Harvest (Neil Young album)
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|Studio album by|
|Released||February 1, 1972|
|Neil Young chronology|
Harvest is the fourth studio album by Canadian musician Neil Young, released on February 1, 1972, on Reprise Records, catalogue MS 2032. It featured the London Symphony Orchestra on two tracks and vocals by noted guests David Crosby, Graham Nash, Linda Ronstadt, Stephen Stills, and James Taylor. It topped the Billboard 200 album chart for two weeks, and spawned two hit singles, "Old Man", which peaked at #31 on the Billboard Hot 100, and "Heart of Gold", which reached #1. It was the best-selling album of 1972 in the United States.
After the members of Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young went their separate ways in 1970, Young recruited a group of country session musicians (which he christened The Stray Gators) and recorded a country rock record, Harvest. The record was a massive hit, producing a US number one single in "Heart of Gold". Other songs returned to some usual Young themes: "Alabama" was "an unblushing rehash of 'Southern Man'"; and "The Needle and the Damage Done" was a lament for great artists who had died of heroin addiction. The former song was also at least partially responsible (along with the aforementioned "Southern Man") for the creation of Lynyrd Skynyrd's 1973 hit "Sweet Home Alabama" which mentions Neil by name. Young later wrote of "Alabama" in his autobiography Waging Heavy Peace, saying it "richly deserved the shot Lynyrd Skynyrd gave me with their great record. I don't like my words when I listen to it. They are accusatory and condescending, not fully thought out, and too easy to misconstrue." "Words (Between the Lines of Age)", the last song on the album, featured a lengthy guitar workout with the band. It has a typical Neil Young structure consisting of four chords during the multiple improvised solos. The song is also notable for alternating between a standard 4/4 time signature for verses and choruses and an unusual 11/8 (6/8+5/8) for interludes.
The album's success caught Young off guard and his first instinct was to back away from stardom. He would later write that the record "put me in the middle of the road. Traveling there soon became a bore so I headed for the ditch. A rougher ride but I saw more interesting people there."
"The Needle and the Damage Done" was taken from a live solo performance at UCLA on 30 January 1971.
The recording of the remainder of Harvest was notable for the spontaneous and serendipitous way it came together. The story is told in an article in Acoustic Guitar Magazine, which includes interviews with the producer, Elliot Mazer, among others.
Young arrived in Nashville in early February 1971 to perform on a broadcast of Johnny Cash Show where Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor would also appear. Mazer had opened Quadrafonic Sound Studios in Nashville, and invited Young to dinner (or breakfast according to another Mazer interview) on Saturday, 6 February, to convince him to record his next project at the studio. Young admired the work of the local studio musicians known as Area Code 615 who had recorded there and was interested. Young had a batch of new songs that he had been performing on the road, as seen by the repertoire on Live at Massey Hall 1971, and told Mazer that all he needed was a bassist, drummer, and pedal steel guitarist. Young made the decision to start recording that evening.
Since many of the Area Code 615 musicians were typically working on a Saturday night in Nashville, Mazer scrambled to find drummer Kenny Buttrey, bassist Tim Drummond (who was just walking down the street), and steel-guitarist Ben Keith. That night, they laid down the basic tracks for "Old Man", "Bad Fog of Loneliness", and "Dance Dance Dance". This version of "Bad Fog" was unreleased until its appearance on The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972. "Dance Dance Dance" was also left off the album but had already appeared on the debut Crazy Horse album.
According to liner notes in Archives Volume 1, "Heart of Gold" was not recorded until Monday, 8 February. However, other sources reported that after taping the Johnny Cash Show on the evening of Sunday 7 February, Young invited Ronstadt and Taylor to come back to the studio with him. The three sat on a couch and recorded the background vocals for "Heart of Gold" and "Old Man." Taylor overdubbed a part for the latter song on Young's banjo guitar (a six-string banjo tuned like a guitar).
"A Man Needs a Maid" and "There's a World" were recorded by Jack Nitzsche with the London Symphony Orchestra in early March at Barking Assembly Hall (credited as Barking Town Hall on the album notes and now the Broadway theatre,) in the wake of Young's appearance on the BBC and concert at the Royal Festival Hall in London.
"Out on the Weekend", "Harvest" and "Journey Through the Past", along with overdubs by the session musicians James McMahon (piano on "Old Man"), John Harris (piano on "Harvest"), and Teddy Irwin (second acoustic guitar on "Heart of Gold"), were recorded in another session at Quadrafonic in April.
The electric-based songs were recorded in a barn at Young's ranch in California in September. Using a remote recording system, Mazer set up PA speakers in the barn for monitors rather than have the players wear headphones. This resulted in a lot of "leakage" as each microphone picked up sound from other instruments, but Young and Mazer liked the resulting sound. "Are You Ready for the Country", "Alabama", and "Words" were recorded in these sessions with Buttrey, Drummond, Keith, along with Nitzsche on piano and lap steel. Young named this band, which would accompany him on his tour in the winter of 1973, The Stray Gators.
Background vocals by Crosby, Stills & Nash were later recorded by Mazer in New York.
Mixing was done both at Quadrafonic and at Young's house. During playback at the ranch, Mazer ran the left channel into the PA speakers still in the barn and the right channel into speakers in the house. Young sat outside with Crosby and Nash sitting beside him listening to the mix (or Nash and Young were sitting in a rowboat on the lake—see notes). When asked about the stereo balance, he called out, "More barn."
According to a Rolling Stone interview, Young had wanted the album sleeve to biodegrade after the shrink-wrap was broken, but was overruled by the record company on the basis of expense and the possible product loss due to shipping accidents. Mo Ostin mentioned this request at the 22nd annual ASCAP pop music awards.
|Christgau's Record Guide||B+|
Assessments by critics were not overwhelmingly favorable at the time. Rolling Stone's John Mendelsohn called the album a disappointing retread of earlier, superior efforts by Young, writing of "the discomfortingly unmistakable resemblance of nearly every song on this album to an earlier Young composition – it's as if he just added a steel guitar and new words to After The Gold Rush." A review in The Montreal Gazette gave the album a mixed verdict, calling it "embarrassing" in places but interesting lyrically, and singling out "Are You Ready for the Country?" as the record's best cut.
More recent evaluations of the album have been far more positive: in 1998, Q magazine readers voted Harvest the 64th greatest album of all time. In 1996, 2000 and 2005, Chart polled readers to determine the 50 greatest Canadian albums of all time – Harvest placed second in all three polls, losing the top spot to Joni Mitchell's Blue in 2000, and to Sloan's Twice Removed in the other two years. In 2003, a full three decades removed from its original harsh assessment, Rolling Stone named Harvest the 78th greatest album of all time. In 2007, Harvest was named the #1 Canadian Album of All Time by Bob Mersereau in his book The Top 100 Canadian Albums. The album was featured in TeamRock's list of "The 10 Essential Country Rock Albums".
On October 15, 2002, Harvest was digitally remixed and remastered for the DVD-Audio format. The new 5.1 mix was the subject of minor controversy due to its unconventional panning, with the vocals in the centre of the room and the drums in the rear speakers. Harvest was remastered and released on HDCD-encoded CD and digital download on July 14, 2009, as part of the Neil Young Archives Original Release Series. A 180-gram remastered vinyl edition was released on December 1, 2009, along with remastered vinyl editions of Young's first four albums. It is also available separately.
All tracks written by Neil Young.
|1.||"Out on the Weekend"||4:35|
|3.||"A Man Needs a Maid"||4:05|
|4.||"Heart of Gold"||3:07|
|5.||"Are You Ready for the Country?"||3:33|
|2.||"There's a World"||2:59|
|4.||"The Needle and the Damage Done" (recorded in concert January 30, 1971)||2:03|
|5.||"Words (Between the Lines of Age)"||6:40|
- Neil Young – lead vocals, electric and acoustic guitars, piano, harmonica
- Ben Keith – pedal steel guitar
- Jack Nitzsche – piano, lap steel guitar, arrangements, orchestration on "A Man Needs A Maid" and "There's A World"
- Tim Drummond – bass
- Kenny Buttrey – drums
- Teddy Irwin – second acoustic guitar on "Heart of Gold"
- John Harris – piano on "Harvest"
- James McMahon – piano on "Old Man"
- James Taylor – banjo guitar, backing vocals on "Heart of Gold" and "Old Man"
- Linda Ronstadt – backing vocals on "Heart of Gold" and "Old Man"
- David Crosby – backing vocals on "Are You Ready for the Country?" and "Alabama"
- Stephen Stills – backing vocals on "Alabama" and "Words"
- Graham Nash – backing vocals on "Are You Ready for the Country?" and "Words"
- London Symphony Orchestra – orchestra on "A Man Needs A Maid" and "There's A World"
- Neil Young, Elliot Mazer – producers
- Henry Lewy – producer on "Needle and the Damage Done"
- Jack Nitzsche – producer on "There's a World" and "A Man Needs a Maid"
Charts and certifications
|Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart|
|UK Albums Chart|
|France (SNEP)||Diamond||1,356,800 *|
|Germany (BVMI)||3× Gold||750,000^|
|Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)||Platinum||50,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||3× Platinum||900,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||4× Platinum||4,000,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- List of best-selling albums in France
- List of number-one albums of 1972 (Australia)
- List of number-one albums of 1972 (U.S.)
- List of UK Albums Chart number ones of the 1970s
- "Neil Young Discography". Neilyoung.com.
- Harvest – Neil Young > Charts & Awards > Billboard Album at AllMusic. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- Neil Young > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles at AllMusic. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "Year End Charts – Year-end Albums – The Billboard 200". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- So characterized by Jim Miller in Rolling Stone; quoted in Inglis, Sam (2003), Harvest, pp. 93-94. The Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1495-8.
- Young, Neil (2012). "Chapter Fifty-seven". Waging Heavy Peace: A Hippie Dream. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 417. ISBN 978-0-14-218031-0.
- Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, p. 308. Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7677-6.
- Simons, David (July 2001). "Recording Harvest: The Making of Neil Young's Classic 1972 Album". Acoustic Guitar Magazine (103): 34–41.
- Elliot Mazer, Neil Young's Heart of Gold Archived 2004-11-22 at the Wayback Machine.. In Mix, 2001-05-01, webpage found 2007-11-29.
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- Randy Lewis (May 18, 2005). "Comes a time for a tux". LA Times.
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- Christgau, Robert. "Neil Young > Consumer Guide Reviews". Robert Christgau. Retrieved 9 March 2006.
- Richardson, Mark (December 11, 2009). "Neil Young: Neil Young / Everybody Knows This is Nowhere / After the Gold Rush / Harvest > Album Reissue Reviews". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 11 December 2009.
- Mendelsohn, John (March 30, 1972). "Neil Young Harvest > Album Review". Rolling Stone (105). Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2004.
- Mann, Bill (March 11, 1972). "A Big Month for Home Brews". Montreal Gazette. Gazette Printing Company Ltd.: 50.
- Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) . "78 | Harvest – Neil Young". Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
- Ewing, Jerry (September 5, 2016). "The 10 Essential Country Rock Albums". TeamRock. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- "Because Sound Matters, Retrieved September 15, 2010 (dead link)". becausesoundmatters.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2009.
- "Neil Young – Harvest". Discogs. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
- "Number 1 Albums – 1970s". The Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- "French album certifications – Neil Young – Harvest" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
- Daniel Lesueur; Dominic Durand. "InfoDisc : Les Meilleurs Ventes d'Albums "Tout Temps" (33 T. / Cd / Téléchargement)". Infodisc.fr. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Neil Young; 'Harvest')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Italian album certifications – Neil Young – Harvest" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana.
- "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Neil Young; 'Harvest')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "British album certifications – Neil Young – Harvest". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Harvest in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Neil Young – Harvest". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 1 October 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.