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Haskell Wexler

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Haskell Wexler
Wexler in 1999
Born(1922-02-06)February 6, 1922
DiedDecember 27, 2015(2015-12-27) (aged 93)
Occupation(s)Cinematographer, film producer and director
Years active1947–2015
Known forCinéma vérité
Notable workAmerica America (1963); Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966); In the Heat of the Night (1967); The Thomas Crown Affair (1968); Medium Cool (1969); Bound for Glory (1976); Days of Heaven (1978)
Spouses
Nancy Ashenhurst
(m. 1943; div. 1953)
Marian Witt
(m. 1954; div. 1985)
(m. 1989)
[1]
Children
RelativesYale Wexler (brother)
Jerrold Wexler (brother)
Tanya Wexler (niece)

Haskell Wexler ASC (February 6, 1922 – December 27, 2015) was an American cinematographer, film producer, and director. Wexler was judged to be one of film history's ten most influential cinematographers in a survey of the members of the International Cinematographers Guild.[2] He won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography twice, in 1966 and 1976, out of five nominations. In his obituary in The New York Times, Wexler is described as being "renowned as one of the most inventive cinematographers in Hollywood."[3]

Early life and education[edit]

Wexler was born to a Jewish family in Chicago in 1922.[4] His parents were Simon and Lottie Wexler, whose children included Jerrold, Joyce (Isaacs) and Yale. He attended the progressive Francis Parker School, where he was best friends with Barney Rosset.

After a year of college at the University of California, Berkeley, he volunteered as a seaman in the Merchant Marine in 1941, as the U.S. was preparing to enter World War II. He became friends with fellow sailor Woody Guthrie, who later gained fame as a folk singer.[5] While in the Merchant Marine, Wexler advocated for the desegregation of seamen.[6] In November 1942, his ship was torpedoed by a German submarine and sank off the coast of South Africa. He spent 10 days on a lifeboat before being rescued.[6] After the war, Wexler received the Silver Star and was promoted to the rank of second officer.[6][7]

He returned to Chicago after his discharge in 1946 and began working in the stockroom at his father's company, Allied Radio. He decided he wanted to become a filmmaker, although he had no experience, and his father helped him set up a small studio in Des Plaines, Illinois. He began by shooting industrial films at Midwest factories. When his studio lost too much money, it was eventually shut down, but the business served as an unofficial film school for Wexler.[6]

He later took freelance jobs as a cameraman, joining the International Photographers Guild in 1947. He worked his way up to more technical positions after beginning as an assistant cameraman on various projects.[6] He made a number of documentaries, including The Living City, which was nominated for an Academy Award.

Film career[edit]

Wexler briefly made industrial films in Chicago, then in 1947 became an assistant cameraman. Wexler worked on documentary features and shorts; low-budget docu-dramas such as 1959's The Savage Eye, television's The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and TV commercials (he would later found Wexler-Hall, a television commercial production company, with Conrad Hall). He made ten documentary films with director Saul Landau, including Paul Jacobs and the Nuclear Gang, which aired on PBS and won an Emmy Award and a George Polk Award. Other notable documentaries shot and co-directed (with Landau) by Wexler included Brazil: A Report on Torture and The CIA Case Officer and The Sixth Sun: A Mayan Uprising in Chiapas.

In 1963 Wexler self-funded, produced and photographed the documentary The Bus in which a group of Freedom Riders are followed as they make their way from San Francisco to Washington D.C.[8] That same year he served as the cinematographer on his first big-budget film, Elia Kazan's America America. Kazan was nominated for a Best Director Academy Award. Wexler worked steadily in Hollywood thereafter. George Lucas, then 20, met Wexler who shared his hobby of auto racing. Wexler pulled a few strings to help Lucas get admitted to the USC Film School.[9] Wexler would later work with Lucas as a consultant for American Graffiti (1973).

Wexler was cinematographer of Mike Nichols' screen version of Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), for which he won the last Academy Award for Best Cinematography (Black & White) handed out.[10] The following year had Wexler as the cinematographer for the Oscar-winning detective drama, In the Heat of the Night (1967), starring Sidney Poitier. His work was notable for being the first major film in Hollywood history to be shot in color with proper consideration for a person of African descent. Wexler recognized that standard lighting tended to produce too much glare on that kind of dark complexion making the actors look bad. Accordingly, Wexler toned it down to feature Poitier with better photographic results.[11]

Wexler was fired as cinematographer during filming of Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation and replaced by Bill Butler. He was also fired from Miloš Forman's 1975 film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and again replaced by Bill Butler. Wexler believed his dismissal on Cuckoo's Nest was due to his radical left political views as highlighted by his concurrent work on the documentary Underground, in which the left-wing urban guerrilla group The Weather Underground were being interviewed while hiding from the law. However, Forman said he had terminated Wexler over mere artistic differences. Both Wexler and Butler received Academy Award nominations for Best Cinematography for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, though Wexler said there was "only about a minute or two minutes in that film I didn't shoot.”[5]

However, he won a second Oscar for Bound for Glory (1976), a biography of Woody Guthrie, whom Wexler had met during his time in the Merchant Marine. Bound for Glory was the first feature film to make use of the newly invented Steadicam, in a famous sequence that also incorporated a crane shot. Wexler was also credited as additional cinematographer on Days of Heaven (1978), which won a Best Cinematography Oscar for Néstor Almendros. Wexler was featured on the soundtrack of the film Underground (1976), recorded on Folkways Records in 1976.[12]

He worked on documentaries throughout his career. The documentary Paul Jacobs and the Nuclear Gang (1980) earned an Emmy Award; Interviews with My Lai Veterans (1970) won an Academy Award. His later documentaries included; Bus Riders' Union (2000), about the modernization and expansion of bus services in Los Angeles by the organization and its founder Eric Mann, Who Needs Sleep? (2006),[13] the Independent Lens documentary Good Kurds, Bad Kurds: No Friends But the Mountains (2000),[14] Tell Them Who You Are (2004)[13] Bringing King to China (2011),[15] and From Wounded Knee to Standing Rock: A Reporter's Journey (2019).[16]

Wexler also directed fictional movies. Medium Cool (1969), a film written by Wexler and shot in a cinéma vérité style, is studied by film students all over the world for its breakthrough form. It influenced more than a generation of filmmakers. In DVD commentary for Criterion Collection, Wexler recalled that the studio execs were flabbergasted the film, "an edgy, Godardian tale that ricocheted from one hot-button topic to the next (poverty, racism, civil rebellion, the war in Vietnam, the Kennedy and King assassinations)."[17] The making of Medium Cool was the subject of a BBC documentary by Paul Cronin, Look Out Haskell, It's Real: The Making of Medium Cool (2001).[18] "Medium Cool" was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2003.[19]

Produced by Lucasfilm and uncredited George Lucas, Wexler's film Latino (1985) was chosen for the 1985 Cannes Film Festival. He both wrote and directed the work. Another directing project was From Wharf Rats to Lords of the Docks (2007), an intimate exploration of the life and times of Harry Bridges, an extraordinary labor leader and social visionary described as "a hero or the devil incarnate--it all depends on your point of view."[20]

In 1988, Wexler won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography for the John Sayles film Matewan (1987), for which he was also nominated for an Academy Award. His work with Billy Crystal in the HBO film 61* (2001) was nominated for an Emmy.

In 2021, filmmakers Joan Churchill and Alan Barker released a 26-minute documentary, Shoot From the Heart, about Wexler's life and career.[21] Churchill described her intention in making the film this way: “We were making a film about a man who was a passionate activist, who never gave up hope for the world.”[22]

A "lifelong liberal activist," during the final years of his life, Wexler trained his focus on raising awareness of sleep deprivation and long hours in the film industry, culminating in the documentary Who Needs Sleep? (2006), which "examined the routine overworking of Hollywood film crews."[3][19] In a first-person article in HuffPost, Wexler wrote, "There's nothing I love more than making films. But the health of my fellow film workers and citizens is more important than anything on the silver screen."[23]

Personal life[edit]

Wexler married the American actress Rita Taggart in 1989. He had two sons, a daughter, four grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter.

Death[edit]

Wexler died in his sleep at the age of 93 on December 27, 2015, at his home in Santa Monica, California.[24][25]

Filmography[edit]

Cinematographer[edit]

Short film[edit]

Year Title Director Notes
1958 T Is for Tumbleweed Louis Clyde Stoumen
1966 One Steven North
1976 Polaroid Glasses Himself
1977 STP Oil Treatment
Plymouth Fury With Conrad L. Hall
1978 John Wayne for Great Western Savings Himself

Feature film[edit]

Year Title Director Notes
1958 Stakeout on Dope Street Irvin Kershner Credited as "Mark Jeffrey"[26][citation needed]
1959 The Savage Eye Ben Maddow
Sidney Meyers
Joseph Strick
With Jack Couffer and Helen Levitt
1960 Five Bold Women Jorge López Portillo
Studs Lonigan Irving Lerner Uncredited
1961 The Hoodlum Priest Irvin Kershner
Angel Baby Paul Wendkos With Jack Marta
The Runaway Claudio Guzmán With Ray Foster and Wayne Mitchell
The Fisherman and His Soul Charles Guggenheim
1963 America America Elia Kazan
Face in the Rain Irvin Kershner
Lonnie William Hale
1964 The Best Man Franklin J. Schaffner
1965 The Loved One Tony Richardson Also credited as producer
1966 Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Mike Nichols
1967 In the Heat of the Night Norman Jewison
1968 Faces John Cassavetes Uncredited
The Thomas Crown Affair Norman Jewison
1969 Medium Cool Himself
1972 The Trial of the Catonsville Nine Gordon Davidson
1974 The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola Replaced by Bill Butler
1975 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Miloš Forman
1976 Bound for Glory Hal Ashby
1978 Coming Home
1981 Second-Hand Hearts
1982 Lookin' to Get Out
1983 The Man Who Loved Women Blake Edwards
1987 Matewan John Sayles
1988 Colors Dennis Hopper
1989 Three Fugitives Francis Veber
Blaze Ron Shelton
1991 Other People's Money Norman Jewison
1992 The Babe Arthur Hiller
1994 The Secret of Roan Inish John Sayles
1995 Canadian Bacon Michael Moore
1996 Mulholland Falls Lee Tamahori
The Rich Man's Wife Amy Holden Jones
1999 Limbo John Sayles
2004 Silver City
2007 From Wharf Rats to Lords of the Docks Himself

Television[edit]

Year Title Director Notes
1956 The Eddy Arnold Show Ben Park Episode "Betty Johnson, The Jordanaires"
1998 Sandra Bernhard: I'm Still Here... Damn It! Marty Callner TV special
2001 61* Billy Crystal TV movie
2007 Big Love Adam Davidson Episode "Rock and a Hard Place"

Documentary works[edit]

Short film

Year Title Director Notes
1953 The Living City Himself
John Barnes
1971 Interviews with My Lai Veterans Joseph Strick With Richard Pearce
1978 War Without Winners Himself
1982 Hail Columbia! Graeme Ferguson With Graeme Ferguson, David Douglas, Richard Leiterman,
Ronald M. Lautore and Phillip Thomas
1996 Mexico Lorena Parlee With David Douglas, James Neihouse and Álex Phillips Jr.
2000 The Man on Lincoln's Nose Daniel Raim With Daniel Raim and Guido Verweyen
2001 SOA: Guns and Greed Robert Richter With Alan Jacobsen
2013 Medium Cool Revisited Himself

Film

Year Title Director Notes
1965 The Bus Himself
1974 Introduction to the Enemy
1976 Underground Emile de Antonio
Mary Lampson
Himself
1979 Paul Jacobs and the Nuclear Gang Jack Willis
Penny Bernstein
With Zack Krieger
1980 No Nukes Daniel Goldberg
Anthony Potenza
Julian Schlossberg
Concert film
1982 Richard Pryor: Live on the Sunset Strip Joe Layton Stand-up comedy
1992 Papakolea: A Story of Hawaiian Land Edgy Lee
1997 The Sixth Sun: Mayan Uprising in Chiapas Saul Landau
2000 Good Kurds, Bad Kurds: No Friends But the Mountains Kevin McKiernan With Kevin McKiernan
Bus Rider's Union Himself
Johanna Demetrakas
2005 Bastards of the Party Cle Shaheed Sloan With Joan Churchill, Mark Woods and Phil Parmet
2006 Who Needs Sleep?[27] Himself With Alan Barker, Joan Churchill, Tamara Goldsworthy,
Kevin McKiernan and Rita Taggart
2009 In the Name of Democracy: The Story of Lt. Ehren Watada Nina Rosenblum
Something's Gonna Live Daniel Raim With Daniel Raim and Guido Verweyen
2010 Will the Real Terrorist Please Stand Up? Saul Landau With Roberto Chile
2011 Bringing King to China Kevin McKiernan
2012 Occupy Los Angeles Joseph G. Quinn
2013 Eagles: Live at the Capital Centre (March 1977) Victoria Hochberg
Four Days in Chicago Himself
2019 From Wounded Knee to Standing Rock: A Reporter's Journey Kevin McKiernan TV movie;
Posthumous release

Director[edit]

Short film

Year Title Director Producer
1976 Polaroid Glasses Yes
1977 STP Oil Treatment Yes Yes
1978 John Wayne for Great Western Savings Yes Yes

Feature film

Year Title Director Writer Producer Notes
1969 Medium Cool Yes Yes Yes
1983 Bus II Yes Co-directed with Thom Tyson
1985 Latino Yes Yes
2007 From Wharf Rats to Lords of the Docks Yes

Documentary short

Year Title Director Producer Notes
1953 The Living City Uncredited Yes Co-directed with John Barnes (Both were uncredited)
1978 War Without Winners Yes
2013 Medium Cool Revisited Yes

Documentary film

Year Title Director Writer Producer Notes
1965 The Bus Yes Yes
1971 Brazil: A Report on Torture Yes Co-directed with Saul Landau
1974 Introduction to the Enemy Yes
1976 Underground Yes Co-directed with Emile de Antonio and Mary Lampson
1980 No Nukes Uncredited Documentary footage only
2000 Bus Rider's Union Yes Yes Co-directed with Johanna Demetrakas
2006 Who Needs Sleep? Yes
2013 Four Days in Chicago Yes Yes Executive

Acting credits[edit]

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1969 Medium Cool Cameraman on Scaffold Uncredited
1978 Coming Home Officer Awarding Medals
2002 Out of These Rooms Alice'a husband
2007 Battle in Seattle Himself

Short film

Year Title Role
2005 The Big Empty Bookstore customer
2014 The Moving Picture Co. 1914 Cameraman / Carpenter

Legacy and honors (career awards)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Haskell Wexler Biography (1922?-)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Top 10 Most Influential Cinematographers Voted on by Camera Guild". PRNewswire. October 16, 2003. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Anderson, John (2015-12-27). "Haskell Wexler, Oscar-Winning Cinematographer, Dies at 93". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  4. ^ "Haskell Wexler: The Hollywood Interview". Haskell Wexler's personal blog. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  5. ^ a b Anderson, John (December 27, 2015). "Haskell Wexler, Oscar-Winning Cinematographer, Dies at 93". The New York Times – via NYTimes.com.
  6. ^ a b c d e Current Biography Yearbook 2007, H. W. Wilson Co. (2007) pp. 594-596
  7. ^ "About". Haskell Wexler's personal blog. Retrieved 17 Jan 2014.
  8. ^ "NFPF Grant Recipient: Haskell Wexler's The Bus (1965)". Archive UCLA Film & Television. 26 July 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  9. ^ "From ‘American Graffiti’ To Outer Space", New York Times, Sept. 12, 1976
  10. ^ Beginning the next year, the Academy eliminated a separate category for awards for Black and White and Color in Art Direction, Cinematography, and Costume Design. Source: Clooney, Nick (November 2002). The Movies That Changed Us: Reflections on the Screen. New York: Atria Books, a trademark of Simon & Schuster. p. 79. ISBN 0-7434-1043-2.
  11. ^ Harris, Mark (2008). Pictures at a Revolution: Five Films and the Birth of a New Hollywood. Penguin Press. p. 221. ISBN 9781594201523.
  12. ^ "Underground: Emile de Antonio, Mary Lampson, and Haskell Wexler with the Weather Underground". Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  13. ^ a b "Haskell Wexler, Oscar-Winning Cinematographer, Dies at 93". The New York Times. 2015-12-27. Retrieved 2022-11-05.
  14. ^ "Good Kurds, Bad Kurds". The University of Arizona CMES Video and Book Library. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  15. ^ "BRINGING KING TO CHINA". DOC NYC. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  16. ^ "New film: From Wounded Knee to Standing Rock". The Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  17. ^ Jones, J.R. (2013-07-10). "The lost Chicago of Medium Cool". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  18. ^ French, Philip (2015-09-13). "Medium Cool review – a landmark fusion of fiction and documentary". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  19. ^ a b McLellan, Dennis; Dolan (2015-12-28). "Haskell Wexler dies at 93; two-time Oscar-winning cinematographer and lifelong activist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  20. ^ "From Wharf Rats to the Lords of the Docks: The Life and Times of Harry Bridges". The Harry Bridges Project. Archived from the original on 2009-12-12.
  21. ^ Jenkins, Tara (2022-02-03). "A Candid Look at Haskell Wexler". American Cinematographer. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  22. ^ Jenkins, Tara (2022-02-03). "Behind the Legend: A Candid Look at Haskell Wexler, ASC in Shoot From the Heart – The American Society of Cinematographers". American Cinematographer. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  23. ^ Wexler, Haskell (2012-03-29). "Sleepless in Hollywood: A Threat to Health and Safety". HuffPost. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  24. ^ Richard Natale (December 27, 2015). "Haskell Wexler, Oscar-Winning Cinematographer and Documentary Filmmaker, Dies at 93". Variety.com. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  25. ^ Matt Brenan (December 27, 2015). "Haskell Wexler, Legendary Cinematographer, Dead at 93". Indie Wire.com. Archived from the original on December 29, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  26. ^ "Haskell Wexler obituary". TheGuardian.com. 27 December 2015.
  27. ^ "12on12off". 12on12off.
  28. ^ a b "Haskell Wexler". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  29. ^ "Tell Them Who You Are". the Guardian. 2006-06-02. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  30. ^ "PAST SOC LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS". SOC Awards. 2014-12-06. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  31. ^ "Where Are They Now? IDA Documentary Award Winners". International Documentary Association. 2022-02-02. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  32. ^ "HUMANITARIAN AWARD: CINEMATOGRAPHER HASKELL WEXLER". Location Managers Guild of America. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  33. ^ "Cinema with the Right Stuff Marks 2013 National Film Registry". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  34. ^ "Haskell Wexler dies at 93; two-time Oscar-winning cinematographer and lifelong activist". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2022-11-04. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  35. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2022-11-04.

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