Haryana

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State of Delhi
State
Official seal of the Government of Haryana
Seal
Haryana state map and location in India
Haryana state map and location in India
Haryana is located in Haryana
Haryana
Haryana state map and location in India
Coordinates (Chandigarh): 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78Coordinates: 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78
Country India
Formation 1 November 1966; 49 years ago (1966-11-01)
Capital Chandigarh††
Largest city Faridabad
Districts 21
Government
 • Governor Kaptan Singh Solanki
 • Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 5
Lok Sabha 10
 • High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court
Area[1]
 • Total 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
Population (2016)
 • Total 27,761,063
 • Rank 18th
 • Density 573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11
Languages
 • Official language(s) Hindi, Punjabi[2][3]
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
Vehicle registration HR-xx
HDI Increase 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank 17th (2011)
Literacy 76.6%
Sex ratio Increase 903 (as of December 2015)[4]
Life expectancy 66.2
Website www.haryana.gov.in

It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966
^†† Joint Capital with Punjab, India

Symbols of Haryana
Language Haryanvi
Animal Black buck
Bird Black francolin
Flower Lotus
Tree Peepal

Haryana (Hindi: हरियाणा, IPA: [ɦərɪˈjaːɳaː]) is one of the 29 states in India, situated in North India. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It stands 21st in terms of its area, which is spread about 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi).[1] As of 2011 census of India, the state is eighteenth largest by population with 25,353,081 inhabitants.

Haryana is one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at 119,158 (US$1,800) in the year 2012–13 (See List of Indian states by GDP) and 132,089 (US$2,000) in the year 2013–14,[5] including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.[6] Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s.[7] Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[8]

It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.

Etymology[edit]

The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230).[9]

The name Haryana may be derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God".[10] However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).[11] Budh Prakash opines that the name may be a corruption of "Abhirayana", as its ancient inhabitants were called "Ahirs"[12] and ruled Haryana under the Moguls.[13]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Haryana

Pre-history[edit]

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in a new research in south Haryana, where initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago.[14] Manusmriti, a flood time document composed by Manu and Bhrigu is now dated 10,000 years old.[15] Rakhigarhi village in the Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated as over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley.[16]

Medieval[edit]

Ancient idols of Jain Tirthankara (made of bronze and stone) were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani (Ranila, Charkhi Dadri, Badhara village), Dadri, Gurgaon (Ferozpur Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar (Agroha), Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak (Asthal-Abohar) and Sonepat in Haryana.[17]

Portrait of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya

The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat (1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556), Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hemu, had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become last Hindu Emperor of India with formal Coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th Oct. 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.[18]

Formation[edit]

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing Punjab, India and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district—along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri—were to be included.[19]

The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana.[20] The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.[21]

Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became first Chief Minister of Haryana.[22]

Geography[edit]

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude.[23] The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country.[24] The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level.[25] As per India State of Forest Report, FSI, 2013, the Forest Cover in the state is 1586 km2 which is 3.59% of the state's geographical area and the Tree Cover in the state is 1282 km2 which is 2.90% of the geographical area. Thus the Forest and Tree Cover of the Haryana state is 6.49% of its geographical area.[26]

Haryana has four main geographical features.[27]

Rivers[edit]

Yamuna River near the Haryana Border

The Yamuna flows along the state's eastern boundary while the ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but has now disappeared.[28]

Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. Important tributaries include the Chautang and Tangri.[29]

The seasonal Markanda River is a stream, which in ancient times was known as the Aruna. It originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later the Ghaggar.[29]

Three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills, the Indori, Dohan and Kasavati all flow from East to West and once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati rivers.[30][31][32]

Climate[edit]

Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January.[30] The climate is arid to semi-arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% of rainfall is received during the months from July to September, and the remaining rainfall is received during the period from December to February.[24]

Flora and fauna[edit]

State symbols of Haryana
Formation day 1 November (Day of
separation from Punjab)
State mammal Black buck[33]
State bird Black francolin
State tree Peepal[33]
State flower Lotus[33]

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.[34][35][36]

Protected wildlife areas

Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.[37]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Ten Lok Sabha constituencies in Haryana

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purposes: Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar. Within these there are 21 districts, 62 sub-divisions, 83 tehsils, 47 sub-tehsils and 126 blocks. Haryana has a total of 154 cities and towns and 6,841 villages.[38]

Districts[edit]

Divisions Districts
Ambala Ambala, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Yamuna Nagar
Gurgaon Faridabad, Palwal, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Rewari
Hisar Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar, Sirsa
Rohtak Jhajjar, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak, Sonipat[27]

Governance[edit]

On 28 December 2015, the Panchkula district of Haryana was awarded for being the top-performing district in the state under the Digital India campaign.[39] The Common Service Centres (CSCs) have been upgraded in all districts and the number of e-services has now reached 105, which includes application of new water connection, sewer connection, electricity bill collection, ration card member registration, result of HBSE, admit cards for board examinations, online admission form for government colleges, long route booking of buses, admission forms for Kurukshetra University and HUDA plots status inquiry.[39] Haryana has became the first state to implement Aadhaar-enabled birth registration in all the districts.[39]

Law and order[edit]

Haryana Police force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. It has a cybercrime investigation cell, in Gurgaon's Sector 51.[40]

The judicial authority is the Punjab and Haryana High Court. It has an e-filing facility.[41]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Haryana

The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.

Agriculture[edit]

Haryana village in Trade Fair

There are two agroclimatic zones in Haryana. The northwestern part is suitable for rice, wheat, vegetables and temperate fruits, and the southwestern part is suitable for high-quality agricultural produce, tropical fruits, exotic vegetables and herbal and medicinal plants. The cultivable area is 3.7 m ha, which is 84% of the geographical area of the state. 3.64 m ha, i.e. 98% of cultivable area, is under cultivation. The gross cropped area of the state is 6.51 m ha and net cropped area is 3.64 m ha with a cropping intensity of 184.91%.[24]

Manufacturing[edit]

The headquarters of DLF Limited, India's largest real estate company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.
  • Faridabad is a biggest industrial city of Haryana as well as North India.[42]
  • Rohtak has the largest wholesale cloth market of Asia, known as shori market.[citation needed] As of 2012, Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) has developed an Industrial Model Township (IMT). MNCs like Maruti Suzuki, Asian Paints, Suzuki Motorcycle, Nippon Carbide, Lotte India Corporation Limited along with Tata Tea Plant, Shivam Autotech Ltd., Vita Milk Plant, Amul Dairy, Lakshmi Precision Screws, LPS BOSSARD, Aisin Automotive and many more launched work on projects.[citation needed]
  • Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.[citation needed]
  • Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant. It is known for its woven modhas or round stools.[43]
  • Hissar is another developing city and the hometown of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes as the third richest woman in world.[44]

Transport[edit]

Admin map of Haryana with RTO codes
Delhi-Gurgaon Airport Expressway

The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard Delhi Faridabad Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad.[45] The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes.[46] It will further boost Faridabad's connectivity with Delhi.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation connects Faridabad and Gurgaon with Delhi. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 9 stations and track length being 14 km.[47]

Haryana has a total road length of 23,684 kilometres (14,717 mi). There are 29 national highways with a total length of 1,461 kilometres (908 mi) and many state highways, which have a total length of 2,494 kilometres (1,550 mi). The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day, and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[48]

The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013.[49]

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.[50]

Demographics[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Haryana (2011)[51]

  Hinduism (87.45%)
  Islam (7.02%)
  Sikhism (4.90%)
  Christianity (0.19%)
  Jainism (0.2%)
  Buddhism (0.02%)
  Other or none (0.2%)

According to the 2011 census, Hindus (87.45%) constitute the majority of the state's population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.[51]

Jats form the largest caste in Haryana with approximately 25% population.[52] Out of 80 castes, 63 castes/communities have been notified either as a Scheduled Caste or Backward Class in Haryana.[53] The reservation limit in state is 47% as of now.[54]

Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Yamuna Nagar districts, while Sikhs live mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula karnal. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. In May 2014, the Haryana Government published the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014, allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under these rules.[55]

Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. Since 2001, the state has witnessed a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.[needs update] Scheduled Castes form 19.3% of the population.[56]

Haryana's sex ratio crossed the mark of 900 and reached 903 in December 2015.[4]

Castes of Haryana[57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]
Caste Population (%) Notes
OBCs ~24% includes Ahirs Yadavs
Dalits(SCs) ~20%[60] includes Valmikis
Jats ~25%[52] Jats are the single largest caste and are dominant in state politics.
Forward caste ~23% includes Rors, Brahmins, Baniyas, Rajputs, Aggarwals and Punjabi voters
Muslims 7%
Adivasis(STs) 0.3% [66][67]
Others 0.4% includes Christians,Jains

Education[edit]

Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Literacy rate in Haryana has seen an upward trend and is 76.64 percent as per 2011 population census. Male literacy stands at 85.38 percent, while female literacy is at 66.67 percent. In 2001, the literacy rate in Haryana stood at 67.91 percent of which male and female were 78.49 percent and 55.73 percent literate respectively.[68] As of 2013, Gurgaon city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 86.30% followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and Ambala at 81.7 percent.[69] In terms of districts, as of 2012 Rewari had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.[70]

Hisar has three universities: Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university,[71] Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (National Research Centre on Equines),[72] Central Sheep Breeding Farm,[73] National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research,[74] Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute[75] and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB);[76] and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha.[77]

In 2001–02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[citation needed][78] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[79] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level.

Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad announced on 27 February 2016 that National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT) would be set up in Kurukshetra to provide computer training to youth and a Software Technology Park of India (STPI) would be set up in Panchkula’s existing HSIIDC IT Park in Sector 23.[80]

Healthcare[edit]

The Total Fertility Rate of Haryana is 2.3. The Infant Mortality Rate is 41 (SRS 2013) and Maternal Mortality Ratio is 146 (SRS 2010–2012).[81]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Haryanavi

Haryanvi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi; thus Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken language in the state.[83] Since it was the Punjabi Suba movement that had led to formation of Haryana, Bansi Lal thought, "Let any language other than Punjabi be the second language of the state". Hence, Tamil became the second state language even though there might not have been even a single Tamil native family in the state.[84] Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010.[84] Punjabi speakers account for 11% of the state's population. Haryana has second largest Punjabi speaking population in India after the state of Punjab.[85]

Communication and media[edit]

Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[86][87][88] Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad and Gurgaon.

Electronic media channels include, MTV, 9XM, Star Group, SET Max, News Time, NDTV 24x7 and Zee Group. The radio stations include All India Radio and other FM stations.

The major newspapers of Haryana include Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Tribune, The Times of India and Hari-Bhumi.

Utilities[edit]

Haryana Power Generation Corporation Ltd (HPGCL) is setting up a solar power plant at the site of a defunct thermal power plant in Faridabad. The power generator plans to set up the plant over 151.78 acres near Bata Chowk in the district that generated coal-based energy in the past.[89]

Sports[edit]

Former volleyball player Balwant Sagwal

Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana.[90] During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation[91] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals.

Cricket is very popular in Haryana. Indian World-Cup-winning captain Kapil Dev is from Haryana. Other notable players from Haryana cricket team include Chetan Sharma, Ajay Jadeja, Amit Mishra and Mohit Sharmaand virender sehwag. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in Faridabad in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[92] Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Panchkula is a multi-sport complex.[93]

Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced the "Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy", a policy to support 26 Olympic sports, on 12 January 2015 with the words "We will develop Haryana as the sports hub of the country."[94][95]

Tourism[edit]

Main article: Tourism in Haryana

There are 21 tourism hubs created by Haryana Tourism Corporation Limited, which are located in Ambala, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jhajjar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Sirsa, Sonipat, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Yamunanagar, Palwal and Mahendergarh.[96]

Rules and regulations[edit]

The Haryana government has reduced the charge for filing an application under Right to Information Act, 2005 from 50 (74¢ US) to 10 (15¢ US). The Haryana Right to Information Rules, 2009, has been amended and now will be known as the Haryana Right to Information (Amendment) Rules, 2016.[97]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Haryana at a Glance". Government of Haryana. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  2. ^ "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010. 
  3. ^ "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". Zee news. 28 January 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Sex ratio in Haryana improves; crosses 900 mark after a decade", The Times of India (Chandigarh), PTI, 16 January 2016 
  5. ^ http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2014/aug/d2014070801.pdf
  6. ^ Poor rural India? It's a richer place - International Herald Tribune Archived 19 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Byres, T.J. Rural labour relations in India. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 978-0-7146-8046-0. 
  8. ^ "Haryana Hurricane". indianexpress.com. 
  9. ^ An Early Attestation of the Toponym Ḍhillī, by Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1989, pp. 513–519
    हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
    परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
    रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|
    Translation: there are countless villages in Haryana country. The villagers there work hard. They don't accept domination of others, and are experts in making the blood of their enemies flow. Indra himself praises this country. The capital of this country is Dhilli.
  10. ^ Haryana Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  11. ^ Bijender K Punia (1993). Tourism management: problems and prospects. APH. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7024-643-5. 
  12. ^ Sukhdev Singh Chib (1977). Haryana. Light & Life Publishers. p. 3. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  13. ^ Association of Population Geographers of India (1 January 1988). Population geography: a journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India. The Association. p. 2. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  14. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/2011/20111220/harplus.htm
  15. ^ https://grahamhancock.com/archive-review2/
  16. ^ Rakhigarhi, the biggest Harappan site, The Hindu, 27 March 2014 
  17. ^ Atul Kumar Sinha & Abhay Kumar Singh 2007, p. 401.
  18. ^ Arnold P. Kaminsky; Roger D. Long (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. 
  19. ^ the punjab reorganisation act, 1966 - Chief Secretary, Haryana (PDF) 
  20. ^ History of Haryana - Haryana Day: A new state is born!, archived from the original on 2 October 2013 
  21. ^ Haryana will get Chandigarh, Punjab can claim Lahore or Shimla, says a peeved Hooda, 25 July 2013 
  22. ^ List of Haryana Chief Ministers from November 1, 1966 till date, The Indian Express, 21 October 2014 
  23. ^ NIDM, p. 2.
  24. ^ a b c Home, Department of Agriculture (Haryana) 
  25. ^ Organizations 
  26. ^ Welcome To Our Website, Haryana Forest Department 
  27. ^ a b NIDM, p. 3.
  28. ^ "River Saraswati is for real, found in Haryana", Zee Nees, 8 May 2015 
  29. ^ a b Geography- others, District Administration, Kurukshetra 
  30. ^ a b "Geography of Haryana - Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni - India". haryana-online.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. 
  31. ^ Siwach, Sukhbir (7 December 2014), "Haryana to meet Rajasthan over stopping of river waters", Times of India 
  32. ^ Sudhir Bhargava,"Location of Brahmavarta and Drishadwati River is important to find earliest alignment of Saraswati River", International Conference, 20–22 Nov. 2009, "Saraswati-a perspective" pages 114–117, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Organised by: Saraswati Nadi Shodh Sansthan, Haryana.
  33. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Flora and Fauna 
  35. ^ Conservation of Wildlife 
  36. ^ Fauna of Haryana, archived from the original on 2 December 2015 
  37. ^ Parks, Reserves and Other Protected Areas in Haryana 
  38. ^ NIDM, p. 4.
  39. ^ a b c "Digital India campaign: Panchkula comes out on top among all districts of Haryana". The Indian Express. 26 December 2015. 
  40. ^ "Haryana Police", Haryana Police 
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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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