Hartlepool (UK Parliament constituency)

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Hartlepool
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Hartlepool in the former Cleveland
Outline map
Location of the former Cleveland within England
CountyCounty Durham
Electorate70,032 (2018)[1]
Major settlementsHartlepool, Seaton Carew
Current constituency
Created1974 (1974)
Member of ParliamentVacant
Number of membersOne
Created fromThe Hartlepools

Hartlepool /ˈhɑːrtlɪpʊl/ is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament[a] which was represented by Mike Hill of the Labour Party since the 2017 general election, until his resignation on 16 March 2021, triggering a by-election.[2] The constituency covers the town of Hartlepool plus nearby settlements.

Labour has won every election since the seat was first contested at the February 1974 election (and mostly won the similar constituency of The Hartlepools from the 1945 election).

Boundaries[edit]

1974–1983: The County Borough of Hartlepool.

1983–present: The Borough of Hartlepool. As a result of major local government boundary changes in 1974, part of the pre-1983 Easington constituency was added to the seat.

The seat is currently coterminous with the borough of Hartlepool, which has close to the average population for a UK parliamentary constituency. The seat includes the town of Hartlepool itself and the nearby villages of Hart, Elwick, Greatham, Newton Bewley and Dalton Piercy. Before 1974 the seat was known as The Hartlepools (reflecting the representation of both old Hartlepool and West Hartlepool).

History[edit]

The constituency had previously substantially been in the constituency of The Hartlepools. It became the constituency of Hartlepool in 1974.

Hartlepool has been a Labour constituency since its creation, although its predecessor did have Conservative MPs both in the early 1960s and during the Second World War. At the 1992 general election, Edward Leadbitter stood down and was succeeded by the former Labour Director of Communications Peter Mandelson. Mandelson's pivotal role in the reshaping of the Labour Party into New Labour attracted much attention, and he became a prominent target.

During the first term of the Labour government led by Tony Blair, Mandelson was twice appointed to the Cabinet and twice forced to resign amid minor but controversial scandals. At the 2001 general election there was a notable contest when Arthur Scargill, former leader of the National Union of Mineworkers and the leader of the Socialist Labour Party, stood for election in the hope of exploiting uneasiness about New Labour in "traditional" Labour heartlands. In the event, Mandelson retained his seat, while Scargill polled only 912 votes. Mandelson shocked many with a triumphalist victory speech in which he declared "They underestimated Hartlepool, and they underestimated me, because I am a fighter and not a quitter!"[1].

The following year, the town's first direct Mayoral election generated surprise when the mascot of Hartlepool United F.C., H'Angus the Monkey (real name Stuart Drummond) was elected on a platform that included free bananas for schoolchildren.

Mandelson resigned as MP for Hartlepool when he was appointed as a European Commissioner in the summer of 2004. This triggered a by-election that took place on 30 September. The Hartlepool by-election – the last held prior to the 2005 general election – saw Iain Wright retain the seat for Labour with a majority of 2,033 votes. That by-election marked the first time that the United Kingdom Independence Party had ever finished in third place at a by-election.

The Labour Party has continued to hold the seat since the by-election, with a dwindling majority and falling share of the vote, and at the three most recent general elections, three different parties have finished in second place: the Liberal Democrats in 2005 (following their strong performance at the by-election the previous year), the Conservative Party in 2010, and UKIP, going one better than its by-election showing, in 2015.

In May 2010, the Conservatives gained their largest percentage vote increase in the country in Hartlepool, reducing the Labour majority to just over 5,500, whilst in 2015, UKIP recorded their eleventh-highest vote share in the United Kingdom, taking 28% and reducing the Labour majority to just over 3,000 votes.

2010 general election[edit]

Both the 2010 and 2015 general elections (in addition to several local elections) took place against the backdrop of concerns regarding the potential closure of Hartlepool and Stockton hospitals and their replacement with a new "super hospital" in out of town Wynyard. This precipitated the closure of several departments, and the removal of services from Hartlepool. The move was initially supported by Hartlepool MP Iain Wright, and opposed by Stockton South candidate James Wharton at the 2010 general election. A substantial protest group was formed opposing Wynyard, and calling on services to remain at Hartlepool,[3] backed by a campaign by the Hartlepool Mail, a local newspaper.

Following the recession of 2008, the incoming coalition government announced it would scrap the Wynyard proposals, although no guarantees were made regarding the future of Hartlepool hospital.[4] This issue continued to dominate politics in Hartlepool at both general elections and local council elections, which dented support for Iain Wright and Labour, who had backed the Wynyard plans, whilst many independent candidates gained traction.

At the 2010 general election, the Conservative Party approached Alan Wright, a regional broadcaster for the BBC and columnist for the Hartlepool Mail, to stand as its candidate,[5] despite his lack of political and campaigning experience, hoping that his high profile would help. It was also noted that the similarity of his name to that of the town's MP, and the fact he would feature above him on the ballot paper, might result in additional votes.[6] The Conservative Party gained a swing of 16.7%, the largest in the country, taking second place from the Liberal Democrats, and garnering it a vote share far exceeding their traditional local support.

2015 general election[edit]

Sitting MP Iain Wright was the only candidate from 2010 to remain on the much-extended ballot paper in 2015, in which the three main parties faced competition from UKIP, the Green Party, and three independent candidates, each standing primarily on healthcare-related platforms.

Popular local taxi driver and charity fundraiser Stephen Picton put himself forward as the voice of the hospital campaigners,[7] although this was challenged by the last-minute candidacy of Sandra Allison, who stood under the banner of 'Your Vote Could Save Our Hospital'.[8] John Hobbs, an 80 year old autism campaigner stood under the tagline 'Tell it like it is'.[9]

UKIP earmarked Hartlepool as a potential gain, and the seat became one of its top ten national targets as well as its main target in the north-east, attracting significant party funding, visits from leader Nigel Farage, and the regional party conference.[10] It selected Philip Broughton, a former Stockton Conservative Councillor and wrestling entrepreneur, as its candidate.[11] The Conservative Party selected public affairs consultant and competitive swimmer, Richard Royal, as its candidate.[12]

The Conservative Party's national '40/40 strategy' meant that much of its regional resources were directed towards the marginal seats of Stockton South and Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland, forcing candidates to campaign outside of their selected seats.[13] The Green Party selected local member Michael Holt, who had been arrested the previous year for obstructing a police officer at a protest in London, although charges were subsequently dropped.[14] Just days before the nomination deadline, the Liberal Democrats selected Darlington-based Hilary Allen as its candidate.[15]

On Valentines Day in 2015, a 'We Love Our Hospital' rally was organised by Save Our Hospital and the Teesside Peoples' Assembly Against Austerity, attracting large crowds in Hartlepool town centre. Candidates Iain Wright, Richard Royal, Philip Broughton, Stephen Picton and Michael Holt each gave speeches alongside other selected speakers. It was reported that Wright was booed and heckled by the crowd.[16][17]

One day prior to the general election, local football club Hartlepool United F.C. took the unprecedented step of openly criticising Wright, and seemingly encouraging fans to support either Royal or Broughton, both of whom had met the club's leadership and shown support for its interests.[18] The club had been under pressure, facing relegation and had an ongoing land dispute with the Labour council.

Throughout the campaign, both Phillip Broughton and Richard Royal sought to portray themselves as the only viable alternative to Iain Wright, with Broughton distributing leaflets claiming that the Hartlepool election was a 'two horse race',[19] and Royal referring to the close 2010 result, with his slogan "Wright for your town? Wrong for your future. Turn Hartlepool Royal Blue".[20] As a result, much of the anti Labour vote was split, with UKIP and the Conservatives gaining a combined 48.9% compared to Iain Wright's 35.6%, but neither taking enough votes individually to defeat Labour. At one point during election night itself, the vote looked so close that a recount was reported to be due,[21] but this proved to be unnecessary after the inclusion of postal votes.

2017 general election[edit]

Following the 2015 general election result, Hartlepool became the 35th most vulnerable Labour seat in the country.[22] At the EU Referendum in 2016 Hartlepool voted to 'Leave' by 69.5%, making it one of the highest Leave-voting Labour-held seats in the UK.[23] Despite this intense Euroscepticism in the area making it perceived as a vulnerable seat for Labour, at the 2017 general election Labour's new candidate Mike Hill retained the seat, with UKIP's vote falling by 17 points and Labour's rising by 17 points. This gave Labour their biggest total vote and popular vote majority in Hartlepool since 2001.

Following an allegation of sexual assault made against him in September 2019, Hill sat as an Independent. However, three weeks later, the allegation was withdrawn, and he had the Labour whip restored.[24]

2021 by-election[edit]

On 16 March 2021 it was reported that Mike Hill intends to resign as the MP for Hartlepool, meaning that a by-election will be triggered.[2]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Election Member[25] Party
Feb 1974 Ted Leadbitter Labour
1992 Peter Mandelson Labour
2004 by-election Iain Wright Labour
2017 Mike Hill Labour
2019 Independent
Labour

Elections[edit]

Hartlepool vote share graph.png

Elections in the 2020s[edit]

A by-election is due on 6 May 2021.

By-election 2021: Hartlepool[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDP David Bettney
Monster Raving Loony The Incredible Flying Brick
North East Hilton Dawson
Women's Equality Gemma Evans
Green Rachel Featherstone
Independent Adam Gaines
Liberal Democrats Andrew Hagon
Freedom Alliance Steve Jack
No description Chris Killick
Independent Sam Lee
Heritage Claire Martin
Conservative Jill Mortimer
Reform UK John Prescott[b]
Independent Thelma Walker
Independent W. Ralph Ward-Jackson
Labour Paul Williams
Majority
Turnout

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

2019 general election: Hartlepool[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mike Hill 15,464 37.7 Decrease 14.8
Conservative Stefan Houghton 11,869 28.9 Decrease 5.3
Brexit Party Richard Tice 10,603 25.8 New
Liberal Democrats Andy Hagon 1,696 4.1 Increase 2.3
Independent Joe Bousfield 911 2.2 New
Socialist Labour Kevin Cranney 494 1.2 New
Majority 3,595 8.8 Decrease 9.5
Turnout 41,037 57.9 Decrease 1.3
Labour hold Swing Decrease 4.8
2017 general election: Hartlepool[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mike Hill 21,969 52.5 Increase 16.9
Conservative Carl Jackson 14,319 34.2 Increase 13.3
UKIP Phillip Broughton 4,801 11.5 Decrease 16.5
Liberal Democrats Andy Hagon 746 1.8 Decrease 0.1
Majority 7,650 18.3 Increase 10.6
Turnout 41,835 59.2 Increase 2.4
Labour hold Swing Increase 1.8
2015 general election: Hartlepool[29][30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Iain Wright 14,076 35.6 Decrease 6.9
UKIP Phillip Broughton 11,052 28.0 Increase 21.0
Conservative Richard Royal 8,256 20.9 Decrease 7.2
Independent Stephen Picton 2,954 7.5 New
Green Michael Holt 1,341 3.4 New
Save Hartlepool Hospital Sandra Allison 849 2.0 New
Liberal Democrats Hilary Allen 761 1.9 Decrease 15.2
Independent John Hobbs 201 0.5 New
Majority 3,024 7.7 Decrease 6.7
Turnout 39,490 56.8 Increase 1.3
Labour hold Swing Decrease 14.0
2010 general election: Hartlepool[31][32][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Iain Wright 16,267 42.5 Decrease 9.0
Conservative Alan Wright 10,758 28.1 Increase 16.6
Liberal Democrats Reg Clark 6,533 17.1 Decrease 13.3
UKIP Stephen Allison 2,682 7.0 Increase 3.5
BNP Ronnie Bage 2,002 5.2 New
Majority 5,509 14.4 Decrease 6.7
Turnout 38,242 55.5 Increase 4.0
Labour hold Swing Decrease 12.9

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

2005 general election: Hartlepool[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Iain Wright 18,251 51.5 Decrease 7.6
Liberal Democrats Jody Dunn 10,773 30.4 Increase 15.4
Conservative Amanda Vigar 4,058 11.5 Decrease 9.4
UKIP George Springer 1,256 3.5 Decrease 6.7
Socialist Labour Frank Harrison 373 1.1 Decrease 1.3
Green Iris Ryder 288 0.8 Steady 0.0
Independent John Hobbs 275 0.8 New
Monster Raving Loony Jedediah Caleb Bartimaeus Headbanger 162 0.5 Increase 0.2
Majority 7,478 21.1 Decrease 17.1
Turnout 35,436 51.5 Decrease 4.3
Labour hold Swing Decrease 11.5
By-election 2004: Hartlepool
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Iain Wright 12,752 40.7 Decrease 18.4
Liberal Democrats Jody Dunn 10,719 34.2 Increase 19.2
UKIP Stephen Allison 3,193 10.2 New
Conservative Jeremy Middleton 3,044 9.7 Decrease 11.2
Respect John Bloom 572 1.8 New
Green Iris Ryder 255 0.8 New
National Front Jim Starkey 246 0.8 New
Fathers 4 Justice Peter Watson 139 0.4 New
Socialist Labour Christopher Herriot 95 0.3 Decrease 2.1
Common Good Dick Rodgers 91 0.3 New
Independent Philip Berriman 90 0.3 New
Monster Raving Loony Alan Hope 80 0.3 New
Independent Rainbow Ronnie Carroll 45 0.1 New
English Democrat Ed Abrams 41 0.1 New
Majority 2,033 6.5 Decrease 31.7
Turnout 31,362 45.8 Decrease 10.0
Labour hold Swing Decrease 11.5
2001 general election: Hartlepool[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Peter Mandelson 22,506 59.1 Decrease 1.6
Conservative Augustine Robinson 7,935 20.9 Decrease 0.4
Liberal Democrats Nigel Boddy 5,717 15.0 Increase 0.9
Socialist Labour Arthur Scargill 912 2.4 New
Independent Ian Cameron 557 1.5 New
Independent John Booth 424 1.1 New
Majority 14,571 38.2 Decrease 1.2
Turnout 38,051 55.8 Decrease 9.8
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

1997 general election: Hartlepool[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Peter Mandelson 26,997 60.7 Increase 8.8
Conservative Michael Horsley 9,489 21.3 Decrease 13.6
Liberal Democrats Reginald Clark 6,248 14.1 Increase 0.8
Referendum Maureen Henderson 1,718 3.9 New
Majority 17,508 39.4 Increase 22.4
Turnout 44,452 65.6 Decrease 10.5
Labour hold Swing Increase 11.2
1992 general election: Hartlepool[37][38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Peter Mandelson 26,816 51.9 Increase 3.4
Conservative Graham M. Robb 18,034 34.9 Increase 1.0
Liberal Democrats Ian Cameron 6,860 13.3 Decrease 0.8
Majority 8,782 17.0 Increase 2.4
Turnout 51,710 76.1 Increase 3.1
Labour hold Swing Increase 1.2

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

1987 general election: Hartlepool[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Edward Leadbitter 24,296 48.5 Increase 3.0
Conservative Peter Catchpole 17,007 33.9 Decrease 5.3
Liberal Arthur Preece 7,047 14.1 Decrease 1.3
Independent Ian Cameron 1,786 3.6 New
Majority 7,289 14.6 Increase 8.3
Turnout 50,136 73.0 Increase 3.2
Labour hold Swing
1983 general election: Hartlepool[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Edward Leadbitter 22,048 45.5 Decrease 9.9
Conservative F. Rogers 18,958 39.2 Increase 1.3
SDP N. Bertram 7,422 15.3 Increase 8.6
Majority 3,090 6.3 Decrease 10.4
Turnout 48,434 69.8 Decrease 4.9
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

1979 general election: Hartlepool
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Edward Leadbitter 27,039 55.1 Increase 3.4
Conservative K. Miller 18,887 38.4 Increase 3.4
Liberal Christopher M. Abbott 3,193 6.5 Decrease 6.9
Majority 8,162 16.7 Steady 0.0
Turnout 49,109 74.7 Increase 2.3
Labour hold Swing
October 1974 general election: Hartlepool
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Edward Leadbitter 24,440 51.7 Decrease 2.6
Conservative Nicholas Freeman 16,546 35.0 Decrease 10.7
Liberal L Tostevin 6,314 13.4 New
Majority 7,894 16.7 Increase 8.1
Turnout 47300 72.4 Decrease 4.5
Labour hold Swing
February 1974 general election: Hartlepool
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Edward Leadbitter 26,988 54.3
Conservative Nicholas Freeman 22,700 45.7
Majority 4,288 8.6
Turnout 49,688 76.9
Labour win (new seat)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ As with all constituencies, Hartlepool elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  2. ^ Not the Labour politician with the same name.
References

Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918–1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.

  1. ^ "England Parliamentary electorates 2010-2018". Boundary Commission for England. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b "MP for Hartlepool resigns with immediate effect meaning by-election will be held". Northern Echo. 16 March 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "£464m HOSPITAL AXED: Healthcare blow for region". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  5. ^ "Conservatives choose Alan Wright to take on Iain Wright for MP". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  6. ^ "ConservativeHome's Seats & Candidates blog: Hartlepool Conservatives select Alan Wright to take on Labour MP Iain Wright". conservativehome.blogs.com.
  7. ^ "Hartlepool taxi driver hopes to become town's MP". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  8. ^ "Gran launches bid to become MP over Hartlepool A&E closure". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  9. ^ "Meet the 80-year-old granddad running to become Hartlepool's MP". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  10. ^ "UKIP North East Conference 2015 announced".
  11. ^ "VIDEO: UKIP's Hartlepool candidate pokes fun at 'commoners' as bizarre wrestling character". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  12. ^ "Royal to stand as Tory candidate in Hartlepool". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  13. ^ "Non-target candidates are instructed to leave their seats and campaign in the 40/40 – even on polling day - Conservative Home".
  14. ^ "Protest charges dropped against Hartlepool Green Party candidate". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  15. ^ "Lib Dem candidate hopes to be Hartlepool's MP". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  16. ^ "MP faces boos from crowd at Save Our Hospital demonstration". The Northern Echo.
  17. ^ Michelle Winship (14 February 2015). "Iain Wright - Save Our Hospital Valentines Day Rally" – via YouTube.
  18. ^ "Hartlepool United slam Labour candidate on eve of general election".
  19. ^ "UKIP targets North-East town". The Northern Echo.
  20. ^ "Richard Royal, Conservative Parliamentary Candidate for Hartlepool". Richard Royal, Conservative Parliamentary Candidate for Hartlepool.
  21. ^ Wearmouth, Rachel (8 May 2015). "General Election 2015: UKIP set to request recount in Hartlepool amid purple surge".
  22. ^ "UK Polling Report". ukpollingreport.co.uk.
  23. ^ "Hartlepool votes with massive 70% support for Leave in EU Referendum". www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk.
  24. ^ Independent
  25. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 1)
  26. ^ https://www.hartlepool.gov.uk/downloads/file/6825/notice_of_poll_statement_of_persons_nominated_and_situation_of_polling_stations
  27. ^ "Hartlepool Parliamentary constituency". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  28. ^ "General Election 2017: Hartlepool". ITV News. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  29. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  30. ^ "Hartlepool". BBC News. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  31. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  32. ^ http://www.hartlepool.gov.uk/download/5989/parliamentary_notice_of_poll[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ "UK > England > North East > Hartlepool". Election 2010. BBC. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  34. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  35. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  36. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  38. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  39. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  40. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.

Coordinates: 54°39′N 1°16′W / 54.650°N 1.267°W / 54.650; -1.267