Haryana

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Haryana
हरियाणा
ਹਰਿਆਣਾ
Official seal of the Government of Haryana
Seal
Haryana is located in Haryana
Haryana
Haryana state map and location in India
Coordinates (Chandigarh): 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78Coordinates: 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78
Country India
Region North India
Formation 1 November 1966; 49 years ago (1966-11-01)
Capital Chandigarh††
Largest city Faridabad, New Delhi
Districts 21
Government
 • Governor Kaptan Singh Solanki
 • Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 5
Lok Sabha 10
 • High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court
Area
 • Total 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
 • Area under forest 1,586 km2 (612 sq mi)
 • Area under tree cover 1,284 km2 (496 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,351,462
 • Rank 18th
 • Density 573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11
 • Urban 8,842,103 [34.88%]
 • Rural 16,510,978 [65.12%]
Languages
 • Official language(s) Hindi,Punjabi[1][2]
 • Regional language(s) Haryanvi
State symbols
 • Bird Black francolin
 • Mammal black buck
 • Flower Lotus
 • Tree Peepal
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
Vehicle registration HR-xx
HDI Increase 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank 17th (2011)
Literacy 71.42% [Rural]
83.14% [Urban]
Sex ratio Increase 903 (as of December 2015)[3]
Life expectancy 66.2
Website www.haryana.gov.in
It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966^†† Joint Capital with Punjab, India

Haryana is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on the basis of language distribution. The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230).[4] It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.

Haryana is one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at 119158 (US$1,800) in the year 2012–13 (See List of Indian states by GDP) and 132089 (US$1,900) in the year 2013–14[5] including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.[6] Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since the 1970s.[7]

Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[8]

Etymology[edit]

The name Haryana may be derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God".[9] However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).[10] Dr. Budh Prakash opines that the name may be a corruption of "Abhirayana", as its ancient inhabitants were called "Ahirs"[11] and ruled Haryana under the Moguls.[12]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Haryana

Ancient period[edit]

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

Rakhigarhi village in the Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites and dated as over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which took place in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley.[13] Other notable Indus Valley Civilization sites in the state are Mitathal and Banawali.

Rise of Hemu as a Vikramaditya King[edit]

Portrait of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya

The decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire, including Haryana. In 1737, Maratha forces under Baji Rao I sacked Delhi, following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. A treaty signed in 1752 made the Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi.[14] Baji Rao's son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab and Peshawar in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who was based in Kabul. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas lost Punjab, Delhi and Haryana to Ahmad Shah Durrani.

Formation[edit]

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing Punjab, India and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri were to be included.[15]

The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana.[16] The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.[17]

Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became first Chief Minister of Haryana.[18]

Geography[edit]

Yamuna River near the Haryana Border

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude.[19] The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country.[20] The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level.[21] As per India State of Forest Report, FSI, 2013, the Forest Cover in the state is 1586 km2 which is 3.59% of the state's geographical area and the Tree Cover in the state is 1282 km2 which is 2.90% of the geographical area. Thus the Forest and Tree Cover of the Haryana state is 6.49% of its geographical area.[22]

Haryana has four main geographical features.[23]

Rivers[edit]

The Yamuna flows along the state's eastern boundary while the ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but has now disappeared.[24]

Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. Important tributaries include the Chautang and Tangri.[25]

The seasonal Markanda River is a stream, which in ancient times was known as the Aruna. It originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later the Ghaggar.[25]

Three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills, the Indori, Dohan and Kasavati all flow from East to West and once were tributories of the Drishadwati/Saraswati rivers.[26][27]

Climate[edit]

Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January.[26] The climate is arid to semi arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% rainfall is received during the month from July to September and the remaining rainfall is received during December to February.[20]

Flora and fauna[edit]

State symbols of Haryana
Formation day 1 November (Day of
separation from Punjab)
State mammal Black buck[28]
State bird Black francolin
State tree Peepal[28]
State flower Lotus[28]

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.[29][30][31]

Protected Wildlife Areas of Haryana[edit]

Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.[32]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purposes: Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar. Within these there are 21 districts, 58 sub-divisions, 80 tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils and 125 blocks. Haryana has a total of 154 cities and towns and 6,955 villages.[33]

Districts[edit]

Divisions Districts
Ambala Ambala, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Yamuna Nagar
Gurgaon Faridabad, Palwal, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Rewari
Hisar Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar, Sirsa
Rohtak Jhajjar, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak, Sonipat[23]

Law and order[edit]

Haryana Police force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. It has a modern cybercrime investigation cell, in Gurgaon's Sector 51.[34]

The Judicial authority is the Punjab and Haryana High Court, which became the first in the country to have a fully Wi-Fi complex. It also inched towards becoming a paperless court with the introduction of e-filing facility.[35]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Haryana
The headquarters of DLF Limited, India's largest real estate company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.

The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.

Agriculture[edit]

There are two agro climatic zones in Haryana. The north western part is suitable for Rice, Wheat, Vegetable and temperate fruits and the south western part is suitable for high quality agricultural produce, tropical fruits, exotic vegetables and herbal and medicinal plants. The cultivable area is 3.7 m ha, which is 84% of the geographical area of the state out of which 3.64 m ha i.e. 98% is under cultivation. The gross cropped area of the state is 6.51 m ha and net cropped area is 3.64 m ha with a cropping intensity of 184.91%.[20]

Manufacturing[edit]

  • Gurgaon is called as City of the Millennium. It has been developed in last two decades and is one of the most expensive area to live in. It is a hub of call centers. It is a land of opportunities as it is the center of business in Haryana and northern India in general.
  • Faridabad is a biggest industrial city of Haryana as well as North India.[36]
  • Rohtak- largest wholesale cloth market of Asia known as shori market. As of 2012, Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) has developed an Industrial Model Township (IMT). MNCs like Maruti Suzuki, Asian Paints, Suzuki Motorcycle, Nippon Carbide, Lotte India Corporation Limited along with Tata Tea Plant, Shivam Autotech Ltd., Vita Milk Plant,Amul Dairy, Lakshmi Precision Screws,LPS BOSSARD,Aisin Automotive and many more launched work on projects.
  • Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.
  • Karnal City was named after Maharaja Karna of Mahabharat, one of the oldest districts of Punjab and Haryana and one of the most fertile lands of Haryana and Punjab. It is also an important industrial areas of Haryana well known for Footwear, Medical and Agricultural Machinery industry. Karnal is also known after the Space Queen and great Indian Astronaut of India "Kalpana Chawla". Karnal is also called Rice Bowl of India as the district has huge production of Rice. Some agricultural departments of India include National Dairy Research Institute (N.D.R.I.), CSSRI, ARAI etc. Other Industries include Liberty Footwears, Best Foods, Dunar Basmati, RP Pharmaceuticals etc.
  • Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant. It is known for its woven modhas or round stools.[37]
  • Hissar is another developing city and home town of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes as a 3rd richest woman in world.[38]

Transport[edit]

Delhi-Gurgaon Airport Expressway

The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard Delhi Faridabad Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad.[39] The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes.[40] It will further boost Faridabad connectivity with Delhi.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation connects Faridabad and Gurgaon with Delhi. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 9 stations and track length being 14 km.[41]

Haryana has a total road length of 23,684 kilometres (14,717 mi). There are 29 national highways with a total length of 1,461 kilometres (908 mi) and many state highways, which have a total length of 2,494 kilometres (1,550 mi). The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[42]

The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013.[43] Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are close to the state. There is a proposal to connect Chandigarh to Haryana without entering Punjab through a four-lane highway via Yamuna Nagar and Panchkula.

Chandigarh Monument

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.[44] Haryana is well connected on the railway network.

Demographics[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Haryana (2011)[45]

  Hinduism (87.45%)
  Islam (7.02%)
  Christianity (0.19%)
  Sikhism (4.90%)
  Jainism (0.2%)
  Buddhism (0.02%)
  Other or none (0.2%)

According to the 2011 census, Hindus (87.45%) constitute the majority of the state's population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.[45]

Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Yamuna Nagar districts, while Sikhs live mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. In May 2014, the Haryana Government published the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014, allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under these rules.[46] Although the Anand marriage law was enacted in 1909, there was no provision for registration of marriages. The Indian parliament passed a law allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under the Anand Marriage Act in 2012, but Haryana did not issue the notification until 2014 under the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014.[citation needed]

Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. Since 2001, the state has witnessed a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.[needs update]Scheduled Castes form 19.3% of the population.[47]

Haryana's sex ratio crossed the mark of 900 and reached 903 in December 2015.[3]

Education[edit]

Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Literacy rate in Haryana has seen upward trend and is 76.64 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 85.38 percent while female literacy is at 66.67 percent. In 2001, literacy rate in Haryana stood at 67.91 percent of which male and female were 78.49 percent and 55.73 percent literate respectively.[48] As of 2013 Gurgaon city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 86.30% followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and Ambala at 81.7 percent.[49] In terms of districts, as of 2012 Rewari had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.[50]

Hisar has three universities Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university,[51] Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (National Research Centre on Equines),[52] Central Sheep Breeding Farm,[53] National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research[54] Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute[55] and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB);[56] and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha.[57]

In 2001–02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[citation needed][58] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[59] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level.

Haryana boasts of some of the finest colleges in research, technology and management in the country such as National Brain Research Centre, NIT Kurukshetra, Management Development Institute and IIM Rohtak.

The National Brain Research Centre is the only institute in India dedicated to neuroscience research and education. Scientists and students of NBRC come from diverse academic backgrounds, including biology, computing, mathematics, physics, engineering and medical sciences, and use multidisciplinary approaches to understand the brain. In the foothills of the Aravali range in Manesar, Haryana, NBRC is an autonomous institute funded by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and is a Deemed University.

Healthcare[edit]

The Total Fertility Rate of Haryana is 2.3. The Infant Mortality Rate is 41 (SRS 2013) and Maternal Mortality Ratio is 146 (SRS 2010–2012).[60]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Haryanavi

Haryanavi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi thus Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken language in the state.[62] Since it was the Punjabi Suba movement that had led to formation of Haryana, Bansi Lal thought, "Let any language other than Punjabi be the second language of the state". Hence, Tamil became the second state language even though there might not have been even a single Tamil native family in the state.[63] Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010.[63] Punjabi speakers account for 11% of the state's population.[64]

Communication and media[edit]

Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[65][66][67] Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad and Gurgaon.

Telecommunications:

Satellite Television:

Radio:

The major newspapers of Haryana are Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Tribune, The Times of India, and Hari-Bhumi.

Sports[edit]

Former volleyball player Balwant Sagwal

Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana.[68] During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation[69] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals.

Cricket is very popular in Haryana. Former India World Cup winning captain Kapil Dev is from Haryana. Other notable players from Haryana cricket team include Chetan Sharma, Ajay Jadeja, Amit Mishra and Mohit Sharma. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in Faridabad in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[70] Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Panchkula is a multi-sport complex.[71]

Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy[edit]

Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy on 12 January 2015 with the words "We will develop Haryana as Sports hub of the Country."[72][73] The policy is intended to support 26 Olympic Games (Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Basketball, Boxing, Canoeing, Cycling, Equestrian, Fencing, Football, Golf, Gymnastics, Handball, Hockey, Judo, Triathlon, Rowing, Swimming, Sailing/Yachting, Shooting, Table Tennis, Tae-Kwan-do, Tennis, Volleyball, Weight Lifting and Wrestling), 16 Non-Olympic Games (Baseball, Billiards, Chess, Cricket, Kabaddi (Haryana style), Kabaddi (National style), Karate, Kho Kho, Korf Ball, Net Ball, Skating, Snooker, Soft Ball, Squash, Throw Ball and Yoga), Marathon race, rural games and games which are likely to be included in future Olympics/Asian Games.[74]

Tourism[edit]

Main article: Tourism in Haryana

There are 21 tourism hubs created by Haryana Tourism Corporation Limited, which are located in Ambala, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jhajjar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Sirsa, Sonipat, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Yamunanagar, Palwal and Mahendergarh.[75]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". 
  2. ^ "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". 
  3. ^ a b "Sex ratio in Haryana improves; crosses 900 mark after a decade", The Times of India (Chandigarh), PTI, 16 January 2016 
  4. ^ An Early Attestation of the Toponym Ḍhillī, by Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1989, pp. 513–519
    हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
    परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
    रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|
    Translation: there are countless villages in Haryana country. The villagers there work hard. They don't accept domination of others, and are experts in making the blood of their enemies flow. Indra himself praises this country. The capital of this country is Dhilli.
  5. ^ http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2014/aug/d2014070801.pdf
  6. ^ Poor rural India? It's a richer place - International Herald Tribune[dead link] Archived September 19, 2008 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  7. ^ Byres, T.J. Rural labour relations in India. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 978-0-7146-8046-0. 
  8. ^ "Haryana Hurricane". indianexpress.com. 
  9. ^ Haryana Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  10. ^ Bijender K Punia (1993). Tourism management: problems and prospects. APH. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7024-643-5. 
  11. ^ Sukhdev Singh Chib (1977). Haryana. Light & Life Publishers. p. 3. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  12. ^ Association of Population Geographers of India (1 January 1988). Population geography: a journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India. The Association. p. 2. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  13. ^ Rakhigarhi, the biggest Harappan site, The Hindu, 27 March 2014 
  14. ^ Gordon, Stewart. The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. 
  15. ^ the punjab reorganisation act, 1966 - Chief Secretary, Haryana (PDF) 
  16. ^ History of Haryana - Haryana Day: A new state is born! 
  17. ^ Haryana will get Chandigarh, Punjab can claim Lahore or Shimla, says a peeved Hooda, 25 July 2013 
  18. ^ List of Haryana Chief Ministers from November 1, 1966 till date, The Indian Express, 21 October 2014 
  19. ^ NIDM, p. 2.
  20. ^ a b c Home, Department of Agriculture (Haryana) 
  21. ^ Organizations 
  22. ^ Welcome To Our Website, Haryana Forest Department 
  23. ^ a b NIDM, p. 3.
  24. ^ River Saraswati is for real, found in Haryana 
  25. ^ a b Geography- others, District Administration, Kurukshetra 
  26. ^ a b "Geography of Haryana - Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni - India". haryana-online.com. 
  27. ^ Haryana to meet Rajasthan over stopping of river waters 
  28. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  29. ^ Flora and Fauna 
  30. ^ Conservation of Wildlife 
  31. ^ Fauna of Haryana 
  32. ^ Parks, Reserves and Other Protected Areas in Haryana 
  33. ^ NIDM, p. 4.
  34. ^ Haryana Police 
  35. ^ "HC starts e-filing, gets Wi-Fi complex", The Tribune (Chandigarh), Tribune News Service, 1 December 2014 
  36. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Delhi and neighbourhood". tribuneindia.com. 
  37. ^ "Haryana culture". Indian mirror. 
  38. ^ "Savitri Jindal and family". Forbes. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  39. ^ "Projects - Delhi - Faridabad Elevated Expressway Project (dfskyway TM) (NH - 2)". HCC Infrastructure. 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  40. ^ "NH-2 widening to claim 25,000 trees in Faridabad dist | india". Hindustan Times. 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  41. ^ "NCR's longest Metro line in Faridabad | delhi". Hindustan Times. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  42. ^ Why Haryana? - Economic Infrastructure
  43. ^ "KMP Expressways to be completed by 2009". indianexpress.com. 
  44. ^ General Information 
  45. ^ a b "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. 
  46. ^ "Haryana government announced the formation of rules to register Anand Karaj, the Sikh marriage ceremony". 
  47. ^ Govt. of India, Census (2001). "Census India 2001" (PDF). Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  48. ^ Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy) (PDF), pp. 114–117 
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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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