Harry B. Gray
Harry B. Gray, 2013
|Born||Harry Barkus Gray
November 14, 1935
Woodburn, Kentucky, U.S.A.
|Alma mater||Western Kentucky University (B.S.) (1957)
Northwestern University (Ph.D) (1960)
Northwestern University (D.Sc.)
|Known for||Bioinorganic Chemistry
Electron Transfer chemistry
|Awards||ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1970)
Tolman Award (1979)
National Medal of Science (1986)
AIC Gold Medal (1990)
Priestley Medal (1991)
Harvey Prize (2000)
Wolf Prize in Chemistry (2004)
Welch Award (2009)
Othmer Gold Medal (2013)
California Institute of Technology
|Doctoral advisor||Fred Basolo
|Doctoral students||Daniel G. Nocera, Holden Thorp, Jay R. Winkler, Mark S. Wrighton, Jillan L. Dempsey|
|Other notable students||Nathan Lewis|
|Harry Gray discusses How Arnold O. Beckman's Instrumental Voice Shaped Chemistry's History, and the Beckman Institute at Caltech; Profiles in Chemistry, Chemical Heritage Foundation|
Gray received his B.S. in Chemistry from Western Kentucky University in 1957. He began his work in inorganic chemistry at Northwestern University, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1960 working under Fred Basolo and Ralph Pearson. He was initiated into the Upsilon chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma at Northwestern University in 1958. After that, he spent a year (1960–61) as an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Copenhagen, where, along with Walter A. Manch, he collaborated with Carl J. Ballhausen on studies of the electronic structures of metal complexes.
After completing his NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Copenhagen, he went to New York to take up a faculty appointment at Columbia University. He became an assistant professor from 1961 to 1963, associate professor from 1963 to 1965 and professor from 1965 to 1966.
Gray's interdisciplinary research program addresses a wide range of fundamental problems in inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and biophysics. Electron transfer (ET) chemistry is a unifying theme for much of this research.
Over the past twenty-five years the Gray group has been measuring the kinetics of long-range ET reactions in metalloproteins labeled with inorganic redox reagents. Early research by his lab members showed that details of the internal structures of the proteins dominate the ET rates. Current research is aimed at understanding how intermediate protein radicals accelerate long-range ET. In collaboration with Jay R. Winkler of the Beckman Institute at Caltech they have developed new techniques for measuring ET rates in crystals of Ru-, Os-, and Re-modified azurins, as well as crystals of Fe(III)-cytochrome c doped with Zn(II)-cytochrome c. This method of integrating photosensitizers into protein crystals has provided a powerful new tool for studying biochemical reaction dynamics. The Gray/Winkler group is also using ET chemistry to probe the dynamics of protein folding in cytochrome c.
- Ponce, Adrian; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R. (August 2000). "Electron Tunneling through Water: Oxidative Quenching of Electronically Excited Ru(tpy) (tpy = 2,2':6,2' '-terpyridine) by Ferric Ions in Aqueous Glasses at 77 K". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 122 (34): 8187–8191. doi:10.1021/ja000017h.
- Babini, Elena; Bertini, Ivano; Borsari, Marco; Capozzi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Moura, Gustavo L. C.; Kurnikov, Igor V.; Beratan, David N.; Ponce, Adrian; Di Bilio, Angel J.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (May 2000). "Bond-Mediated Electron Tunneling in Ruthenium-Modified High-Potential Iron−Sulfur Protein". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 122 (18): 4532–4533. doi:10.1021/ja994472t.
- Winkler, J. R.; Di Bilio, Angel J.; Farrow, N. A.; Richards, J. H.; Gray, H. B. (1 January 1999). "Electron tunneling in biological molecules". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 71 (9): 1753–1764. doi:10.1351/pac199971091753.
- Dmochowski, I. J.; Crane, B. R.; Wilker, J. J.; Winkler, J. R.; Gray, H. B. (9 November 1999). "Optical detection of cytochrome P450 by sensitizer-linked substrates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (23): 12987–12990. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9612987D. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.23.12987.
- Wilker, Jonathan J.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Dawson, John H.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (15 January 1999). "Substrates for Rapid Delivery of Electrons and Holes to Buried Active Sites in Proteins". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 38 (1–2): 89–92. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19990115)38:1/2<89::AID-ANIE89>3.0.CO;2-R.
- Telford, Jason R.; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R. (November 1998). "Protein Folding Triggered by Electron Transfer". Accounts of Chemical Research. 31 (11): 755–763. doi:10.1021/ar970078t.
- Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R. (June 1996). "Electron Transfer in Proteins". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 65 (1): 537–561. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.65.070196.002541.
- Pascher, T.; Chesick, J. P.; Winkler, J. R.; Gray, H. B. (15 March 1996). "Protein Folding Triggered by Electron Transfer". Science. 271 (5255): 1558–1560. Bibcode:1996Sci...271.1558P. doi:10.1126/science.271.5255.1558.
- Langen, R; Chang, I.; Germanas, J.; Richards, J.; Winkler; Gray, H. (23 June 1995). "Electron tunneling in proteins: coupling through a beta strand". Science. 268 (5218): 1733–1735. Bibcode:1995Sci...268.1733L. doi:10.1126/science.7792598.
- Grinstaff, M.; Hill, M.; Labinger, J.; Gray, H. (27 May 1994). "Mechanism of catalytic oxygenation of alkanes by halogenated iron porphyrins". Science. 264 (5163): 1311–1313. Bibcode:1994Sci...264.1311G. doi:10.1126/science.8191283.
Awards and honors
His accolades include:
- 1970 ACS Award in Pure Chemistry 
- 1979 Tolman Award
- 1986 National Medal of Science
- 1990 AIC Gold Medal
- 1992 Priestley Medal
- 2000 Harvey Prize
- 2000 Foreign Member of the Royal Society
- 2004 The Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry
- 2004 Wolf Prize in Chemistry
- 2009 Welch Award
- 2012 Inducted into the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame
- 2013 Othmer Gold Medal for outstanding contribution to chemistry and science.
Gray has made generative contributions to the understanding of chemical bonding of metal complexes, mechanisms of inorganic reactions, spectroscopy and magneto-chemistry of inorganic compounds. His study of the first trigonal prismatic complexes is one such example. Harry Gray's most significant work lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. As a pioneer of the important and thriving field of bioinorganic chemistry, he has made many key contributions, the most important of which is the development of fundamental understanding of electron transfer in biological systems, at the atomic level.
- "Harry B. Gray - www.cce.caltech.edu". Cce.caltech.edu. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Harry B. Gray". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Educational Foundation - Alpha Chi Sigma". Alphachisigma.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Dr. Harry B. Gray (Inducted in 1995)". Western Kentucky University. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Avery, John; Dahl, Jens Peder; Hansen, Aage E. (1987). Understanding Molecular Properties a Symposium in Honour of Professor Carl Johan Ballhausen, held at The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, April 4 and 5, 1986. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. ix–x. ISBN 978-94-009-3781-9. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Francis Clifford Phillips Lecture Series 1986 Phillips Lecturer Brief Biography of Harry Gray, California Institute of Technology". Phi Lambda Upsilon Xi Chapter, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Harry B. Gray". Beckman Institute Laser Resource Center. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Jacoby, Mitch (January 26, 2004). "AWARDS Harry Gray Wins Wolf Prize In Chemistry". Chemical & Engineering News. 82 (4). Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Beratan, DN; et al. "Protein electron transfer rates set by the bridging secondary and tertiary structure". Sciencemag.orgaccessdate=18 June 2013.
- Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (16 July 2015). "Electron flow through biological molecules: does hole hopping protect proteins from oxidative damage?". Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics. 48 (4): 411–420. doi:10.1017/S0033583515000062. PMC . PMID 26537399.
- Tezcan, F. Akif; Crane, Brian R.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (2001). "Electron Tunneling in Protein Crystals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (9): 5002–5006. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.5002A. doi:10.1073/pnas.081072898. JSTOR 3055554.
- Mines, Gary A.; Pascher, Torbjörn; Lee, Sonny C.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (June 1996). "Cytochrome c folding triggered by electron transfer". Chemistry & Biology. 3 (6): 491–497. doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(96)90097-6. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "ACS Award in Pure Chemistry". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "1979 Richard C. Tolman Award Recipient Harry B. Gray California Institute of Technology". SCALACS. 1979–1980. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Harry Gray". National Medal of Science. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "People: Caltech Chemist Wins AIC Gold Medal For His Studies Of Electron Transfer". The Scientist. April 2, 1990. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "People Briefs". The Scientist. July 9, 1990. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Harvey Prize". Technion. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Theopold, Klaus H. (September 2005). "The 2004 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry presented to Harry B. Gray". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 342 (6): 586–591. doi:10.1016/j.jfranklin.2005.04.015. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Perry, Jill (2004-01-22). "Professor Harry Gray Awarded Wolf Prize". Caltech News. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- Rovner, Sophie L. (May 25, 2009). "Harry Gray Wins Welch Award Caltech professor recognized for achievement in basic research". Chemical & Engineering News. 87 (212): 8. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Fraternity - Awards - Hall of Fame - Alpha Chi Sigma". Alphachisigma.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Othmer Gold Medal". Chemical Heritage Foundation.
- "Beckman Institute Laser Resource Center" (PDF). Bilrc.caltech.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Simply-Smart. "תוצאות חיפוש - פרס וולף". Wolffund.org.il. Retrieved 14 February 2015.