Harwich (UK Parliament constituency)
|Former County constituency|
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Harwich in Essex in 2005.
Location of Essex within England.
|Number of members||one (two before 1868)|
|Replaced by||Clacton, Harwich and North Essex|
|European Parliament constituency||East of England|
Harwich was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Until its abolition for the 2010 general election it elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.
- 1 History
- 2 Boundaries and boundary changes
- 3 Members of Parliament
- 4 Elections
- 4.1 Elections in the 1840s
- 4.2 Elections in the 1850s
- 4.3 Elections in the 1860s
- 4.4 Elections in the 1870s
- 4.5 Elections in the 1880s
- 4.6 Elections in the 1890s
- 4.7 Elections in the 1900s
- 4.8 Elections in the 1910s
- 4.9 Elections in the 1920s
- 4.10 Elections in the 1930s
- 4.11 Elections in the 1940s
- 4.12 Elections in the 1950s
- 4.13 Elections in the 1960s
- 4.14 Elections in the 1970s
- 4.15 Elections in the 1980s
- 4.16 Elections in the 1990s
- 4.17 Elections in the 2000s
- 5 See also
- 6 References
The Parliamentary Borough of Harwich had sent two members to Parliament since it was founded in 1604. Under the Reform Act of 1867 its representation was reduced to one, and in 1885 the Parliamentary Borough was abolished and replaced with a Division of the County of Essex (later a County Constituency) under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.
The constituency was abolished for the 2010 general election by the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, being succeeded by the new constituency of Clacton and part of the new constituency of Harwich and North Essex.
Boundaries and boundary changes
1885–1918: The Municipal Borough of Harwich, and parts of the Sessional Divisions of Lexden and Winstree. Non-resident freeholders of the Parliamentary Borough of Colchester, which constituted the Municipal Borough thereof, were also entitled to vote.
Formally known as the North Eastern or Harwich Division of Essex, incorporating the abolished Parliamentary Borough of Harwich and extending southwards and westwards to include the towns of Clacton and Brightlingsea and the rural areas surrounding Colchester.
1918–1950: The Municipal Borough of Harwich, the Urban Districts of Brightlingsea, Clacton, Frinton-on-Sea, Walton-on-the-Naze, and Wivenhoe, and the Rural District of Tendring.
Western, rural parts included in the new Colchester Division of Essex.
1983–1997: The District of Tendring wards of Beaumont and Thorpe, Bockings Elm, Bradfield Wrabness and Wix, Frinton, Golf Green, Great and Little Oakley, Harwich East, Harwich East Central, Harwich West, Harwich West Central, Haven, Holland and Kirby, Little Clacton, Ramsey, Rush Green, Southcliff, St Bartholomew's, St James, St John's, St Mary's, St Osyth, Tendring and Weeley, and Walton.
Western parts, including Brightlingsea and Wivenhoe, included in the new County Constituency of North Colchester.
1997–2010: The District of Tendring wards of Beaumont and Thorpe, Bockings Elm, Frinton, Golf Green, Great and Little Oakley, Harwich East, Harwich East Central, Harwich West, Harwich West Central, Haven, Holland and Kirby, Little Clacton, Ramsey, Rush Green, St Bartholomew's, St James, St John's, St Mary's, Southcliff, and Walton.
A further western slice, including St Osyth, added to the new County Constituency of North Essex.
Following the Boundary Commission's Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, Parliament radically altered some constituencies and created new ones to allow for changes in population. Consequently, the constituency of Harwich was abolished. The majority of the constituency, including Clacton, Frinton and Walton, formed the new County Constituency of Clacton, and Harwich and surrounding areas were included in the new County Constituency of Harwich and North Essex.
Members of Parliament
Constituency founded 1604
1604 to 1660
|Parliament||First member||Second member|
|1604||Richard Browne||Thomas Trevor|
|1614||Sir Harbottle Grimston||Sir Robert Mansell|
|1614 (Apr)||Sir Charles Montagu|
|1620||Sir Thomas Cheek||Edward Grimston|
|1624||Sir Nathaniel Rich||Christopher Herrys|
|1625||Sir Edmund Sawyer||Christopher Herrys|
|1626||Sir Nathaniel Rich||Christopher Herrys|
|1628–1629||Sir Nathaniel Rich||Christopher Herrys|
|1629–1640||No Parliaments convened|
|1640 (Apr)||Sir Thomas Cheek||Sir John Jacob, 1st Baronet|
|1640 (Nov)||Sir Harbottle Grimston, 1st Baronet||Sir Thomas Cheek|
|1645||Sir Harbottle Grimston, 1st Baronet, died
replaced 1647 by Harbottle Grimston, 2nd Baronet
who was secluded Dec 1648 in Pride's Purge
|Sir Thomas Cheek|
|1648||Sir Thomas Cheek||Capel Luckyn|
|1653||Harwich not represented in Barebone's Parliament|
|1654||Harwich not represented in First Protectorate Parliament|
|1656||Harwich not represented in Second Protectorate Parliament|
|1659||John Sicklemore||Thomas King|
|1868||Representation reduced to one member|
|1924||Sir Frederick Rice||Conservative|
|1929||Sir John Pybus||Liberal|
|1935||Sir Stanley Holmes||Liberal National|
|1954 by-election||Julian Ridsdale||National Liberal|
|2010||Constituency abolished: see Clacton and Harwich and North Essex|
Elections in the 1840s
|Whig||Denis Le Marchant||73||21.2|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing|
|Conservative||Dudley St Leger Hill||2||0.4||−26.8|
|Turnout||232 (est)||78.6 (est)||−14.9|
|Whig gain from Conservative||Swing||+10.2|
|Peelite gain from Conservative||Swing||+16.3|
Attwood's election was declared void on petition due to bribery by his agents, causing a by-election.
|Radical gain from Peelite||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1850s
Hobhouse was elevated to the peerage, becoming 1st Baron Broughton and causing a by-election.
|Conservative||Henry Thoby Prinsep||135||50.9||+36.5|
|Whig||Robert Wigram Crawford||130||49.1||+3.2|
|Conservative gain from Radical||Swing||+16.7|
Prinsep's election was declared void on petition due to bribery, due to, causing a by-election.
|Whig||Robert Wigram Crawford||133||51.2||+5.3|
|Conservative||Henry Thoby Prinsep||127||48.8||+34.4|
|Whig gain from Conservative||Swing||−14.6|
Crawford's election was declared void, due to polling being closed prematurely, and the seat's writ was suspended in July 1851. A by-election was called the next year.
|Conservative gain from Whig|
|Independent Liberal||George Drought Warburton||110||21.8||N/A|
|Turnout||252 (est)||92.6 (est)||+14.0|
|Conservative gain from Peelite||Swing||+11.7|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing||+18.4|
Peacocke's election was declared void on petition, due to corrupt practices, causing a by-election.
|Whig gain from Conservative||Swing||+19.2|
|Independent Liberal||George Drought Warburton||147||27.7||+5.9|
|Conservative||Benjamin Buck Greene||98||18.5||−8.1|
|Turnout||266 (est)||84.8 (est)||−7.8|
|Whig gain from Conservative||Swing||+7.3|
|Independent Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+6.4|
Warburton's death caused a by-election.
|Whig||Robert John Bagshaw||162||70.1||+37.5|
|Independent Liberal||Andrew Arcedeckne||69||29.9||N/A|
|Whig gain from Independent Liberal||Swing||N/A|
Bagshaw's resignation caused a by-election.
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing||−1.6|
|Liberal||John Clark Marshman||144||23.7||−4.0|
|Turnout||304 (est)||90.9 (est)||+6.1|
|Conservative gain from Independent Liberal||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1860s
Campbell succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Stratheden and Campbell, and causing a by-election.
|Liberal||James Fitzjames Stephen||77||12.9||−10.8|
|Turnout||299 (est)||77.3 (est)||−13.6|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+7.9|
Seat reduced to one member
|Liberal||David James Jenkins||141||30.1||−2.4|
Elections in the 1870s
Elections in the 1880s
Elections in the 1890s
Elections in the 1900s
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1910s
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+3.0|
|Liberal||Frank Stapledon Hiley||5,008||43.6||-1.8|
General Election 1914/15:
Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
|Liberal||Edward Aylmer Digby||7,064||46.1||+2.5|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
Elections in the 1920s
|Unionist||Geoffrey St John Strutt||9,792||48.1||−5.8|
|Liberal gain from Unionist||Swing||+5.8|
|Unionist gain from Liberal||Swing||+9.2|
|Independent Unionist||J Elliott||946||3.1||N/A|
|Liberal gain from Unionist||Swing||+9.3|
Elections in the 1930s
|Liberal National||John Pybus||26,818||86.4||+33.6|
|Labour||E L McKeag||4,229||13.6||n/a|
|Liberal National hold||Swing||n/a|
|Liberal National||Stanley Holmes||21,716||70.3||-16.1|
|Liberal National hold||Swing||-16.1|
Elections in the 1940s
General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;
|Liberal National||Stanley Holmes||16,452||55.7||-14.6|
|Liberal National hold||Swing||-14.6|
Elections in the 1950s
|National Liberal||Stanley Holmes||22,814||50.6|
|National Liberal hold||Swing|
|National Liberal and Conservative||Stanley Holmes||26,169||58.9|
|National Liberal and Conservative hold||Swing|
|Conservative and National Liberal||Julian Ridsdale||19,532||59.1||+0.2|
|Conservative and National Liberal hold||Swing|
|Conservative and National Liberal||Julian Ridsdale||23,889||56.4|
|Liberal||Wolf Isaac Akst||4,010||9.5|
|Conservative and National Liberal hold||Swing|
|Conservative and National Liberal||Julian Ridsdale||23,653||53.2|
|Liberal||Thomas E Dale||5,507||12.4|
|Independent||Leonard F Rose||3,744||8.4|
|Conservative and National Liberal hold||Swing|
Elections in the 1960s
|Conservative and National Liberal||Julian Ridsdale||25,102||50.4|
|Liberal||Thomas E Dale||9,824||19.7|
|Conservative and National Liberal hold||Swing|
|Conservative and National Liberal||Julian Ridsdale||24,975||47.6||-2.8|
|Labour||Stephen R Hatch||18,335||34.9||+5.0|
|Liberal||Thomas E Dale||9,219||17.6||-2.1|
|Conservative and National Liberal hold||Swing||-3.9|
Elections in the 1970s
|Liberal||Thomas E Dale||8,519||13.9||-3.7|
|National Front||A Pearson||597||0.9||N/A|
Elections in the 1980s
Elections in the 1990s
|Liberal Democrats||Pauline A. Bevan||15,210||24.4||−6.1|
|Natural Law||Eileen P. McGrath||279||0.4||N/A|
|Liberal Democrats||Ann M. Elvin||7,037||13.1||-10.0|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||−14.7|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrats||Peter Wilcock||4,099||8.5||4.6|
|Liberal Democrats||Keith Tully||5,913||11.7||3.2|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||3.6|
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