Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan Hasrat Mohani
Mohani on a 2014 stamp of India
14 October 1878
Mohan, Unnao District, British India
|Died||13 May 1951 (aged 72)|
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Pen name||Hasrat Mohani|
|Subject||Love and philosophy|
|Literary movement||Indian independence movement|
Hasrat Mohani (14 October 1878 – 13 May 1951) was an Indian activist in the Indian independence movement, and a noted poet of the Urdu language. He coined the notable slogan Inquilab Zindabad (that translates to "Long live the revolution!") in 1921. Together with Swami Kumaranand, he is regarded as the first person to demand complete independence for India in 1921 at the Ahmedabad Session of the Indian National Congress.
He was born in 1878 as Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan at Mohan, a town in the Unnao district of United Provinces in British India. Hasrat was his pen name (takhallus) that he used in his Urdu poetry whereas his last name 'Mohani' refers to Mohan, his birthplace.
He studied in Aligarh Muslim University, where some of his colleagues were Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali. His teachers in poetry were Tasleem Lucknawi and Naseem Dehlvi.
A few of his books are Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani (en. Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry), Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib (en. Explanation of Ghalib's poetry), Nukaat-e-Sukhan (en. Important aspects of poetry), Mushahidaat-e-Zindaan (en. Observations in Prison), etc. A very popular ghazal Chupke Chupke Raat Din sung by Ghulam Ali and Ghazal King Jagjit Singh was penned by him. He was also featured in the film Nikaah of 1982. The famous slogan of Indian freedom fighters Inquilab Zindabad was coined by Mohani in 1921.
In 1921 Ram Prasad Bismil attended Ahmedabad Congress along with many volunteers from Shahjahanpur and occupied a place on the dais. A senior congressman Prem Krishna Khanna and revolutionary Ashfaqulla Khan was also with him. Bismil played an active role in the Congress with Mohani and got the most debated proposal of Poorn Swaraj passed in the General Body meeting of Congress. Mohandas K. Gandhi, who was not in the favour of this proposal became quite helpless before the overwhelming demand of youths. It was another victory of Bismil against the Liberal Group of Congress. He returned to Shahjahanpur and mobilised the youths of United Province for non-co-operation with the Government. The people of U.P. were so much influenced by the furious speeches and verses of Bismil that they became hostile against British Raj.
Struggle for Indian independence
Mohani participated in the struggle for Indian Independence (end of British Raj); and was jailed for many years by British authorities. He was the first person in Indian History who demanded 'Complete Independence' (Azadi-e-Kaamil) in 1921 as he presided over an annual session of All India Muslim League. He was a practising Muslim.
He was among the founders of the Communist Party of India at Kanpur in 1925. He was also imprisoned for promoting anti-British ideas, especially for publishing an article against British policies in Egypt, in his magazine 'Urdu-e-Mualla'. Afterwards, unlike some Urdu poets like Josh Malihabadi and many Muslim leaders, he chose to live in India rather than move to Pakistan after independence (1947) to represent left over Indian Muslims on various platforms. In recognition for his efforts, he was made a member of the constituent assembly which drafted the Indian constitution. But unlike other members, he never signed it.
Death and legacy
Maulana Hasrat Mohani died on 13 May 1951 in Lucknow, India.
Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society was founded by Maulana Nusrat Mohani in 1951. In Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, Hasrat Mohani Memorial Library and Hall Trust, Karachi have been established by Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society (Regd.) Every year, on his death anniversary, a memorial meeting is conducted by this Trust as well as many other organisations in India and Pakistan. Also Hasrat Mohani Colony, at Korangi Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, was named after Maulana Hasrat Mohani. A famous and vast road is named after him in the financial hub of Karachi.
- Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani (Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry)
- Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib (Explanation of Ghalib's poetry)
- Nukaat-e-Sukhan (Important aspects of poetry)
- "Chupke chupke raat din…". Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- The Illustrated Weekly of India. Published for the proprietors, Bennett, Coleman & Company, Limited, at the Times of India Press. October 1974.
- "India remembers Maulana Hasrat Mohani who gave the revolutionary slogan 'Inquilab Zindabad'". Zee News. 2 January 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Profile: Maulana Hasrat Mohani". www.milligazette.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "70 years of Independence: How Communists kept pestering the British throughout the freedom struggle". The Indian Express. 18 August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Gulam Ali Allana (1988) Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562–1947, Royal Book Company (1988), p. 215, ISBN 9694070910
- Avril Ann Powell (2013) Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India, Routledge, p. 181, ISBN 1138878855
- Jinnah and Tilak, Comrades in the Freedom Struggle by A. G. Noorani
- C. M. Naim. The Maulana Who Loved Krishna. Outlook India
- Prashant H. Pandya (1 March 2014). Indian Philately Digest. Indian Philatelists' Forum.
- "LITERACY NOTES: Hasrat Mohani – a unique poet & politician". Business Recorder. 18 June 2005. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
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