# Harris–Benedict equation

(Redirected from Harris-Benedict equation)

The Harris–Benedict equation (also called the Harris-Benedict principle) is a method used to estimate an individual's basal metabolic rate (BMR).

The estimated BMR value may be multiplied by a number that corresponds to the individual's activity level; the resulting number is the approximate daily kilocalorie intake to maintain current body weight.

The Harris-Benedict equation may be used to assist weight loss — by reducing the kilocalorie intake number below the estimated maintenance intake of the equation.[citation needed]

## Calculating the Harris-Benedict BMR

The original Harris–Benedict equations were published in 1918 and 1919.

Sex Units Calculation
Men Metric BMR = 66.473 + ( 13.7516 × weight in kg ) + ( 5.0033 × height in cm ) – ( 6.755 × age in years )
Imperial BMR = 66 + ( 6.2 × weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 × height in inches ) – ( 6.76 × age in years )
Women Metric BMR = 655.0955 + ( 9.5634 × weight in kg ) + ( 1.8496 × height in cm ) – ( 4.6756 × age in years )
Imperial BMR = 65.5 + ( 4.35 × weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 × height in inches ) - ( 4.7 × age in years )

The Harris–Benedict equations revised by Roza and Shizgal in 1984.

 Men BMR = 88.362 + (13.397 × weight in kg) + (4.799 × height in cm) - (5.677 × age in years) Women BMR = 447.593 + (9.247 × weight in kg) + (3.098 × height in cm) - (4.330 × age in years)

The 95% confidence range for men is ±213.0 kcal/day, and ±201.0 kcal/day for women.

The Harris–Benedict equations revised by Mifflin and St Jeor in 1990:

 Men BMR = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) + 5 Women BMR = (10 × weight in kg) + (6.25 × height in cm) - (5 × age in years) - 161

## History

The Harris-Benedict equation sprang from a study by James Arthur Harris and Francis Gano Benedict, which was published in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the monograph A Biometric Study Of Basal Metabolism In Man. A 1984 revision improved its accuracy. Mifflin et al. published an equation more predictive for modern lifestyles in 1990. Later work produced BMR estimators that accounted for lean body mass.

## Issues in dietary use

As the BMR equations do not attempt to take into account body composition, identical results can be calculated for a very muscular person, and an overweight person, who are both the same height, weight, age and gender. As muscle and fat require differing amounts of calories to maintain, the TEE estimates will not be accurate for such cases.

The paper behind the latest update (Mifflin et al) to the BMR formula states all participants in their study fall within the 'normal' and 'overweight' body mass index (BMI) categories, and so the results also do not necessarily apply to those in the 'underweight' or 'obese' BMI categories.