Harry B. Gray

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Harry Gray
Harry Gray HD2013 Othmer Gold Medal 002.JPG
Harry B. Gray, 2013
Born Harry Barkus Gray
(1935-11-14) November 14, 1935 (age 81)
Woodburn, Kentucky, U.S.A.
Residence U.S.A.
Nationality American
Fields Chemistry
Institutions Columbia University
California Institute of Technology
Alma mater Western Kentucky University (B.S.) (1957)[1]
Northwestern University (Ph.D) (1960)[1]
Northwestern University (D.Sc.)[1]
Doctoral advisor Fred Basolo
Ralph Pearson
Doctoral students Daniel G. Nocera, Holden Thorp, Jay R. Winkler, Mark S. Wrighton, Jillan L. Dempsey
Other notable students Nathan Lewis
Known for Bioinorganic Chemistry
Electron Transfer chemistry
Photochemistry
Notable awards ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1970)
Tolman Award (1979)
National Medal of Science (1986)
AIC Gold Medal (1990)
Priestley Medal (1991)
Harvey Prize (2000)
Wolf Prize in Chemistry (2004)
Welch Award (2009)
Othmer Gold Medal (2013)
Website
www.cce.caltech.edu/content/harry-b-gray
External video
Beckman Institute Reflection.jpg
Harry Gray discusses How Arnold O. Beckman's Instrumental Voice Shaped Chemistry's History, and the Beckman Institute at Caltech; Profiles in Chemistry, Chemical Heritage Foundation

Harry Barkus Gray (born 14 November 1935 in Woodburn, Kentucky, U.S.A.) is the Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology.[2]

Career[edit]

Gray received his B.S. in Chemistry from Western Kentucky University in 1957. He began his work in inorganic chemistry at Northwestern University, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1960 working under Fred Basolo and Ralph Pearson. He was initiated into the Upsilon chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma at Northwestern University in 1958.[3] After that, he spent a year (1960–61) as an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Copenhagen,[4] where, along with Walter A. Manch, he collaborated with Carl J. Ballhausen on studies of the electronic structures of metal complexes.[5][6]

After completing his NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Copenhagen, he went to New York to take up a faculty appointment at Columbia University. He became an assistant professor from 1961 to 1963, associate professor from 1963 to 1965 and professor from 1965 to 1966.[7]

In 1966, he moved to the California Institute of Technology, where he became the Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry and founding director of the Beckman Institute.[7]

Research[edit]

Gray's interdisciplinary research program addresses a wide range of fundamental problems in inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and biophysics. Electron transfer (ET) chemistry is a unifying theme for much of this research.[8]

Over the past twenty-five years the Gray group has been measuring the kinetics of long-range ET reactions in metalloproteins labeled with inorganic redox reagents. Early research by his lab members showed that details of the internal structures of the proteins dominate the ET rates.[9] Current research is aimed at understanding how intermediate protein radicals accelerate long-range ET. In collaboration with Jay R. Winkler of the Beckman Institute at Caltech they have developed new techniques for measuring ET rates in crystals of Ru-, Os-, and Re-modified azurins, as well as crystals of Fe(III)-cytochrome c doped with Zn(II)-cytochrome c.[10] This method of integrating photosensitizers into protein crystals has provided a powerful new tool for studying biochemical reaction dynamics.[11] The Gray/Winkler group is also using ET chemistry to probe the dynamics of protein folding in cytochrome c.[12]

Major publications[edit]

Awards and honors[edit]

His accolades include:

Wolf Prize[edit]

He was awarded the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in 2004 for his pioneering work in bioinorganic chemistry, unraveling novel principles of structure and long-range electron transfer in proteins.[8][25]

Gray has made generative contributions to the understanding of chemical bonding of metal complexes, mechanisms of inorganic reactions, spectroscopy and magneto-chemistry of inorganic compounds. His study of the first trigonal prismatic complexes is one such example. Harry Gray's most significant work lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. As a pioneer of the important and thriving field of bioinorganic chemistry, he has made many key contributions, the most important of which is the development of fundamental understanding of electron transfer in biological systems, at the atomic level.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Harry B. Gray - www.cce.caltech.edu". Cce.caltech.edu. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "Harry B. Gray". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  3. ^ "Educational Foundation - Alpha Chi Sigma". Alphachisigma.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "Dr. Harry B. Gray (Inducted in 1995)". Western Kentucky University. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  5. ^ Avery, John; Dahl, Jens Peder; Hansen, Aage E. (1987). Understanding Molecular Properties a Symposium in Honour of Professor Carl Johan Ballhausen, held at The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, April 4 and 5, 1986. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. ix–x. ISBN 978-94-009-3781-9. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "Francis Clifford Phillips Lecture Series 1986 Phillips Lecturer Brief Biography of Harry Gray, California Institute of Technology". Phi Lambda Upsilon Xi Chapter, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Harry B. Gray". Beckman Institute Laser Resource Center. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Jacoby, Mitch (January 26, 2004). "AWARDS Harry Gray Wins Wolf Prize In Chemistry". Chemical & Engineering News. 82 (4). Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  9. ^ Beratan, DN; et al. "Protein electron transfer rates set by the bridging secondary and tertiary structure". Sciencemag.orgaccessdate=18 June 2013. 
  10. ^ Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (16 July 2015). "Electron flow through biological molecules: does hole hopping protect proteins from oxidative damage?". Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics. 48 (4): 411–420. doi:10.1017/S0033583515000062. PMC 4793975Freely accessible. PMID 26537399. 
  11. ^ Tezcan, F. Akif; Crane, Brian R.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (2001). "Electron Tunneling in Protein Crystals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (9): 5002–5006. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.5002A. doi:10.1073/pnas.081072898. JSTOR 3055554. 
  12. ^ Mines, Gary A.; Pascher, Torbjörn; Lee, Sonny C.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B. (June 1996). "Cytochrome c folding triggered by electron transfer". Chemistry & Biology. 3 (6): 491–497. doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(96)90097-6. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  13. ^ "ACS Award in Pure Chemistry". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "1979 Richard C. Tolman Award Recipient Harry B. Gray California Institute of Technology". SCALACS. 1979–1980. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Harry Gray". National Medal of Science. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  17. ^ "People: Caltech Chemist Wins AIC Gold Medal For His Studies Of Electron Transfer". The Scientist. April 2, 1990. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  18. ^ "People Briefs". The Scientist. July 9, 1990. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Harvey Prize". Technion. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  20. ^ Theopold, Klaus H. (September 2005). "The 2004 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry presented to Harry B. Gray". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 342 (6): 586–591. doi:10.1016/j.jfranklin.2005.04.015. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  21. ^ Perry, Jill (2004-01-22). "Professor Harry Gray Awarded Wolf Prize". Caltech News. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  22. ^ Rovner, Sophie L. (May 25, 2009). "Harry Gray Wins Welch Award Caltech professor recognized for achievement in basic research". Chemical & Engineering News. 87 (212): 8. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  23. ^ "Fraternity - Awards - Hall of Fame - Alpha Chi Sigma". Alphachisigma.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  24. ^ "Othmer Gold Medal". Chemical Heritage Foundation. 
  25. ^ "Beckman Institute Laser Resource Center" (PDF). Bilrc.caltech.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  26. ^ Simply-Smart. "תוצאות חיפוש - פרס וולף". Wolffund.org.il. Retrieved 14 February 2015.