an ITV television dramatisation of the case, was broadcast in 2002; it starred James Bolam in the title role.[71]

A documentary also titled Harold Shipman: Doctor Death, with new witness testimony about the serial killer, was shown by ITV as part of its Crime & Punishment strand on 26 April 2018.[72] The programme was criticised as offering "little new insight".[73]

A play titled Beyond Belief – Scenes from the Shipman Inquiry, written by Dennis Woolf and directed by Chris Honer was performed at the Library Theatre, Manchester, from 20 October to 22 November 2004. The script of the play comprised edited verbatim extracts from the Shipman Inquiry, spoken by actors playing the witnesses and lawyers at the inquiry.[74] This provided a "stark narrative" that focused on personal tragedies.[75]

A BBC drama-documentary, entitled Harold Shipman and starring Ian Brooker in the title role, was broadcast in April 2014.[76]

The satirical artist Cold War Steve regularly features Shipman in his work.[77]

The Shipman Files: A Very British Crime Story, a three-part documentary by Chris Wilson, was broadcast on BBC Two on three consecutive nights between 28 and 30 September 2020, and focussed on Shipman's victims and how he went undetected for so long.[78][79][80]

Podcast episode "Catching a Killer Doctor"[81] from the Cautionary Tales with Tim Harford podcast series features the story of Harold Shipman and how it could have been detected much earlier with good statistical models.

The 2005 song "What About Us?" by British band the Fall makes explicit reference to the Shipman killings ("There was a man going round all the time/He was dishing out drugs/He was a doctor/Dishing out morphine to old ladies"), and the name Shipman is sung as backing vocals during the choruses.[82]

Shipman was a member of the Conservative Party[83] and was mentioned in the 2022 Wakefield by-election when Conservative candidate Nadeem Ahmed highlighted his local connections, following Shipman's suicide in Wakefield prison, claiming that voters should "trust Tories like they do GPs after Harold Shipman".[84]

In 2023, DeadHappy, a Leicester-based life insurance firm, was criticised for using an image of Shipman in one of its advertisements. The Advertising Standards Authority received more than 70 complaints about the advert.[85]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "The Shipman Inquiry". theshipmaninquiry.org. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Shipman known as 'angel of death'". BBC News. BBC. 9 July 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  3. ^ "Harold Shipman". The Times. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  4. ^ Oliver, Mark (13 January 2004). "Portrait of a necrophiliac". The Guardian.
  5. ^ a b Swan, Norman (29 July 2002). "Why Some Doctors Kill". The Health Report. ABC Australia. Radio National. Retrieved 1 April 2010. [Programme transcript]
  6. ^ a b c Kaplan, Robert M. (2009). Medical Murder: Disturbing Cases of Doctors Who Kill. Allen & Unwin. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-74175-610-4.
  7. ^ Born to Kill?, Channel 5, 2 August 2012.
  8. ^ Herbert, Ian (14 January 2004). "How a humble GP perverted his medical skill to become Britain's most prolific mass killer". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ The Early Life of Harold Shipman.
  10. ^ a b "Harold Shipman: Timeline". BBC News. 18 July 2002. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  11. ^ Bunyan, Nigel (16 June 2001). "The Killing Fields of Harold Shipman". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  12. ^ "Tameside latest news". Manchester Evening News. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  13. ^ "Shipman interview rebroadcast". BBC News. 8 February 2001. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  14. ^ Second Report – The Police Investigation of March 1998 (Cm 5853). The Shipman Inquiry. 14 July 2003. Archived from the original on 5 March 2005.
  15. ^ "Shipman inquiry criticises police". BBC News. 14 July 2003. Retrieved 30 July 2005.
  16. ^ a b "I feel guilty over Shipman killings". BBC News. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  17. ^ "The Shipman tapes I". BBC News. 31 January 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  18. ^ Whittle, B.; Richie, J. (2000). Prescription for Murder: The True Story of Dr Harold Frederick Shipman. Little Brown. pp. 348–49. ISBN 0751529982..
  19. ^ "UK Doctor 'forged victim's medical history'". BBC News. 8 November 1999. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  20. ^ Spiegelhalter, D. et al. Risk-adjusted sequential probability ratio tests: application to Bristol, Shipman and adult cardiac surgery.[dead link] Int J Qual Health Care, vol. 15, pp. 7–13 (2003).
  21. ^ Pickrell, John (6 September 2005). "Statistics could have spotted mass murderer". New Scientist. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  22. ^ "Shipmanverdict".
  23. ^ "Harold Shipman: The killer doctor". BBC News. 13 January 2004. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  24. ^ "Shipman jailed for 15 murders". BBC News. 31 January 2000. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  25. ^ Frith, Maxine (11 February 2000). "GMC strikes Shipman off medical register". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 September 2010.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "Shipman struck off". BBC News. 11 February 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  27. ^ "The Shipman Inquiry — Sixth Report — Conclusions". Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  28. ^ "Shipman's 'reckless' experiments". BBC News. 27 January 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2005.
  29. ^ Gardner, Tony. "Shipman's bizarre circle of jail pals". Yorkshire Evening Post. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  30. ^ a b Sweet, Corinne (16 January 2004). "He could do no wrong". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  31. ^ Strangerinblood.co.uk Archived 2 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Nigel Cox was convicted of attempted murder in 1992, in the death of Lillian Boyes.
  32. ^ Kinnell, H. G. (2000). "Serial homicide by doctors: Shipman in perspective". BMJ. 321 (7276): 1594–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1594. PMC 1119267. PMID 11124192.
  33. ^ Stovold, James. "Strangerinblood.co.uk". Strangerinblood.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 September 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  34. ^ Mortimer, Caroline (20 March 2016). "Harold Shipman timed suicide to ensure his wife got £100k pension pay out". The Independent. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  35. ^ "Harold Shipman found dead in cell". BBC News. BBC. 13 January 2004.
  36. ^ a b "Shipman finally cremated". Manchester Evening News. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  37. ^ "No mourning from Shipman families". BBC News. 13 January 2004.
  38. ^ "Blunkett admits Shipman error". BBC News. 16 January 2004.
  39. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (19 January 2004). "Is it the Sun that's gone bonkers?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  40. ^ a b "Shipman's death divides papers". BBC News. 14 January 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  41. ^ "Shipman leaves his wife £24,000". BBC News. 8 April 2004.
  42. ^ a b c "Shipman suicide 'not preventable'". BBC News. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  43. ^ "Harold Shipman found dead in cell". BBC News. 13 January 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  44. ^ "Serial killer Shipman cremated". BBC News. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  45. ^ "How many more did Shipman kill?". The Independent. London. 9 October 2001. Retrieved 19 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ "Shipman 'killed early in career'". BBC News. 27 January 2005.
  47. ^ "Shipman doctors deny misconduct". BBC News. 3 October 2005.
  48. ^ "Shipman doctor 'not good enough'". BBC News. 11 October 2005.
  49. ^ "Shipman report demands GMC reform". BBC News. 9 December 2004.
  50. ^ "Theft fears over 'Shipman gems'". BBC News. 17 March 2005.
  51. ^ "Twenty make Shipman jewels claims". BBC News. 15 April 2005.
  52. ^ "Shipman's stolen gems found in his wife's jewellery box". The Guardian. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  53. ^ "Shipman jewels not going to widow". BBC News. 24 May 2005.
  54. ^ "Shipman stole victim's jewellery". BBC News. 31 August 2005.
  55. ^ "Shipman's stolen gems found in his wife's jewellery box". The Guardian. London. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  56. ^ "Garden tribute to Shipman victims". BBC News. 30 July 2005.
  57. ^ "Alexander Harris, the law firm who represented families of victims of Allitt and Shipman". Alexander Harris. 25 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2006.
  58. ^ "Shipman prison letters to be sold". BBC News. BBC. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
  59. ^ "Shipman letters removed from sale". BBC News. BBC. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  60. ^ "'Shipman effect' harms pain care". BBC News. BBC. 7 August 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  61. ^ Queiro, Alicia (1 December 2014). "Shipman effect: How a serial killer changed medical practice forever". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  62. ^ "Consultation Paper on Death Certification, Burial and Cremation". Scottish Government. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  63. ^ "Application for cremation of the body of a person who has died" (PDF). October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  64. ^ "Oldham doctor admits killing patient in botched routine procedure". BBC News. 4 July 2022. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  65. ^ "Shipman known as 'angel of death'". 9 July 2001.
  66. ^ Stovold, James. "The Case of Dr. John Bodkin Adams". Strangerinblood.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 September 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  67. ^ Boffey, Daniel; reporter, Daniel Boffey Chief (31 July 2023). "New evidence claimed to undermine nurse's conviction for killing patients". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  68. ^ "Carers who kill: Letby joins gruesome list of medical monsters from Shipman to Allitt". The Independent. 20 August 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  69. ^ Garrett, Jade (1 February 2001). "'Viz' pushes taste to its limits with Shipman cartoon". The Independent. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  70. ^ "Anger at Shipman Cartoon". BBC News. 1 February 2001. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  71. ^ Roger Bamford (Director) (2002). Harold Shipman: Doctor Death (Television drama).
  72. ^ "Harold Shipman: Doctor Death". ITV Press Centre. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  73. ^ O'Donovan, Gerard (26 April 2018). "Harold Shipman: Doctor Death, review: 20 years on, this documentary offered little new insight". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  74. ^ "Play exposes legacy of Shipman horror". Manchester Evening News. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  75. ^ Rushforth, Bruno (4 November 2004). "Beyond Belief: Scenes from the Shipman Inquiry". BMJ. 329 (7474): 1109. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7474.1109. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 526136.
  76. ^ Savvas, Christina (17 April 2014). "Birmingham actor plays serial killer Harold Shipman in new TV drama". BirminghamLive. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  77. ^ "Talking Crappy British Politics, the Media and Dog Shit with 'Coldwar Steve'". www.vice.com. 10 November 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  78. ^ "TV tonight: the harrowing tale of an 'honour' killing". The Guardian. 28 September 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  79. ^ "The Shipman Files: A Very British Crime Story". BBC. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  80. ^ "The Shipman Files: A Very British Crime Story – S1 – Episode 3". Radio Times. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  81. ^ Harford, Cautionary Tales with Tim. "Cautionary Tales with Tim Harford – Catching a Killer Doctor". Google Podcasts. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  82. ^ "What About Us?". annotatedfall.doomby.com. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  83. ^ "The doctor Jekyll of Hyde". TheGuardian.com. February 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  84. ^ "Voters can trust Tories like they do GPS after Harold Shipman, says Wakefield candidate". TheGuardian.com. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  85. ^ "Relative of Harold Shipman victim criticises advert". BBC News. 26 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.

External links[edit]