Henry Patrick Clarke
17 March 1889
|Died||January 6, 1931 (aged 41)|
|Resting place||Buried in Chur; disinterred in 1946 and reburied in an unknown communal grave|
|Alma mater||Dublin Metropolitan School of Art|
|Known for||stained glass and book illustration|
|Movement||Arts and Crafts|
Henry Patrick (Harry) Clarke was born 17 March 1889, younger son and third child of Joshua Clarke and Brigid Clarke (née MacGonigal). Joshua Clarke was a Church decorator who moved to Dublin from Leeds in 1877 and started a decorating business Joshua Clarke & Sons, which later incorporated a stained glass division. Through his work with his father, Clarke was exposed to many schools of art but Art Nouveau in particular.
Clarke was educated at the Model School in Marlborough Street, Dublin and Belvedere College, which he left in 1905. He was devastated by the death of his mother in 1903, when he was only 14 years old.  Clarke was then apprenticed into his father's studio, and attended evening classes in the Metropolitan College of Art and Design. His The Consecration of St Mel, Bishop of Longford, by St Patrick won the gold medal for stained glass work in the 1910 Board of Education National Competition.
At the art school in Dublin, Clarke met fellow artist and teacher Margaret Crilley. They married on 31 October 1914 and moved into a flat at 33 North Frederick Street. They had three children, Michael, David and Ann.
Clarke moved to London to seek work as a book illustrator. Picked up by London publisher Harrap, he started with two commissions which were never completed: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (much of his work on which was destroyed during the 1916 Easter Rising) and an illustrated edition of Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock.
Difficulties with these projects made Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen his first printed work, in 1916. It included 16 colour plates and more than 24 halftone illustrations. This was followed by an illustrations for an edition of Edgar Allan Poe's Tales of Mystery and Imagination: the first version of that title was restricted to halftone illustrations, while a second with eight colour plates and more than 24 halftone images was published in 1923. This 1923 edition made his reputation as a book illustrator, during the golden age of gift-book illustration in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Clarke's work can be compared to that of Aubrey Beardsley, Kay Nielsen, and Edmund Dulac.
It was followed by editions of The Years at the Spring, with 12 colour plates and more than 14 monotone images; (Lettice D'O. Walters, ed., 1920), Charles Perrault's Fairy Tales of Perrault, and Goethe's Faust, with eight colour plates and more than 70 halftone and duotone images (New York: Hartsdale House,1925). The last of these is his most famous work, prefiguring the disturbing imagery of 1960s psychedelia. Two of his most sought-after titles are promotional booklets for Jameson Irish Whiskey: A History of a Great House (1924, and subsequent reprints) and Elixir of Life (1925), which was written by Geofrey Warren. His final book, Selected Poems of Algernon Charles Swinburne, was published in 1928.
Clarke also continued to work in stained glass, producing more than 130 windows, he and his brother Walter having taken over his father's studio after his death in 1921. His glass is distinguished by the finesse of its drawing and his use of rich colours, and an innovative integration of the window leading as part of the overall design, originally inspired by an early visit to see the stained glass of the Cathedral of Chartres. He was especially fond of deep blues. Clarke's use of heavy lines in his black-and-white book illustrations echoes his glass techniques.
Clarke's stained glass work includes many religious windows, but also much secular stained glass. Highlights of the former include the windows of the Honan Chapel in University College Cork; of the latter, a window illustrating John Keats' The Eve of St. Agnes (now in the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery in Dublin) and the Geneva Window, (now in the Wolfsonian Museum, Miami, Florida, USA). Perhaps his most seen works were the windows he made for Bewley's Café on Dublin's Grafton Street.
Later years and death
Both Harry and his brother Walter were plagued with ill health, in particular problems with their lungs. Clarke was diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1929, and went to a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland. Fearing that he would die abroad, he began his journey back to Dublin in 1931, but died on 6 January 1931 in Chur where he was buried. A headstone was erected; but local law required that the family pledge to maintain the grave 15 years after the death. This was not explained to the Clarke family and Harry Clarke's remains were disinterred in 1946 and reburied in a communal grave.
"They danced with shawls that were woven of mist and moonshine" - one of Clarke's illustrations for Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen (1916)
A Harry Clarke window depicting Saint Patrick preaching to his disciples, commissioned in 1925 for St. Michael's Church in Ballinasloe
Chapel of the Sacred Heart, Dingle, The Baptism of Jesus
List of leaded glass windows (by Harry Clarke)
|St. Patrick's Purgatory||Lough Derg, County Donegal||1927–28||iicApostle Peter – Jesus is condemned to death|
|St. Paul – Jesus takes up his cross|
|Apostle Andrew – Jesus Falls the first time|
|Apostle John The Evangelist – Simon helps Jesus to carry his cross|
|Apostle Philip – Veronica wipes the face of Jesus|
|Apostle Bartholomew – Jesus Falls the second time|
|Apostle Thomas – The Women of Jerusalem weep for Jesus|
|Apostle Matthew – Jesus falls the third time|
|Apostle James the Less – Jesus is stripped of his clothes|
|Apostle Thaddeus – Jesus is nailed to the cross|
|Apostle Simon – Jesus dies on the cross|
|St. Matthias – The body of Jesus is taken from the Cross|
|Our Blessed Lady – The body of Jesus is laid in the tomb|
|Laurence Ambrose Waldron House||Dublin||1917||Queens of Sheba, Meath and Connaught||9 Frieze Windows based on J.M. Synge poem 'Queens'|
|Queens men drew like Monna Lisa|
|Queens in Glenmacnass|
|Etain, Helen Maeve and Fand|
|Queens who cut the bogs of Glanna|
|Queens who wasted the East by proxy|
|Queen of all are living or have been|
|Eneriley and Kilbride Church||Arklow, County Wicklow||Resurrection window|
|Castletownshend Church||County Cork||1918–20||The Nativity||1918|
|St. Louis IX and St. Martin of Tours dividing his Cloak for a Beggar||1920|
|Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Timoleague||County Cork||1929–30||Holy Family and Flight into Egypt||1912|
|Coronation of the Virgin|
|Christ meets his mother|
|Miracle of Cana|
|Death of St. Joseph|
|Carrickmacross Church||County Monaghan||1925||St. Oliver Plunkett|
|St. Laurence O'Toole|
|Death of Our Lady|
|Entombment of Christ|
|Death of St. Joseph|
|Death of St. Patrick|
|Chapel of the Noel Family||Exton Park, Rutland, England||1926||Blessed Oliver Plunkett and Blessed Thomas More|
|St. Mary's Church||Sturminster Newton, Dorset||1920–21||Our Lady and child, with St. Elizabeth and St. Barbara|
|Holy Trinity Church||Killiney, Dublin||1919||Angel of Hope and Peace|
|St. Michael and St. John||Cloughjordan, County Tipperary||1924||The ascension with 5 Irish saints and St. Michael and St. James|
|Ballinrobe Church||County Mayo||1926||St. Fursey and St. Fechin|
|St. Colman and St. Brendan|
|St. Gormgall and St. Kieran|
|St. Enda and St. Jarleth|
|Assumption and Coronation of Blessed Virgin Mary|
|Presentation in the Temple and Immaculate Conception|
|Ecce Homo and Magdalen in the Garden|
|Baptism of Christ and Ascension|
|St. Patrick, St. Brigid and St. Colmcille|
|St. Mary's Church||Nantwich, Cheshire, England||1920||Madonna and Child||Representing motherhood and sacrifice|
|St. Cecelia with birds and flowers||Representing music|
|Richard Coeur de Lion|
|St. Francis of Assisi|
|St. Peter's Church||Phibsborough, Dublin||1919||Apparition of the Sacred Heart||South Aisle|
|Mary Magdalen||In the Mortuary Chapel|
|Castleknock Church||Dublin||1928||St. Luke|
|Church of the Assumption||Bride Street, Wexford||1919||Our Lady and Child|
|Adored by Saints Adrian and Aiden||Also described as Breen|
|Honan Chapel||University College, Cork||1915–17||St. Brigid||Described by Brian Fallon as 'Awesome, hieratic, Neo-Byzantine quality."|
|Our Lady Queen of heaven|
|St. Mel's Cathedral||Longford||Consecration of St. Mel as Bishop of Longford|
|St. Joseph's Church||Terenure, Dublin||1922–23||The Annunciation||1922|
|Our Lady Queen of Heaven||1923. Described as 'Adoration of the Cross'|
|Tullamore Church||County Offaly||1927–28||St. Peter and St. Paul||Windows originally designed for Rathfarnham Castle|
|St. Patrick and St. Benignus|
|St. Joseph and Our Lady|
|Balbriggan Church||County Dublin||1923||The Visitation|
|St. Macaulind's Church||Lusk, County Dublin||1924||St. Macaulind holding a replica of the new church.||The artists self-portrait among the afflicted|
|Chapel of the Novitiate of the Oblate Fathers of St. Mary Immaculate||Belcamp College, Balgriffin, County Dublin||1925||St. Brendan at the helm of his boat|
|St. Malachy.||Also known as St. Maol M'Aodhog|
|St. Kevin in his cave at Glendalough|
|St. Laurence O'Toole in the ancient city of Dublin||Also known as Lorcon|
|St. Eithne and St. Fedhlim|
|St. Oliver Plunkett|
|Newport Church||County Mayo||1927||Last Judgement|
|Tullycross Church||Renvyle, County Galway||1927||St. Barbara|
|Apparition of the Sacred Heart|
|All Saints Church||Penarth, Cardiff, Wales||St. Michael||No longer in situ|
|Laragh Church||County Wicklow||1928–29||10 clerestory windows|
|Killaloe Church||County Clare||1927||The Presentation of Our Lord.|
|Annunciation and Flight into Egypt|
|Cathedral Church of St. Brigid||Kildare||St. Hubert|
|Carnalway Church||Kilcullen, County Kildare||1922||St. Hubert|
|Parish Church||Gorey, County Wexford||1922–23||St. Stephen|
|St. Martin of Tours|
|Sandford Road Church||Ranelagh, Dublin||St. Peter and St. Paul|
|Bewleys Café||78 Grafton Street, Dublin||1928||Decorative windows|
|Donabate Church||County Dublin||1926||Suffer little Children to come unto me|
|Duhill Church||Duhill, Cahir, County Tipperary||1925||Beheading of St. John the Baptist|
|Vision of Bernadette of Lourdes|
|Church of Sacred Heart||Donnybrook, Dublin||1924||St. Rita and St. Bernard|
|Wolfsonian Museum||Miami, Florida, USA||1930||Geneva Window||Commissioned for the International Labour Building, League of Nations, Geneva|
|The Hugh Lane Gallery||Dublin||1923||Eve of St. Agnes||Illustration of John Keats' poem.
a) Numb were the Beardsman's fingers.
List of leaded glass windows (by The Harry Clarke Studio)
|Clontarf Presbyterian Church||Dublin||1919||Pieta||Also described as Resurrection and Deposition. This is a war memorial.|
|St. Patrick's Church||Donegal Town||1932||Three windows|
|St. Joseph's Church||Rathmullan||1940||Christ The King|
- An Túr Gloine, stained glass firm with which Clarke was associated
- British and Irish stained glass (1811–1918)
- Harry Clarke - Darkness In Light
- List of people on stamps of Ireland
- Aubrey Beardsley
- Andrews, Helen; White, Lawrence William (2009). "Clarke, Harry (Henry Patrick)". In McGuire, James; Quinn, James (eds.). Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- The Irish genius behind the world's most iconic stained glass windows Irish Central, June 5, 2016
- "About Harry Clarke (1889-1931)". The Hugh Lane Gallery. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Costigan, Lucy; Cullen, Michael (2010). Strangest Genius: The Stained Glass of Harry Clarke. Dublin: The History Press Ireland. ISBN 9781845889715.
- Nicola Gordon Bowe. 1994. The Life and Work of Harry Clarke (Irish Academic Press)
- Burns, Sarah (27 April 2019). "Dublin bridge renamed after stained-glass artist Harry Clarke". The Irish Times.
- Exhibition at Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, 1990.
- Harry Clarke, Monograph and catalogue, 12 November to 8 December 1979, The Douglas Hyde Gallery.
- Shell Guide To Ireland, p.94.
- Shell Guide to Ireland, p.305.
- Douglas Hyde Gallery Exhibition, 1979.
- Shell Guide to Ireland, p.166
- Shell Guide to Ireland, p.297
- Shell Guide to Ireland.
- Martin Moore Steenson. 2003. A Bibliographical Checklist of the Work of Harry Clarke (Books & Things)
- John J Doherty. 2003. Harry Clarke - Darkness In Light A film on the life and work of Harry Clarke (Camel Productions)
- Lucy Costigan and Michael Cullen. 2010. Strangest Genius: The Stained Glass of Harry Clarke (The History Press Ireland)
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