Harpullia

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Harpullia
Harpullia pendula - fruiting tree.jpg
Harpullia pendula:
fruits, seeds and foliage (above), habit (below)
S tulipwood.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Subfamily: Dodonaeoideae
Genus: Harpullia
Roxb.[1][2]
Type species
Harpullia cupanioides
Roxb.
Species

See text

Harpullia is a genus of about 27 species known to science, of small to medium-sized rainforest trees, constituting part of the plant family Sapindaceae. They have a wide distribution ranging from India eastwards through Malesia, Papuasia and Australasia to the Pacific Islands. They grow naturally usually in or on the margins of rainforests or associated vegetation.[2][3][4][5][6]

The major centre of diversity, of about twenty species, occurs throughout New Guinea including its surrounding islands and region.[3][4][5][6]

Australia harbours another centre of smaller diversity, of about eight species, growing naturally from north–eastern New South Wales through eastern Queensland to Cape York Peninsula and coastal Northern Territory. Of the eight Harpullia species which grow naturally Australia six occur only (endemic) in Australia.[2] They have the common name tulipwoods and were prized for their dark coloured timber.[7] The one most commonly known to Australian horticulture is Harpullia pendula which is widely planted as a street tree along the east coast. H. frutescens is a small shrub with horticultural potential.[7]

Naming, descriptive studies and classifications[edit]

European science formally published the name and description of this genus and its H. cupanioides type specimen from India, in 1824, authored by Scottish botanist William Roxburgh.[1][2][6]

Recently in 2011 Japanese–American botanist Wayne Takeuchi formally published the name and description of H. mabberleyana, the "first member of the genus to be discovered in New Guinea since 1940".[3]

In 2003 Dutch botanists R. M. Buijsen, Peter C. van Welzen and R. W. J. M. van der Ham published a morphological phylogenetics analysis and biogeography study of the whole genus.[5] In 1995 Buijsen published a leaf anatomy study.[8]

In 1994, 1985 and 1982 Dutch botanists Pieter W. Leenhouts and M. Vente published the treatment in Flora Malesiana, a natural species groups classification attempt and a taxonomic revision, respectively.[6][9][10]

In 1985 and 1981 Australian botanist Sally T. Reynolds published updated names, known records and descriptions of the eight Australian species, in the Flora of Australia (series) and her scientific article, respectively.[11][12]

In 1985 J. Mueller published a pollen anatomy and evolution study of the genus.[13]

Also numerous studies of various Harpullia species' chemical constituents, often the saponins, have been published.

Species[edit]

This listing was sourced from the Australian Plant Name Index and Australian Plant Census,[2] published peer reviewed scientific journal articles,[3][5][10][12] Flora Malesiana,[6] the Census of Vascular Plants of Papua New Guinea,[4] the Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants information system,[14] Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest,[15] the Flora of NSW online,[16] the Flora of Australia (series),[11] and the Checklist of the vascular indigenous Flora of New Caledonia.:[17]

H. arborea fruits
H. frutescens young foliage
H. hillii fruits and foliage
Formerly included here
  • Harpullia zanguebarica (J.Kirk.) Radlk.  ⇒  Majidea zanguebarica J.Kirk. ex Oliv. – E. Africa

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Roxburgh, William; Wallich, Nathaniel (1824). "Harpullia Roxb.; Harpullia cupanioides Roxb.". In Carey, William. Flora indica; or descriptions of Indian plants by the late William Roxburgh. 2. Serampore, India: Mission Press. pp. 441–4. Retrieved 21 Dec 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Harpullia%". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) database (listing by % wildcard matching of all taxa relevant to Australia). Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Takeuchi, Wayne N. (March 2011). "Notes on Papuasian Sapindaceae: Harpullia mabberleyana sp. nov., Harpullia rhachiptera and Lepisanthes mixta.". Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 68 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1017/s0960428610000247. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Conn, Barry J. (2008+). "Harpullia". Census of Vascular Plants of Papua New Guinea. (search result listing, matching all starting with "Harpullia", via www.pngplants.org). Retrieved 19 Dec 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d Buijsen, J. R. M.; Welzen, Peter C. van; Ham, R. W. J. M. van der (2003). "A phylogenetic analysis of Harpullia (Sapindaceae) with notes on historical biogeography". Systematic Botany. 28 (1): 106–17. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia Roxb.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Elliot, Rodger W.; Jones, David L.; Blake, Trevor (1990). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation: Vol. 5. Port Melbourne: Lothian Press. pp. 254–55. ISBN 0-85091-285-7. 
  8. ^ Buijsen, R. M. (1995). "Leaf anatomy of Harpullia, Majidea and Conchopetalum (Sapindaceae)". Blumea. 40: 345–36. 
  9. ^ Leenhouts, W. (1985). "An attempt towards a natural system of Harpullia". Blumea. 31: 219–23. 
  10. ^ a b Leenhouts, W.; Vente, M. (1982). "A taxonomic revision of Harpullia (Sapindaceae)". Blumea. 28 (1): 1–51. 
  11. ^ a b Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Harpullia Roxb.". Retrieved 21 Dec 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Reynolds, Sally T. (1981). "Notes on Sapindaceae in Australia, I.". Austrobaileya. 1 (4): 388–419. Retrieved 21 Dec 2013. 
  13. ^ Mueller, J. (1985). "Pollen morphology and evolution of the genus Harpullia (Sapindaceae-Harpulliea)". Blumea. 31: 161–21. 
  14. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Sapindaceae". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Cooper, Wendy; Cooper, William T. (June 2004). "Harpullia Roxb.". Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest. Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia: Nokomis Editions. pp. 491–493. ISBN 9780958174213. Retrieved 19 Dec 2013. 
  16. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Harpullia". July 2001. Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Morat, P.; Jaffré, T.; Tronchet, F.; Munzinger, J.; Pillon, Y.; Veillon, J.-M.; Chalopin, M. (Dec 2012). "The taxonomic database "Florical" and characteristics of the indigenous Flora of New Caledonia" (PDF). Adansonia. sér. 3. 34 (2): 177–219. Retrieved 19 Dec 2013. 
  18. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Harpullia alata F.Muell.". July 2001. Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  19. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Harpullia arborea". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  20. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  21. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia camptoneura Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  22. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia carrii Leenh". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  23. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia cauliflora K.Schum & Laut.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  24. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia crustacea Roxb.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  25. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia cupanioides Roxb.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  26. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Harpullia frutescens". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  27. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia giganteacapsula Vente". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  28. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Harpullia hillii F.Muell.". July 2001. Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  29. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia hirsuta Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  30. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Harpullia leichhardtii F.Muell. ex Benth.". Retrieved 21 Dec 2013. 
  31. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia leptococca Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  32. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia longipetala Leenh.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  33. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia myrmecophila Merr. & L.M.Perry". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  34. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia oococca Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  35. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia peekeliana Melch.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  36. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Harpullia pendula". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  37. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Harpullia pendula Planch. ex F.Muell.". July 2001. Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  38. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia petiolaris Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  39. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Harpullia ramiflora". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  40. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia ramiflora Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  41. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia rhachiptera Radlk.". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  42. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Harpullia rhyticarpa". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  43. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia solomonensis Vente". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  44. ^ Leenhouts & Vente (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Harpullia vaga Merr. & L.M.Perry". Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 

Cited works[edit]

  • Harden, Gwen J. (July 2001). "Harpullia – New South Wales Flora Online". PlantNET – The Plant Information Network System. 2.0. Sydney, Australia: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Retrieved 20 Dec 2013. 
  • Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A.; et al. (Dec 2010). "Home". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 12 Dec 2013. 
  • Leenhouts, Pieter W.; Vente, M. (1994). "Harpullia". In Adema, F.; Leenhouts, P. W.; van Welzen, P. C. Flora Malesiana. Series I, Spermatophyta : Flowering Plants. Vol. 11 pt. 3: Sapindaceae. Leiden, The Netherlands: Rijksherbarium / Hortus Botanicus, Leiden University. pp. 598–614. ISBN 90-71236-21-8. 
  • Reynolds, Sally T. (1985). "Harpullia". Flora of Australia: Volume 25—Melianthaceae to Simaroubaceae. Flora of Australia series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 38–45. ISBN 978-0-644-03724-2. 

External links[edit]