Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin

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Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
سلطان هاشم جليل العالم
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin.jpg
Sultan of Brunei
Reign 29 May 1885 – 10 May 1906
Coronation 29 May 1895
Predecessor Abdul Momin
Heir apparent Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
Born 1825
Brunei Town, Brunei
Died May 1906 (aged 80–81)
Brunei Town, Brunei
Burial Kubah Makam Di Raja
Spouse Pengiran Indera Chendra Kesuma
Pengiran Isteri Pengiran Siti Fatimah
Pengiran Muda Besar Omar Ali Saifuddin
Pengiran Muda Tengah
Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
Pengiran Anak Siti Zubaidah
Pengiran Anak Mohammad Salleh
Pengiran Anak Abdul Razak
Pengiran Anak Siti Rauyah
Pengiran Anak Siti Mariam
Pengiran Di-Gadong Pengiran Anak Haji Kamis
Pengiran Anak Safar
Pengiran Anak Sabtu
Pengiran Anak Metusin Kula
Pengiran Anak Saliha
Pengiran Anak Muhammad Arshad Duman
Pengiran Anak Ismail Apong
Pengiran Anak Untong
Pengiran Anak Jaga
Pengiran Anak Rabaha
Pengiran Anak Tuah
Pengiran Anak Mahmud
House Bolkiah
Father Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Mother Zaida binti Pengarah di-Gadong Laman Awang Sulaiman
Religion Sunni Islam

Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin was the 26th Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from May 1885 to May 1906.[1] Sultan Hashim was the son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. Before he became the Sultan, he was one of the four Wazirs in Brunei and was known as Pengiran Temenggong Sahibul Bahar Pengiran Anak Hashim. He had acted as regent when Sultan Abdul Momin became old. At that time also, his elder brother, Pengiran Pemancha Pengiran Anak Muhammad Salleh had died.


Upon his ascension to the throne, Sultan Hashim inherited a much smaller kingdom than when his father was Sultan. He faced a challenge from the British North Borneo Company and the Brooke government in Sarawak who wanted more lands from Brunei and Brunei was not strong enough to stop them from taking control of these lands. Therefore, although he was aware of Sultan Abdul Momin’s Amanat, he still had to sign an agreement to cede Punang Terusan to Sarawak.

Treaty of Protection 1888[edit]

During Sultan Hashim’s reign, two important agreements were made between Brunei and Britain. The Treaty of Protection of 1888 made Brunei a British Protectorate.

The Loss of Limbang[edit]

Limbang, which today become part of Sarawak, was originally part of the Sultanate of Brunei until the reign of Sultan Hashim. However, it was after the signing of the Treaty of Protection of 1888 did Brunei loss Limbang. This treaty eventually did not save Brunei from any foreign intervention because the British did not stop Charles Brooke from seizing Limbang in 1890. In 1901 and 1902, Brooke and Hewett asked Sultan Hashim to cede Belait and Tutong to them but Sultan Hashim refused and said, “What would happen to me, my chiefs and my descendants? I should be left like a tree, stripped of branches and twigs.”

The beginning of British Indirect rule in Brunei[edit]

Sultan Hashim felt that the British were not really protecting Brunei. He sought help from Sultan Abdul Hamid of Turkey. The British discovered this and decided to send Malcolm McArthur to solve the problems in Brunei. Therefore, the Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906 was signed. Under this treaty, Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on both external and internal affairs except those relating to Islam and Malay customs.


In 1903, his eldest son and chosen heir, Pengiran Muda Besar Omar Ali Saifuddin, died in an outbreak of cholera, as did his second son, Pengiran Muda Tengah. Mourning their deaths, his health deteriorated further.

Sultan Hashim died in May 1906. He was buried at the Royal Mausoleum in Bandar Seri Begawan, alongside his father, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.


  1. ^ Royal Ark
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdul Momin
Sultan of Brunei
1885 – 1906
Succeeded by
Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
under British protectorate