Harry Potter fandom
Harry Potter fandom refers to the community of fans of the Harry Potter books and films who participate in entertainment activities that revolve around the series, such as reading and writing fan fiction, creating and soliciting fan art, engaging in role-playing games, socialising on Harry Potter-based forums, and more. The fandom interacts online as well as offline through activities such as fan conventions, participating in cosplay, tours of iconic landmarks relevant to the books and production of the films, and parties held for the midnight release of each book and film.
By the fourth Harry Potter book, the legions of fans had grown so large that considerable security measures were taken to ensure that no book was purchased before the official release date. Harry Potter is considered one of the few four-quadrant, multi-generation spanning franchises that exist today, despite Rowling's original marketing of the books to tweens and teens.
Pottermania is an informal term first used around 1999 describing the craze Harry Potter fans have had over the series. Fans held midnight parties to celebrate the release of the final four books at bookstores which stayed open on the night leading into the date of the release. In 2005, Entertainment Weekly listed the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire as one of "Entertainment's Top Moments" of the previous 25 years.
Diehard fans of the series are called "Potterheads". Some even theme their weddings around Harry Potter. A Bridal Guide featured two real weddings soon before the release of the final film, which quickly spread through the fandom via Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr.
The craze over the series was referenced in Lauren Weisberger's 2003 novel The Devil Wears Prada as well as its 2006 film adaptation. In the story, the protagonist Andrea Sachs is ordered to retrieve two copies of the next instalment in the series for her boss's twins before they are published so that they can be privately flown to France, where the twins and their mother are on holiday.
Some celebrity fans of Harry Potter include Lily Allen, Guillermo del Toro, Ariana Grande, Stephen King, Keira Knightley, Jennifer Lawrence, Evanna Lynch, Liam Neeson, Barack Obama, Simon Pegg, Seth Rogen, and Matt Smith.
There are many fan web sites about Harry Potter on the Internet, the oldest ones dating to about 1997 or 1998. One of the most famous sites allows fans of the book an opportunity to be sorted into a house themselves.  J. K. Rowling has an open relationship with her fan base, and since 2004 periodically hands out a "fan site award" on her official web site. The first site to receive the award was Immeritus, a fan site mostly devoted to Sirius Black, and about which Rowling wrote, "I am so proud of the fact that a character, whom I always liked very much, though he never appeared as much more than a brooding presence in the books, has gained a passionate fan-club."
In 2004, after Immeritus, Rowling bestowed the honour upon four sites. The first was Godric's Hollow; for some time however, the site's domain name was occupied by advertisers and its content was lost and there is no further record on Rowling's site that Godric's Hollow ever received the award, although in 2010 the website came back online again albeit with a lot of content missing. The next site was the Harry Potter Lexicon, an online encyclopedia Rowling has admitted to visiting while writing away from home rather than buying a copy of her books in a store. She called it "for the dangerously obsessive; my natural home." The third site of 2004 was MuggleNet, a web site featuring the latest news in the Potter world, among editorials, forums, and a podcast. Rowling wrote when giving the award, "It's high time I paid homage to the mighty MuggleNet," and listed all the features she loved, including "the pretty-much-exhaustive information on all books and films." The last site was HPANA, the first fan site Rowling ever visited, "faster off the mark with Harry Potter news than any other site" Rowling knows, and "fantastically user-friendly."
In 2005, only The Leaky Cauldron was honoured. In Rowling's words, "it is about the worst kept secret on this website that I am a huge fan of The Leaky Cauldron," which she calls a "wonderfully well designed mine of accurate information on all things Harry Potter." On another occasion, Rowling has called the Leaky Cauldron her "favourite fan site." In 2006, the Brazilian website Potterish was the only site honoured, in recognition of its "style, [its] Potter-expertise and [its] responsible reporting."
In May 2007, Harry Potter Fan Zone received the award. Rowling recognised the insightful editorials as well as praised the site for its young and dedicated staff. In December 2007, the award went to The Harry Potter Alliance, a campaign that seeks to end discrimination, genocide, poverty, AIDS, global warming, and other "real-world Dark Arts", relating these problems to the books. Rowling called the project "extraordinary" and "most inspirational", and paralleled its mission to "the values for which Dumbledore's Army fought in the books". In an article about her in Time magazine, Rowling expressed her gratefulness at the site's successful work raising awareness and sign-up levels among anti-genocide coalitions.
At one time, Warner Bros., which owns the rights to Harry Potter and its affiliates, tried to shut down the sites. The unsuccessful attempt eventually led to their inviting the webmasters of the top sites to premieres of the films and tours of the film sets, because of their close connection with the fans. Warner Bros. executives have acknowledged that many fans are disappointed that certain elements of the books are left out, but not trying to avoid criticism, "bringing the fan sites into the process is what we feel is really important."
These fan sites contain news updates into the world of the books, films, and film cast members through the use of forums, image galleries, or video galleries. They also host user-submitted creations, such as fan art or fan fiction.
The Harry Potter fandom has embraced podcasts as a regular, often weekly, insight to the latest discussion in the fandom. Apple Inc. has featured two of the podcasts, MuggleCast and PotterCast. Both have reached the top spot of iTunes podcast rankings and have been polled one of the top 50 favorite podcasts. At the 2006 Podcast Awards, when MuggleCast and PotterCast each received two nominations for the same two categories, the two podcasts teamed up and requested listeners vote for PotterCast in the Best Entertainment category and MuggleCast in the People's Choice category. Both podcasts won these respective categories.
MuggleCast, hosted by MuggleNet staffers, was created in August 2005, not long after the release of Half-Blood Prince. Topics of the first show focused on Horcruxes, "R.A.B.", the Goblet of Fire film, which was due for release two months later, and the website DumbledoreIsNotDead.com. Since then, MuggleCast has held chapter-by-chapter discussions, character analyses, and a discussion on a "theory of the week". MuggleCast has also added humour to their podcast with segments like "Spy on Spartz," where the hosts would call MuggleNet webmaster Emerson Spartz and reveal his current location or activity with the listening audience. British staff member Jamie Lawrence tells a British joke of the week, and host Andrew Sims reads an email sent to MuggleNet with a strange request or incoherent talk (dubbed "Huh?! Email of the Week"). MuggleCast is currently the highest rated Harry Potter Podcast on the Internet. The MuggleCast website will continue to serve as a resource for other Harry Potter fans who want to rediscover the show.
PotterCast was released less than two weeks after MuggleCast's first episode. Produced by The Leaky Cauldron, it differed from MuggleCast with a more structured program, including various segments and involvement of more people on the Leaky Cauldron staff compared to MuggleCast. It also was the first Potter podcast to produce regular interviews with people directly involved with the books and films. The first show featured interviews with Stuart Craig, art director of the films, as well as Bonnie Wright, who plays Ginny Weasley. PotterCast has also interviewed Matthew Lewis (the actor who portrays Neville Longbottom), Evanna Lynch (Luna Lovegood), Jamie Waylett (Vincent Crabbe), Rupert Grint (Ron Weasley), Chris Columbus, Alfonso Cuarón, Mike Newell (directors of the first four films), Arthur A. Levine and Cheryl Klein (editors of the books at Scholastic), and Rowling herself.
The two sites are friendly rivals and have aired several combined episodes, which they call "The Leaky Mug", a separate podcast released on a separate feed from time to time. Live joint podcasts have been held in New York City, Las Vegas, and California. From time to time, hosts on one podcast will appear on their counterpart.
Other notable Harry Potter podcasts include:
- Harry Potter and the Sacred Text, in which the books are read as if they were a religious text 
- Witch Please, which looks at the books through a feminist lens 
- Potterotica, in which actors read Harry Potter fan fiction aloud 
- Potterless, a comedy podcast in which an adult man reads the books for the first time and tries to predict future plot points 
- 5 Minuten Harry Podcast, a German podcast by YouTuber Coldmirror in which she analyses the first film Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Rowling has backed fan fiction stories on the Internet, stories written by fans that involve Harry Potter or other characters in the books. A March 2007 study showed that "Harry Potter" is the most searched-for fan fiction subject online. Some fans will use canon established in the books to write stories of past and future events in the Harry Potter world; others write stories that have little relation to the books other than the characters' names and the settings in which the fan fiction takes place. On FanFiction.Net, there are over 817,000, while Archive of Our Own has over 230,000 stories on Harry Potter as of April 2020[update]. There are numerous websites devoted solely to Harry Potter fan fiction. Of these, according to rankings on Alexa.com, HarryPotterFanfiction.com has grown to be the most popular.
A well-known work of fan fiction is The Shoebox Project, created by two LiveJournal users. Over 8500 people subscribe to the story so that they are alerted when new posts update the story. The authors' works, including this project, were featured in an article in The Wall Street Journal discussing the growth in popularity of fandoms.
In 2006, the "popular 'bad' fanfic" My Immortal was posted on FanFiction.Net by user "Tara Gilesbie". It was deleted by the site's administrators in 2008, but not before amassing over eight thousand negative reviews. It spawned a number of YouTube spoofs and a number of imitators created "sequels" claiming to be the original Tara.
In 2007, a web-based novel, James Potter and the Hall of Elders' Crossing, was written by a computer animator named George Lippert. The book was written as a supplement to fill the void after Deathly Hallows, and received eventual approval from Rowling herself.
Rowling has said, "I find it very flattering that people love the characters that much." She has adopted a positive position on fan fiction, unlike authors such as Anne McCaffrey or Anne Rice who discourage fans from writing about their books and have asked sites like FanFiction.Net to remove all stories of their works, requests honored by the site. However, Rowling has been "alarmed by pornographic or sexually explicit material clearly not meant for kids," according to Neil Blair, an attorney for her publisher. The attorneys have sent cease and desist letters to sites that host adult material.
Potter fan fiction also has a large following in the slash fiction genre, stories which feature sexual relationships that do not exist in the books (shipping), often portraying homosexual pairings. Famous pairings include Harry with Draco Malfoy or Cedric Diggory, and Remus Lupin with Sirius Black. Harry Potter slash has eroded some of the antipathy towards underage sexuality in the wider slash fandom.
Tracey "T" Proctor, a moderator of FictionAlley.org, a Harry Potter fanfiction website, said 'I don't really get into the children's aspect of it, but rather the teachers, the adult characters. I read someone once who said, "If she didn't want us fantasizing about her characters, she needs to stop having these handsome men portraying them." And that's the truth: It's very hard not to look at Alan Rickman [Professor Severus Snape] and Jason Isaacs [Lucius Malfoy] and not get erotic thoughts. I have some fan fiction at Fiction Alley. You want to write stories about the characters that J.K. is not writing, about their love lives that you don't see in the book.'
Prior to the publication of Deathly Hallows, much of the energy of the Potter fandom was devoted to speculation and debate about upcoming plot and character developments. To this end, clues from the earlier books and deliberate hints from J. K. Rowling (in interviews and on her website) were heavily scrutinised by fans. In particular, fan essays were published on websites such as Mugglenet (the "world famous editorials"), the Harry Potter Lexicon and The Leaky Cauldron (Scribbulus project) among others: offering theories, comment and analysis on all aspects of the series. The Yahoo discussion list Harry Potter for Grown Ups (founded in 1999) is also noteworthy for its detailed criticism and discussion of the Harry Potter books.
Speculation intensified with the July 2005 publication of Half-Blood Prince and the detailed post-publication interview given by Rowling to Mugglenet and The Leaky Cauldron. Notably, DumbledoreIsNotDead.com sought to understand the events of the sixth book in a different way. (Rowling later confirmed, however – on 2 August 2006 – that Dumbledore was, in fact, dead, humorously apologising to the website as she did so.) A collection of essays, Who Killed Albus Dumbledore?: What Really Happened in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince? Six Expert Harry Potter Detectives Examine the Evidence, was published by Zossima Press in November 2006. Contributors included the Christian author John Granger and Joyce Odell of Red Hen Publications, whose own website contains numerous essays on the Potterverse and fandom itself.
In 2006, in advance of the arrival of the seventh Potter novel, five MuggleNet staff members co-authored the reference book Mugglenet.Com's What Will Happen in Harry Potter 7: Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Falls in Love and How Will the Adventure Finally End, an anthology of unofficial fan predictions; while early in 2007, Leaky launched HarryPotterSeven.com, featuring "roundups and predictions from some of the most knowledgeable fans online" (including Steve Vander Ark of the Lexicon). Late additions to the fan scene (prior to the publication of Deathly Hallows) included BeyondHogwarts.com (the successor to DumbledoreIsNotDead.com), which billed itself as "the only ongoing online Harry Potter fan conference", as well as Book7.co.uk, which offered a hypothetical "evidence-based synopsis" of the seventh novel. To this day, debate and reaction to the novels and films continues on web forums (including Mugglenet's Chamber of Secrets community and TLC's Leaky Lounge).
Fan film and television
A 2018 Italian fan-made prequel to the series, Voldemort: Origins of the Heir, depicts the story of Tom Riddle's rise to power. The teaser trailer was released on in June 2017, receiving exceeded thirty million views in less than 48 hours on Facebook. The full movie was later released on YouTube on 13 January 2018, receiving over twelve million views in ten days.
Hermione Granger and the Quarter Life Crisis is an online TV series focused on Hermione Granger's life after Hogwarts. In the show, Granger, cast as a black woman played by Ashley Romans, has broken up with Ron Weasley and moved to Los Angeles to reevaluate her life and choices.
Fan conventions have been another way that the fandom has congregated. Conventions such as Prophecy, LeakyCon, Infinitus, Azkatraz, and Ascendio have maintained an academic emphasis, hosting professional keynote speakers as well as keeping the atmosphere playful and friendly. They have featured prominent members of the fandom such as Jennie Levine, owner of SugarQuill.net (Phoenix Rising, 2007); Melissa Anelli, current webmaster of The Leaky Cauldron (Phoenix Rising, 2007; Leakycon, 2009/2011/2012); Sue Upton, former Senior Editor of the Leaky Cauldron (Prophecy, 2007); Heidi Tandy, founder of Fiction Alley (Prophecy, 2007), Paul and Joe DeGeorge of the wizard rock band Harry and the Potters (along with several other more well-known Wizard Rock bands such as The Remus Lupins, The Parselmouths, Ministry of Magic, and The Whomping Willows) (see below) (Prophecy, 2007; Leakycon, 2009/2011/2012), Andrew Slack, founder of The Harry Potter Alliance, and StarKid, the cast of the fan made musicals "A Very Potter Musical", "A Very Potter Sequel", and "A Very Potter Senior Year".
Still, the conventions try to attract the fandom with other fun-filled Potter-centric activities, often more interactive, such as wizarding chess, water Quidditch, a showing of the Harry Potter films, or local cultural immersions. Live podcasts are often recorded during these events, and live Wizard Rock shows have become a fairly large part of recent conventions. Members of the Harry Potter cast have been brought in for the conferences; actors such as Evanna Lynch (Luna Lovegood) and Christopher Rankin (Percy Weasley), along with several others, have appeared to give live Q&A sessions and keynote presentations about the series.
In addition to fandom-specific programming, LeakyCon 2011 and 2012 have hosted LitDays (as well as incorporating the many fandoms Harry Potter fans have branched into since the ending of the series). LitDays are full of programming with authors, agents, and editors. A few key examples are John Green, author of the award-winning young adult novels The Fault in Our Stars and Looking for Alaska; Scott Westerfeld, author of the Uglies series and Leviathan; and David Levithan, author of Nick & Norah's Infinite Playlist and The Lover's Dictionary.
These conventions are now incorporating the recently opened theme park The Wizarding World of Harry Potter into their itinerary, built inside Universal's Island of Adventure in Orlando, Florida. At the Harry Potter fan conventions Infinitus 2010, LeakyCon 2011, and Ascendio 2012, special events were held at the theme park dedicated to the series. These are after-hours events for convention attendees who purchased tickets to experience and explore the park by themselves. The event included talks given by creators of the park, free food and butterbeer, and live wizard rock shows inside the park.
In addition to conventions, Harry Potter fandom has further expanded to town festivals, including the Chestertown Harry Potter Festival (Maryland), the Chestnut Hill Harry Potter Festival (Philadelphia), Edgerton's Harry Potter Festival (Wisconsin), and the Spellbound Festival (Michigan, 2016; Ontario, 2018; New York, 2019), among others.
The Chestnut Hill event had been held annually for seven years until 2018 when it was rebranded under a more general "Witches and Wizards" theme, following a cease and desist letter from Warner Bros.
In the fandom the word "ship" and its derivatives like "shipping" or "shipper" are commonly used as shorthand for the word "relationship."
The Harry Potter series generated ship debates with supporters of the prospective relationship between Harry Potter and his close female friend Hermione Granger at odds with supporters of Hermione ending up instead with Ron Weasley, close friend of both, as well as supporters of Harry ending up with Ginny Weasley, Ron's younger sister.
Quotes from Rowling which seemed to contradict the possibility of Harry ending up with Hermione were usually countered by claiming them to be deliberate obfuscations designed to lure astute observation off-course (though such claims were far from undisputed, given that these allegedly vague quotes included such phrases as "[Harry and Hermione] are very platonic friends", and were repeated on at least three different occasions).
An interview with Rowling conducted by fansite webmasters Emerson Spartz (MuggleNet) and Melissa Anelli (The Leaky Cauldron) shortly after the book's release turned out to be quite controversial. During the interview Spartz commented that Harry/Hermione shippers were "delusional", to which Rowling chuckled, though making it clear that she did not share the sentiment and that the Harry/Hermione fans were "still valued members of her readership". This incident resulted in an uproar among Harry/Hermione shippers. The uproar was loud enough to merit an article in the San Francisco Chronicle.
Rowling's attitude towards the shipping phenomenon has varied between amused and bewildered to frustrated, as she revealed in that interview. She explained:
Well, you see, I'm a relative newcomer to the world of shipping, because for a long time, I didn't go on the net and look up Harry Potter. A long time. Occasionally I had to, because there were weird news stories or something that I would have to go and check, because I was supposed to have said something I hadn't said. I had never gone and looked at fan sites, and then one day I did and oh - my - god. Five hours later or something, I get up from the computer shaking slightly [all laugh]. 'What is going on?' And it was during that first mammoth session that I met the shippers, and it was a most extraordinary thing. I had no idea there was this huge underworld seething beneath me.
In a later posting on MuggleNet, Spartz explained:
My comments weren't directed at the shippers who acknowledged that Harry/Hermione was a long shot but loved the idea of them together. It was directed at the "militant" shippers who insisted that there was overwhelming canon proof and that everyone else was too blind to see it. You were delusional; you saw what you wanted to see and you have no one to blame for that but yourselves.
Rowling has continued to make references, less humorous and more, to the severity of the shipper conflicts. In one instance she has joked about trying to think of ways of proving to Emerson, when inviting him for the aforementioned interview, that it was really her and not "some angry Harry/Hermione shipper trying to lure him down a dark alleyway"; In another, she has described her impression of the Harry Potter fandom's shipping debates as "cyber gang warfare".
Rowling stated in a 2014 interview with Wonderland magazine that she thought that realistically Ron and Hermione had "too much fundamental incompatibility." She stated that Ron and Hermione were written together "as a form of wish fulfillment" as way to reconcile a relationship she herself was once in. She went on to say that perhaps with marriage counselling Ron and Hermione would have been all right. She also went on to say in a talk at Exeter University that Harry's love for Ginny is true, thereby denying any potential canon relationship between Harry and Hermione.
On a less intense scale, other relationships have been doted upon in the fandom from suggestive hints or explicit statements throughout canon, such as those between Draco Malfoy and Pansy Parkinson, Harry's parents James Potter and Lily Evans, Rubeus Hagrid and Olympe Maxime, or Percy Weasley and Penelope Clearwater, or Rose Granger-Weasley and Scorpius Malfoy. A potential relationship between Neville Longbottom and Luna Lovegood was originally dispelled by Rowling, though she later retracted this and said she noticed a slight attraction between them in Deathly Hallows.
Some couples, besides Harry and Ginny and Ron and Hermione, have been explicitly stated in the series: Bill Weasley and Fleur Delacour are married in Deathly Hallows after dating throughout Half-Blood Prince. In Half-Blood Prince, Nymphadora Tonks keeps her feelings for Remus Lupin to herself, but remains depressed when he refuses her advances; he feels that his being a werewolf would not create a safe relationship. Tonks professes her love for him at the end of the book, and she and Lupin have been married by the beginning of Deathly Hallows and have a son 'Teddy' later in the book. Other couples, such as Harry and Draco or Lupin and Sirius Black, are favourites among fans who read fan fiction about them. There is also debate about Lily and Severus vs. James.
LARPing often involves re-enacting or creating an original Quidditch team. Match rules and style of play vary among fandom events, but they are generally kept as close as possible to the sport envisioned by Rowling. The 2006 Lumos symposium included a Quidditch tournament played in water. More common are ground-based games such as the handball style developed by USA Team Handball and featured at the MuggleNet-sponsored Spellbound event, as well as the Muggle Quidditch style played intramurally at Millikin University (at left). This version of quidditch has grown past intramural play, is far from LARPing, and has an international governing body, the IQA.
Internet-based roleplay tries to simulate the Hogwarts experience. Many[which?] sites are forum-based, emphasizing taking classes taught by staff members in order for the players to earn points for their respective houses. Some[which?] internet-based roleplay sites go more in depth into canon and storylines, and do not specifically rely on posting as the only method for gaining house points while others[which?] have expanded to include activities such as Quidditch, dueling, and board-wide plots. Hogwarts-school.net (est. 2000), for example, is a forum-based roleplaying game which allows players to take classes, engage in extracurriculars, and also has many options for adult characters in St. Mungos, the Daily Prophet, and the Ministry of Magic.
2007 saw the launch of World of Hogwarts, a completely free MMORPG Harry Potter roleplaying game in Second Life, set ten years after the Battle of Hogwarts. Here, roleplayers can create an avatar and interact with other students, attend lessons organized by other roleplayers, play Quidditch, sit for their exams, earn and lose points for their house, visit Hogsmeade, Diagon Alley and the Forbidden Forest, get a job at the Ministry of Magic, explore several secret passages within the castle, and even immerse themselves into intricate and well-composed storyline plots that have, through time, grown into the canon rules of the game.
A website created by ISO Interactive, called the Chamber of Chat is a free online interactive virtual world under a MMO format. Although not a full MMORPG format, Chamber of Chat is set up with 3D virtual chatrooms and avatars where fans can socially interact with each other in Pictionary and Harry Potter Trivial games or participate in discussion groups about Harry Potter or Film media or perform plays as a theater group to other fans as audience. They hold special community event such as Harry Potters Birthday or Halloween and have seasonal house competitions. Fans are able to create their own avatars, collect or be rewarded coins to purchase furniture items for their own "clubhouse". However, the website emphasizes more social interaction between fans' avatars to stimulate the Hogwarts student experience. "Chamber of Chat is a graphical Social Virtual World with a few Facebook plug-ins. The Harry Potter Virtual World is designed for fans. This give users the feeling that they are interacting in the actual 3D world. You can hang out with other students, relax in the common room, mingle at the pub, play games like Pictionary and even download cool looking wallpapers."
On 19 April 2007, Chamber of Chat was awarded Adobe Site of the day. Chamber of chat has also been awarded a place among the SmartFoxServer Showcase. "Chamber of Chat is an MMO community inspired to the magic worlds of the Harry Potter saga. The application is a great example of integration between Director/Shockwave (client) and SmartFoxServer PRO.". Chamber of Chat has been a long time associated branch of The Leaky network and although as part of the network with The Leaky Cauldron, Pottercast and "Ask Peeves" search engine, it was ranked number two behind Indiana Jones's TheRaider.Net out of 25 essential fansites of "The Best of the Web" by Entertainment Weekly in December 2007.
Other sites use modified versions of phpBB that allow for a certain level of interactive roleplaying and are what is commonly referred to as "forum-based roleplaying". Interactive gaming can include player versus player features, a form of currency for making purchases in stores, and non-player characters such as monsters that must be fought to gain levels and experience points. However, these features are more prevalent in games that are not forum-based. Advancement in such games is usually dependent on live chat, multiplayer cooperation, and fighting as opposed to taking classes or simply posting to earn points for one's "house"; like at Hogwarts, players in forum-based games are sometimes sorted into a different group distinguishing different values within a person.
Roleplaying also occurs in long-form improvisational theater. Several American and British improv troupes are devoted to the Potter genre. These include Melbourne's Completely Improvised Potter London's Potted Potter and Los Angeles's The Show That Shall Not Be Named.
Iconic landmarks tours
Some travel agencies have organised a subdivision to create tours specifically highlighting iconic landmarks in the world of Harry Potter. HP Fan Trips, offered by Beyond Boundaries Travel since 2004 in conjunction with fan site HPANA, was designed by and for fans of the series, and tours noteworthy Potter-related locations in the United Kingdom. Since 2004, they have exclusively chartered steam locomotive #5972 Olton Hall, the locomotive used in the films as the Hogwarts Express, as well as the carriages labeled as such and seen in the movies. The travel agency Your Man in Europe began hosting Magical Tours in 2006, in conjunction with fan site MuggleNet. They offer four different tours through England and Scotland.
These tours primarily feature locations used for shooting in the films, though some trips include a Chinese restaurant in Edinburgh, which was once Nicholson's Cafe, where Rowling wrote much of the manuscript for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, and Edinburgh Castle, where Rowling read from the sixth book on the night of its release to an audience of children. Filming locations visited include Alnwick Castle, where some exterior locations of Hogwarts are shot, places in Fort William, Scotland; Glen Nevis, Scotland; the Glenfinnan viaduct; Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford and the Cloisters located within New College, Oxford.
Wizard music (sometimes shorthanded as Wrock) is a musical movement dating from 2000 in Massachusetts with Harry and the Potters, though it has grown internationally and has expanded to at least 750 bands. Wrock bands mostly consist of young musicians that write and perform songs about the Harry Potter universe, and these songs are often written from the point of view of a particular character in the books, usually the character who features in the band's name. If they are performing live, they may also cosplay, or dress as, that character.
In contrast to mainstream bands that have some songs incorporating literary references among a wider repertoire of music (notably Led Zeppelin to The Lord of the Rings), wizard rock bands take their inspiration entirely from the Harry Potter universe. In preserving the promotion of reading, too, bands like to perform in libraries, bookstores, and schools. The bands have also performed at the fan conventions.
We Are Wizards
We Are Wizards is a feature-length documentary by Josh Koury about the Harry Potter fandom. It features Wizard rock bands Harry and the Potters, Draco and the Malfoys, The Hungarian Horntails, and The Whomping Willows. The film also features Heather Lawver, Melissa Anelli, and Brad Neely. We Are Wizards had its World Premiere at the SXSW film festival in 2008, then traveled to 20 film festivals worldwide. The film opened theatrically in 5 cities on 14 November 2008. The film can be seen on Hulu.com, and DVD.
The Fandom Fan Diaries: Wizard's Gone W!ld
The Fandom Fan Diaries: Wizard's Gone W!ld is a documentary web series that is based on fandom submissions. The producers Miranda Marshall and Amy Henderson starting accepting video submissions in early March 2009 and plan to accept them through 2013. WiZarDs Gone W!LD is affiliated with The Fan Book of HP Fans, yet another fandom project based on submissions that has recently extended its submission deadline date.
The Wizard Rockumentary
The Wizard Rockumentary: A Movie about Rocking and Rowling is a feature documentary chronicling the rise of Harry Potter tribute bands. Producers Megan and Mallory Schuyler travelled around the United States compiling interviews and concert footage of bands including Harry and the Potters, Draco and the Malfoys, The Remus Lupins, The Whomping Willow, The Moaning Myrtles, Roonil Wazlib, Snidget, and The Hermione Crookshanks Experience. The film was released in April 2008 and has screened in libraries around the country. The producers are currently negotiating broadcast and home video rights.
Project Patronus: magic of a generation (Proyecto Patronus: la magia de una generación) is a Spanish documentary based on the Harry Potter saga. It covers the franchise's influence on a generation of young people, and deals with the multiple values, such as friendship, love, courage and respect, which are reflected in the books. Numerous professionals in psychology and pedagogy who have studied the significance of the saga appear. The film was released in 2016 and has screened in film festivals around Spain.
In 2003, Dr. Howard J. Bennett coined the term "Hogwarts headache" in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine shortly after the release of the longest book in the series, Order of the Phoenix. He described it as a mild condition, a tension headache possibly accompanied by neck or wrist pains, caused by unhealthily long reading sessions of Harry Potter. The symptoms resolved themselves within days of finishing the book. His prescription of taking reading breaks was rejected by two of the patients on which he discovered this headache.
Researchers at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford found in 2005 that the admission rate of children with traumatic injuries to the city's ERs plummeted on the publication weekends of both Order of the Phoenix and Half-Blood Prince. This was due to the volume of children reading Harry Potter rather than engaging in riskier outdoor activities, such as riding of bicycles and scooters, climbing trees or playing sports. The study was led by Dr. Stephen Gwilym whose paper "hypothesized that there is a place for a committee of safety-conscious, talented writers who could produce high quality books for the purpose of injury prevention," noting a potential problem with this strategy: "Obviously, if children are always in reading books and not outside getting exercise, there is a long-term risk of obesity, rickets and lack of sunlight."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harry Potter fandom.|
- "Harry Potter hits midnight frenzy". CNN. 15 July 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
- Rucker, Philip (21 July 2005). "The Magic Of 'Potter' Not Just For Kids". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
- Fierman, Daniel (31 August 2005). "Wild About Harry". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
When I buy the books for my grandchildren, I have them all gift wrapped but one...that's for me. And I haven't been 12 for over 50 years.
- Tucker, Ernest (22 October 1999). "No end in sight for Pottermania" (reprint). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- Simmons, Matthew (16 July 2005). "Midnight magic for Potter fans". The Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
- "Entertainment's Top Moments". Entertainment Weekly. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
- Ashley Ross (31 July 2016). "Like Magic, Muggles Make New Harry Potter Play Disappear from Bookstores". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "Wedding Magic: Amazing Harry Potter-Themed Weddings". Bridal Guide. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Weisberger, Lauren (2003). The Devil Wears Prada. New York City: Broadway Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7679-1476-5.
- "'Harry Potter' at 20: Artists Reveal Tattoos, Tears, Tour Stories Inspired by the Wizarding World". September 2018.
- Weintraub, Steve (7 August 2012). "Guillermo del Toro Talks HAUNTED MANSION and His Love of HARRY POTTER". Collider. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- King, Stephen (6 July 2007). "Harry fans, break out the tissues!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- Vineyard, Jennifer (23 September 2008). "'Harry Potter' Gets Love From Robert Pattinson, Lupe Fiasco, Keira Knightley And More Celeb Fans". MTV. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "'The Hunger Games' Jennifer Lawrence loves 'Harry Potter'". 19 November 2012.
- Kossoff, Julian (19 July 2007). "Barack Obama under the Harry Potter spell". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "Harry Potter and Killing Famous People: Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg Talk This is the End". 3 April 2013.
- "Who would you cast in Fantastic Beasts?". 25 March 2015.
- Grunier, Stephanie; John Lippman (20 December 2000). "Warner Bros. claims Harry Potter sites". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original (reprint) on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Chandler, Jo (16 July 2005). "Google-eyed over Harry". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
- Italie, Hillel (11 April 2007). "Potter sites wild about Harry". Toronto Star. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: Immeritus". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- "J. K. Rowling Official Site: Timeline". The Harry Potter Lexicon. Retrieved 2 January 2006.
- "Godricshollow.org". Archived from the original on 4 January 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: The Harry Potter Lexicon". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2006.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: MuggleNet". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: HPANA". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: The Leaky Cauldron". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 9 December 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. (26 June 2003). "JKR at Royal Albert Hall". The Leaky Cauldron. Archived from the original (QuickTime) on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: Potterish.com". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 18 January 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: Harry Potter Fan Zone.com". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "Section: Fan Sites: The HP Alliance". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- Gibbs, Nancy (31 December 2007). "J.K. Rowling". Time. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- Anelli, Melissa. "A Brief (Believe it or Not) History of the Leaky Cauldron". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- Tynion, Julie (23 December 2006). "Fan Art Contest — Design a "Deathly Hallows" Book Cover". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "Book corner: Secrets of Podcasting". Apple Inc. 8 September 2005. Archived from the original on 27 December 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- "Mugglenet.com Taps Limelight's Magic for Podcast Delivery of Harry Potter Content". PR Newswire. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- Anelli, Melissa (15 August 2006). "PotterCast Voted Best Entertainment Podcast at Podcast Awards". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- Sims, Andrew (2 October 2006). "MuggleCast wins People's Choice Award". MuggleNet. Archived from the original on 3 December 2006. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- "MuggleCast: About". MuggleCast. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- "MuggleCast EP1 Transcript". MuggleCast. 7 August 2005. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- "MuggleCast Episodes 1 - 10". MuggleCast. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- "PotterCast is the Harry Potter podcast brought to you by The Leaky Cauldron". PotterCast. 19 September 2002. Archived from the original on 2 January 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- "Harry Potter podcasts that even muggles can love". CBC Radio. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Ragsdale, Melissa. "11 Harry Potter Podcasts Every Potterhead Needs In Their Life". Bustle. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Armson, Ben. "21 Podcasts That Come Highly Recommended". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- Waters, Darren (27 May 2004). "Rowling backs Potter fan fiction". BBC. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- Hurd, Gordon (20 March 2007). "Fantastic Fiction". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- Jurgensen, John (16 September 2007). "Rewriting the Rules of Fiction". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
- "Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality Chapter 1: A Day of Very Low Probability, a harry potter fanfic". FanFiction.Net. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality". Esr.ibiblio.org. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Pyne, Erin (2010). The Ultimate Guide to the Harry Potter Fandom. What The Flux Comics Publishing Inc. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-4507-4560-4.
- "My Immortal". Cracked.com. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "On Eve of James Potter Sequel, Harry Potter fan Fiction Heats up: Unlikely Author Poised to Keep the Story Alive". PRWEB. 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Potter fans produce Potter fiction". HPANA. 18 June 2003. Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- Pauli, Michelle (5 December 2002). "Fan fiction". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- Noxon, Christopher (18 November 2001). "Pottershots: The trouble with Harry". San Francisco Chronicle. p. D3. Retrieved 14 April 2007.[permanent dead link]
- Cadwalladr, Carole (6 August 2006). "Harry Potter and the mystery of an academic obsession". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
- McLelland, Mark. The World of Yaoi: The Internet, Censorship and the Global “Boys’ Love” Fandom The Australian Feminist Law Journal, 2005.
- "Petrosexuals." Riverfront Times. 4 January 2006. p. 1. Retrieved on 19 February 2013.
- VanderArk, Steve (24 November 2006). "The Lexicon Visits The Magic Factory (part one)". The Harry Potter Lexicon. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- MuggleNet. "Emerson and Melissa's J.K. Rowling Interview Page 1". MuggleNet. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Dumbledore 'definitely' dead, says Rowling". 3 August 2006.
- Echites, Giulia (16 January 2018). "CINEMA Le origini di Voldemort in un film tutto italiano". Repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Brown, Kat (2018). "Voldemort: Origins of the Heir review: a fun-free Harry Potter fan film lifted by magical effects". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- "The side of Hermione you didn't get to see". ELLE. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "'Hermione Granger and the Quarter Life Crisis' centers a black Hermione in a post-Hogwarts world". shadowandact.com. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Anelli, Melissa (1 May 2007). "Prophecy Announces Keynote Speakers". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
- "Lumos 2006: Programming — Schedule". Lumos 2006. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "MuggleCast Episodes 234 & 235". MuggleNet. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Anelli, Melissa (5 October 2010). "LeakyCon 2011 Announces Wizard Rock Lineup". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Ascendio Wrocks!". Ascendio 2012/HPEF. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- Anelli, Melissa (2 June 2011). "Meet the Deathly Hallows Actors at Leakycon 2011". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Leakycon 2011 Programming" (PDF). pp. 2–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "The Wizarding World of Harry Potter". Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Brigante, Ricky (23 July 2010). "Night of a Thousand Wizards draws biggest Harry Potter fans to Universal Orlando's Wizarding World at Infinitus 2010". Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Leakycon 2011 Programming" (PDF). The-Leaky-Cauldron.org. 2011. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- Roseboom, Matt. "Wizarding World of Harry Potter Will be 'Open at the Close' for a Special Fan Event". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Night of A Thousand Wizards 2". Ascendio 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Chestertown Harry Potter Festival". Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Chestnut HIll Harry Potter Festival". Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Edgerton's Harry Potter Festival". Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Spellbound Festival". Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Cummings, Sinead (10 September 2018). "What we know so far about the renamed Harry Potter Festival in Chestnut Hill". PhillyVoice. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- Trinacria, Joe (7 June 2018). "Facing Legal Pressure, Chestnut Hill Makes Harry Potter Disappear". Philadelphia Magazine. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- "1999: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. 20 October 1999. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Chonin, Neva (24 June 2011). "If you're an obsessed Harry Potter fan, Voldemort isn't the problem. It's Hermione versus Ginny". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "2005: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. 16 July 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "THE INTERVIEW! Part two". MuggleNet. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "Meeting Melissa and Emerson". J. K. Rowling. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "2006: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. 1 August 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- West, Kelly. "What J.K. Rowling Actually Said About Hermione's Relationships With Ron And Harry", Cinema Blend, 7 February 2014. Retrieved on 2 October 2014.
- Rowling, J. K. "Luna and Neville will hook up in HP&THBP". J. K. Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- Brown, Jen (25 July 2007). "Finished Potter? Rowling tells what happened next". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 1 August 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. (2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (in English). London: Bloomsbury/New York City: Scholastic, et al. UK ISBN 0-7475-9105-9/US ISBN 0-545-01022-5, chapter 8.
- Rowling, J. K. (2005). Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (in English). London: Bloomsbury/New York City: Scholastic, et al. UK ISBN 0-7475-8108-8/US ISBN 0-439-78454-9, chapter 29.
- Rowling, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, chapter 1.
- "Water Quidditch". Lumos 2006. Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
- "Spellbound!". MuggleNet. 6 June 2005. Archived from the original on 6 September 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2006.
- "The International Quidditch Association". IQA. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- "Introduction". The World of Hogwarts. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Chamber of Chat Harry Potter Interactive 3D World". Chamberofchat.com. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "massive multiplayer game server for Flash, Unity 3D, iPhone/iPad and Android games, MMO, virtual worlds and communities". SmartFoxServer. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "25 Essential Fansites". Entertainment Weekly.
- "About HP Fan Trips". HP Fan Trips. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
- Sachs, Andrea (31 December 2006). "On Holiday With Harry Potter". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
- Hobica, George; Kim Liang Tan (18 March 2007). "Firm conjures up a host of Harry Potter-theme tours". Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL). p. 2.
- "HP Fan Trips 2007 Exclusive Train Ride". HP Fan Trips. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
- "2007 MuggleNet, Magical Tours, and Alivan's CONTEST RULES". Magical Tours. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
- McAloon, Catherine (15 July 2005). "Lucky fans hear J.K. Rowling read at Edinburgh castle". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
- "Harry Potter video". BBC. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
- Loftus, Meghan (20 July 2007). "Wizard Rock". The Post-Standard. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
- Davies, Shaun (20 July 2007). "The unexpected wizards of rock and roll". MSN. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
- Wizrocklopedia band listings Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Brady, Shaun (28 November 2006). "Yule Ball rolls into Philly Show spotlights Harry Potter-themed rock". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- Humphries, Rachel (13 July 2007). "Harry Potter 'Wrockers' Conjure Musical Magic". ABC News. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
- Sweeney, Emily (16 September 2004). "Sibling musicians bring out the 'punk' in Harry Potter". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 26 January 2007.
- Gleason, Janelle (4 January 2007). "Four reasons you should raid your parents' music collection". Fort Wayne News Sentinel. Archived from the original on 30 March 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2007.
- "Harry and the Potters: The Band". Harry and the Potters. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- Traister, Rebecca (1 June 2007). "Potterpalooza". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
- We Are Wizards - The Movie Archived 25 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Fan Book of HP Fans *A Fan Project*". Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- http://www.wizardsgonewild.webs.com Archived 16 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "About Us". Wizardrockumentary.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Proyecto Patronus". Elmundo.com. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Definition of Hogwarts headache".
- "Potter book five: on sale on 21 June". BBC Newsround. 15 January 2003. Retrieved 16 April 2007.
- Memmott, Carol (13 July 2005). "Rumors run wild about 'Harry'". USA Today. Retrieved 16 April 2007.
- Bennett, Howard J. (30 October 2003). "Hogwarts Headaches — Misery for Muggles". New England Journal of Medicine. 349 (18): 1779. doi:10.1056/NEJM200310303491821. PMID 14585953.
- Bennett, Howard J. (2003). "Hogwarts Headaches — Misery for Muggles". New England Journal of Medicine. 349 (18): 1779. doi:10.1056/NEJM200310303491821. PMID 14585953.
- Nagourney, Eric (3 January 2006). "Safety: With Harry Potter, Injuries Dip Like Magic". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2007.
- "Harry Potter Books Keep Kids Safe". 23 December 2005.
Waters, G. Mithrandir, A. (2003). Ultimate Unofficial Guide to the Mysteries of Harry Potter (analysis of Books 1-4). Niles, IL: Wizarding World Press.