|The Right Honourable
|Leader of the Opposition
Leader of the Labour Party (Acting)
8 May 2015
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||Ed Miliband|
11 May 2010 – 25 September 2010
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||David Cameron|
|Succeeded by||Ed Miliband|
|Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
Labour Party Chair
24 June 2007
|Leader||Gordon Brown (2007-10)
Ed Miliband (2010-15)
Herself (2010, 2015-)
|Preceded by||John Prescott (Deputy Leader)
Hazel Blears (Party Chair)
|Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport|
8 October 2011 – 11 May 2015
|Preceded by||Ivan Lewis|
|Succeeded by||Chris Bryant|
|Shadow Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|
7 October 2010 – 8 May 2015
|Preceded by||Jack Straw|
|Shadow Secretary of State for International Development|
8 October 2010 – 7 October 2011
|Preceded by||Douglas Alexander|
|Succeeded by||Ivan Lewis|
|Leader of the House of Commons
Lord Privy Seal
Minister for Women and Equality
28 June 2007 – 11 May 2010
|Prime Minister||Gordon Brown|
|Preceded by||Jack Straw (Leader)
Ruth Kelly (Women)
|Succeeded by||George Young (Leader)
Theresa May (Women and Equalities)
|Minister of State for Constitutional Affairs|
10 May 2005 – 28 June 2007
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Solicitor General for England and Wales|
11 June 2001 – 10 May 2005
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Preceded by||Ross Cranston|
|Succeeded by||Mike O'Brien|
|Secretary of State for Social Security
Minister for Women
3 May 1997 – 27 July 1998
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Preceded by||Peter Lilley|
|Succeeded by||Alistair Darling
The Baroness Jay of Paddington (Women)
|Shadow Secretary of State for Social Security|
1 July 1996 – 2 May 1997
|Preceded by||Chris Smith|
|Succeeded by||Stephen Dorrell|
|Shadow Secretary of State for Health|
19 October 1995 – 1 July 1996
|Preceded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Succeeded by||Chris Smith|
|Shadow Secretary of State for Employment|
21 July 1994 – 19 October 1995
|Preceded by||John Prescott|
|Succeeded by||David Blunkett (Education and Employment)|
|Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury|
18 July 1992 – 21 July 1994
Margaret Beckett (Acting)
|Preceded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Succeeded by||Alistair Darling|
|Member of Parliament
for Camberwell and Peckham
28 October 1982
|Preceded by||Harry Lamborn|
|Born||Harriet Ruth Harman
30 July 1950
London, United Kingdom
|Spouse(s)||Jack Dromey (1982–present)|
|Alma mater||University of York|
Harriet Ruth Harman, QC MP (born 30 July 1950) is the acting leader of the British Labour Party and, since 1982, Member of Parliament (MP) for Camberwell and Peckham. She has been Deputy Leader of the Labour Party since 2007, and was the Shadow Deputy Prime Minister and Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport until she resigned on May 8, 2015 preceding the resignation of Ed Miliband as Leader of the Labour Party.
Harman was first appointed to the Cabinet in 1997 under Tony Blair, as Secretary of State for Social Security and the first ever Minister for Women. After holding further Cabinet and government positions on two further separate occasions, she became the Leader of the Labour Party and the Leader of the Opposition, following the resignation of Gordon Brown as Labour Leader and Prime Minister in May 2010. She held both posts temporarily until Ed Miliband subsequently won the 2010 Labour leadership election.
Harman deputised for Miliband whenever he was absent for Prime Minister's Questions in her role as Shadow Deputy Prime Minister. She is currently the longest continuously serving female MP in the House of Commons.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Opposition Member of Parliament
- 3 Labour in Government
- 4 Return to Opposition
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Styles
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Publications
- 10 External links
Early life and career
Harman was born Harriet Ruth Harman at 108 Harley Street in London, to Anna Harman (née Spicer), a solicitor, married to a Harley Street physician John Bishop Harman. Her parents each had non-conformist backgrounds – her grandfather, ophthalmic surgeon Nathaniel Bishop Harman, was a prominent Unitarian and the Spicer family were well known congregationalists. Her aunt was Elizabeth Pakenham, Countess of Longford, and her cousins include writers Lady Antonia Fraser, Rachel Billington, and Thomas Pakenham. Harman is a great-great niece of Joseph Chamberlain and is also related to Richard Chamberlain.
Harman attended a fee-paying public school, St Paul's Girls' School and then gained a BA in Politics from the University of York. During her time at York, she was a member of Goodricke College and was involved with student politics. After York Harman then went on to qualify as a lawyer.
Harman worked for Brent Law Centre in London. Between 1978 and 1982, Harman was employed as a legal officer for the National Council for Civil Liberties. In this capacity, and just before becoming MP for Peckham in a by-election in 1982, she was found in contempt of court. Harman subsequently took the case to the European Court of Human Rights, successfully arguing that the prosecution had breached her right to freedom of expression. Harman v United Kingdom is still considered a significant case in British public law.
Harman was later involved in a European Court of Human Rights case against MI5. During a 1984 television interview by whistleblower Cathy Massiter, it was revealed personal files were held by MI5 on Harman and on the (by then former-) General Secretary of the NCCL, Patricia Hewitt. They successfully argued that there had been an infringement of their rights because MI5 was not a legally constituted and democratically accountable organisation, this being the minimum standard in democracy. The success of the case led to enactment of the Security Service Act 1989.
Opposition Member of Parliament
In 1984, Harman became a Shadow Social Services minister and served as a Shadow Health minister in 1987. After the 1992 general election she entered the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury (1992–1994) and later served as Shadow Employment Secretary (1994–1995), Shadow Health Secretary (1995–1996) and Shadow Social Security Secretary (1996–1997).
Labour in Government
Tony Blair as PM
After Labour's victory in the 1997 general election, she became Secretary of State for Social Security and was given the task of reforming the Welfare State. During this time, her more notable policies included introducing a minimum income guarantee and winter fuel payments for the elderly. It was later ruled that the fuel payments policy breached European sex discrimination laws in that men had to wait five years longer to receive them than women. The policy was amended so both sexes qualified at age 60. Harman was sacked from the position in 1998. According to many in the media, this was the result of a series of public rows with junior minister Frank Field, though others also cited her decision to cut benefits to lone parents as a factor. Harman voted with the party on all but a few instances during its period in government.
Harman made a return to the front bench after the 2001 general election, with her appointment to the office of Solicitor General, thus becoming the first female Solicitor General. In accordance with convention, she was appointed as Queen's Counsel, although she had previously had no rights of audience in the higher courts, did not obtain them and never presented a case during her time as Solicitor General, or at all.
After the 2005 general election, she became a Minister of State in the Department for Constitutional Affairs with responsibilities including constitutional reform, legal aid and court processes and she represented Lord Falconer in the House of Commons on the frontbench.
On 16 March 2006, Harman relinquished her ministerial responsibilities for electoral administration and reform of the House of Lords. She stated that this was to avoid any potential conflict of interest after her husband Jack Dromey, the Treasurer of the Labour Party, announced that he would be investigating a number of loans made to the Labour Party that had not been disclosed to party officers. She retained her other responsibilities.
Deputy Leadership election
Harman announced her intention to stand for Deputy Leadership of the Labour Party when John Prescott stood down. On 27 November 2006, the Press Association reported that she had commissioned an opinion poll from YouGov which found that Harman would be the most likely potential deputy leader to increase the Labour vote at the next general election. She used this point to argue that she should become the next Deputy Prime Minister in an interview with the BBC.
While she supported the Iraq War, during the Deputy Leadership campaign, she said that she would not have voted for it had she been in full possession of the facts, specifically about the lack of concrete evidence of weapons of mass destruction.
Harman did not have the support of any major unions, and helped to fund her campaign for deputy leadership by taking out a personal loan of £10,000 and a £40,000 extension to her mortgage. Harman failed to report some donations and loans on time, and was subject to an Electoral Commission inquiry for breaches of electoral law. The commission said that her "failure to report on time is a serious matter" though the case was not handed over to the police.
On 24 June 2007, in what was a close contest Harman was elected Deputy Leader of the Labour Party. Alan Johnson had led in all but the first of the previous rounds, but when second-preference votes had been redistributed after the fourth round, Harman stood elected with 50.43% of the vote to Johnson's 49.56%
In November 2007, it emerged that property developer David Abrahams' secretary Janet Kidd had donated £5,000 to Harman's successful deputy leadership bid. After an investigation by The Mail on Sunday newspaper into other donations made by people associated with Abrahams, and Prime Minister Gordon Brown's assertion that all such monies would be returned, Harman issued a statement saying she accepted the donation on 4 July "in good faith," had registered the monies with the Electoral Commission and the Register of Members' Interests, and that she "was not aware of any funding arrangements... between David Abrahams and Janet Kidd".
Gordon Brown becomes PM
Harman was known as a long term supporter of Gordon Brown and is regarded as a personal friend. On 28 June 2007, after she became Deputy Leader of the Labour Party and Brown was appointed Prime Minister, Harman joined Brown's Cabinet as Leader of the House of Commons, Lord Privy Seal and Minister for Women and Equality, and was also given the title of Labour Party Chair. Unlike the previous Deputy Leader, John Prescott, Harman was not given the title of 'Deputy Prime Minister'.
When Harman, as Leader of the House of Commons, stood in for Gordon Brown during Prime minister's questions on Wednesday 2 April 2008 (due to the Prime Minister attending a NATO summit in Romania), she became the first female Labour Minister to take Prime Minister's Questions. She subsequently repeated this during Brown's absences.
On 1 April 2008 the Daily Mail reported that Harman had decided to wear a kevlar-reinforced stab vest while touring her Peckham constituency under police guard. On 2 April The Guardian relayed information from the Metropolitan Police that "the type of Met Vest she wore over her jacket protected her from knife attacks and bullets, and, for her at least, was optional". Harman compared the decision to wearing a hard hat while touring a building site, which led the BBC's John Humphrys to respond, during an interview for BBC Radio 4, "You wear a hard hat on a building site because... there is the danger that something might drop on your head. You don't need to wear a bullet-proof vest on the streets of London, do you!" Harman told the BBC that the neighbourhood police team she was with put on their stab vests and gave her one to wear as well.
In April 2008, Harman's blog was hacked and changed to state that she had joined the Conservative Party. Harman later admitted when questioned by Sky News that the incident was a result of her using "Harriet" and "Harman" as her username and password.
The Family Way
Harman co-authored a 1990 IPPR report "The Family Way" which stated "it cannot be assumed that men are bound to be an asset to family life or that the presence of fathers in families is necessarily a means to social cohesion". In May 2008 an interview she gave to think tank Civitas Harman stated that there was "no ideal type of household in which to bring up children".
In June 2008, two members of Fathers 4 Justice staged a protest on the roof of her house in Herne Hill, South East London, with a banner that read: "A father is for life not just conception." After they climbed back off the roof they were arrested by the Metropolitan Police and bailed until 16 July 2008. On the morning of 9 July 2008, Fathers 4 Justice again climbed on Harman's roof with a banner that read, "Stop war on dads." One of the complaints of the protesters was that Harman had refused their requests for a meeting yet she denied that they had even requested such a meeting.
Use of statistics
During the Late-2000s recession, and following a government report which suggested that women were twice as likely to lose their jobs as men and feared losing their jobs more than men, Harman stated: "We will not allow women to become the victims of this recession". However, some statistics contradicted her position, including the Office for National Statistics report on the issue which stated "the economic downturn in 2008 has impacted less on women in employment than men". According to the ONS, men were losing their jobs at twice the rate of women. The Government Equalities Office insisted the ONS figures did not render pointless its efforts to help women.
In June 2009, Sir Michael Scholar, head of the UK Statistics Authority, wrote to Harman to warn her that different headline figures used by the ONS and Government Equalities Office with regards to pay differentiation between men and women might undermine public trust in official statistics. The GEO's headline figure was 23%, which was based on median hourly earnings of all employees, not the 12.8%, based on median hourly earnings of full-time employees only, used by the ONS. Scholar wrote: "It is the Statistics Authority’s view that use of the 23% on its own, without qualification, risks giving a misleading quantification of the gender pay gap".
In January 2009, Harman proposed a rule change to exempt MPs' expenses from the Freedom of Information Act. Her parliamentary order aimed to remove "most expenditure information held by either House of Parliament from the scope of the Freedom of Information Act". It meant that, under the law, journalists and members of the public would no longer be entitled to learn details of their MP's expenses. Labour MPs were to be pressured to vote for this measure by use of a three line whip. Her proposal was withdrawn when the Conservative Party said they would vote against, and an online campaign by mySociety. The failure of the motion led to the disclosure of expenses of British members of parliament.
In December 2010 it emerged that Harman was amongst 40 MPs who had secretly repaid wrongly claimed expenses between 2008 and 2010. In November 2010 Harman's parliamentary private secretary Ian Lavery had blocked a motion designed to allow the repayments to be made public.
In November 2010, The Times reported that at the end of 2009 Harman had hosted a new year's house party at her second home in Suffolk with guests including Patricia Hewitt, at "least one other minister" and another MP. It reported that she told guests that Gordon Brown was "hopeless" and that there were at least five members of the Cabinet who would tell Gordon Brown that he should resign.
As part of a proposed Equality Bill, Harman announced a consultation on changing the existing discrimination laws, including options for reverse discrimination in employment. Under the proposals, employers would be legally allowed to discriminate in favour of a job candidate on the basis of their race or gender where the candidates were otherwise equally qualified. Employers would not be required to use these powers, but would be able to do so without the threat of legal action for discriminatory practices. The white paper also proposed measures to end age discrimination, promote transparency in organisations and introduce a new equality duty on the public sector. These changes, if made, could face a challenge under Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, race, colour, language, religion and on several other criteria. Michael Millar, writing in The Spectator, was of the opinion that, "The Equality Bill before parliament today gives employers the right to choose an ethnic minority candidate or female candidate over a white male, specifically because they are an ethnic minority or female."
Harman also commissioned a report on allowing political parties to draw up all-black shortlists designed to increase the number of black MPs in Westminster. A further report proposed extended the arrangement allowing all-women shortlists beyond 2015 which will fail to have any impact in the 2010 general election. These proposals are supported by members of the three major parties, though no others allow discrimination in their shortlists. Inside the Labour Party, Harman has said she does "not agree with all-male leaderships" because men "cannot be left to run things on their own"; and that, consequently, one of Labour's top two posts should always be held by a woman. She had also stated that the collapse of Lehman Brothers might have been averted had it been 'Lehman Sisters'. These comments caused accusations of sexism and "insidious bigotry".
Return to Opposition
Following the resignation of Gordon Brown as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party on 11 May 2010, Harman automatically became the temporary leader of the party as well as the Leader of the Opposition, entitling her to the salary and government car that come with the role. Although she was informally described in the media as 'Acting' Leader, she was fully Leader by the terms of the party's constitution, albeit on a temporary basis, as was the case with Margaret Beckett in 1994.
Following Brown's resignation, she quickly announced that she would remain Deputy Leader rather than standing for election as Leader. Her only public explanation was the assertion that: “You can’t run for leader at the same time as being deputy leader”.
She nominated Diane Abbott, MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington, to prevent the election from being all male. But she nonetheless asserted her intention to remain neutral throughout the contest and said, "This is a very crucial period and we have got five fantastic candidates. All of them would make excellent leaders of the party."
Following Ed Miliband's election as leader, she returned to her role as Deputy Leader, shadowing Nick Clegg as Deputy Prime Minister and with the title of Deputy Leader of the Opposition. When Miliband assigned portfolios on 8 October 2010, he appointed her Shadow Secretary of State for International Development. In 2010, Harman referred to Danny Alexander as a "ginger rodent" in a speech to the Scottish Labour Party conference. This was greeted with cheers and laughter from the conference, but the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish National Party described them as gingerism and "anti-Scottish". Harman apologised for the offence caused. In 2011, Harman was moved to become Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. In 2014, she accused Nick Clegg of turning into a Tory during Prime Minister's Questions.
Paedophile Information Exchange allegations and response
In February 2014, Harman denied allegations that she had supported the Paedophile Information Exchange (PIE) when the advocacy group was affiliated with the National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL), while she was the pressure group's Legal Officer from 1978 to 1982. The Conservative-leaning Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph also claimed that Jack Dromey MP (her partner) and former Health Secretary Patricia Hewitt had offered support to apologists for the sexual abuse of children while they were working for NCCL.
In a television interview, Harman said she had "nothing to apologise for," stating "I very much regret that this vile organisation, PIE, ever existed and that it ever had anything to do with NCCL, but it did not affect my work at NCCL." Harman stated that while she did support the equalisation of the age of consent for gay men she had never campaigned for the age of consent to go below the age of 16 and accused the Daily Mail of trying to make her "guilty by way of association". Ed Miliband backed Harman and stated that she had "huge decency and integrity".
The Daily Mail disputed Harman's claim that "anybody could join the NCCL simply by paying a fee" whilst the Daily Telegraph cast doubt on her assertion that the PIE had been "pushed to the margins" before Harman had joined the NCCL.
Aftermath of the 2015 General Election
Following the 2015 General Election and Ed Miliband's resignation, Harman again became acting leader of the Labour party and announced that she would stand down from this role once a Labour leadership election has taken place.
Harman married Jack Dromey in 1982 in Brent, London, after meeting him on the picket line of the Grunwick dispute in 1977; she was legal advisor to the Grunwick Strike Committee. They have two sons (born February 1983 and November 1984) and a daughter, Amy (born January 1987), with the latter having the surname "Harman". Labour colleague Patricia Hewitt is godmother to one of her children. She has a house in Suffolk, in addition to her home in Herne Hill, South London.
In 1996, Harman sent her younger son Joseph to St Olave's Grammar School, Orpington, a selective grammar school, whereas she had sent her elder son Harry to the Roman Catholic London Oratory School, a grant-maintained school. Harman said of St. Olave's: "This is a state school that other children in my son's class will be going to... And admission is open to every child in Southwark irrespective of money or who their parents are". In fact, whilst every child in Southwark was eligible to apply for admission to St. Olave's Grammar School, places were awarded based on academic ability. Admission was open only to those applicants who achieved the highest scores in a selective examination, offered once a year, on a Saturday, at the school site in the London Borough of Bromley. That year, 90 places were available and approximately 700 candidates took the examination.
Harman is a committed feminist, having said, "I am in the Labour Party because I am a feminist. I am in the Labour Party because I believe in equality."
In 2007, Harman was issued with a £60 fixed penalty notice and given three penalty points on her licence for driving at 50 mph (80 km/h) in a temporary 40 mph (64 km/h) zone. Harman paid the fine several months late and avoided appearing at Ipswich magistrates court. Harman was again caught breaking the speed limit the following April, this time in a 30 mph zone, receiving a further 3 points on her driving licence.
In January 2010, Harman pleaded guilty to driving without due care and attention in relation to an incident on 3 July where she struck another vehicle whilst driving using a mobile phone, she admitted the offence in court. Harman was fined £350, ordered to pay £70 costs, a £15 victim surcharge and had three points added to her licence. Road safety organisations such as Brake condemned the leniency of the punishment and decision to drop the charge of driving whilst using a mobile phone. The judge defended the decision stating "Ms Harman's guilty plea to driving without due care and attention included her admitting that she had been using a mobile phone at the time".
- Harriet Harman (1950–1982)
- Harriet Harman MP (1982–1997)
- The Rt. Hon. Harriet Harman MP (1997–2001)
- The Rt. Hon. Harriet Harman QC MP (2001–)
- Shadow Cabinet of Ed Miliband
- First Shadow Cabinet of Harriet Harman
- Second Shadow Cabinet of Harriet Harman
- Shadow Cabinet of Tony Blair
- Shadow Cabinet of John Smith
- Shadow Cabinet elections: 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996
- "Harman made equalities secretary". BBC News. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Rt Hon Harriet Harman
- Her Majesty's Official Opposition – UK Parliament
- "108 Harley Street", Harley Street Guide
- Obituary, The Times, 8 December 1945
- www.burkespeerage.com[dead link]
- "Keeping it in the Family". Scribd.com. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
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- source: Harriet Harman: The QC who has learnt to keep her own counsel may yet earn a return to Cabinet, Robert Verkaik, The Independent (London), 30 December 2002
- Annie Machon, Spies, Lies and Whistleblowers: MI5, MI6 and the Shayler Affair, Book Guild, May 2005, ISBN 1-85776-952-X (hbk); The Guardian, 21 February 1985; 20/20 Vision (Channel 4, 1985)
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- The Family Way: A New Approach to Policy-making – Anna Coote, Harriet Harman, Patricia Hewitt – Google Books
- Feminism: The Ugly Truth – Mike Buchanan – Google Books
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When the party is in opposition and the party leader, for whatever reason, becomes permanently unavailable, the deputy leader shall automatically become party leader on a pro-tem basis.
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- Harriet Harman escapes driving ban after using mobile while driving The Times, 9 January 2010
- "In brief". The Guardian (London). 15 June 2001. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- Sex Discrimination in Schools: How to Fight it by Harriet Harman, 1978, Civil Liberties Trust ISBN 0-901108-73-1
- Justice Deserted: Subversion of the Jury by Harriet Harman et al., 1979, Civil Liberties Trust ISBN 0-901108-79-0
- Violence Against Social Workers: The Implications for Practice by Dan Norris, foreword by Harriet Harman, Jessica Kingsley Publishers ISBN 1-85302-041-9
- The Family Way: A New Approach to Policy Making by Harriet Harman et al., 1990, Institute for Public Policy Research ISBN 1-872452-15-9
- The Century Gap: 20th Century Man/21st Century Woman by Harriet Harman, 1993, Vermilion ISBN 0-09-177819-0
- Winning for Women by Harriet Harman and Deborah Mattinson, 2000, Fabian Society ISBN 0-7163-0596-8
- Women with Attitude by Susan Vinnicombe, John Bank, foreword by Harriet Harman, 2002, Routledge ISBN 0-415-28742-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harriet Harman.|
- Harriet Harman Official constituency website
- Southwark Labour
- Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Current session contributions in Parliament at Hansard
- Electoral history and profile at The Guardian
- Voting record at Public Whip
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
- Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record
- Profile at BBC News Democracy Live
- Articles authored at Journalisted
- Works by or about Harriet Harman in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Video clips
- Harman on Tory 'toff' campaign BBC News, 18 May 2008