Hassan Habibi

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Hassan Habibi
حسن حبیبی
Hassan Habibi 1980.jpg
Habibi in 1980
First Vice President of Iran
In office
1 September 1989 – 11 September 2001
PresidentAkbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Mohammad Khatami
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byMohammad-Reza Aref
Minister of Justice
In office
9 March 1985 – 1 September 1989
PresidentAli Khamenei
Prime MinisterMir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded byMohammad Asghari
Succeeded byEsmail Shooshtari
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 – 28 May 1984
ConstituencyTehran, Rey and Shemiranat
Majority1,552,478 (72.7%)
Minister of Culture and Higher Education
In office
1 October 1979 – 6 November 1979
Prime MinisterMehdi Bazargan
Preceded byAli Shariatmadari
Succeeded byHassan Arefi
Personal details
Hassan Ebrahim Habibi
Persian: حسن ابراهیم حبیبی

(1937-01-29)29 January 1937
Tehran, Iran
Died31 January 2013(2013-01-31) (aged 76)
Tehran, Iran
Political party
Spouse(s)Shafigheh Rahideh[1]
AwardsIndependence Ribbon Bar (I.R.Iran).svg Excellent Order of Independence[2]
Ribbon of Knowledge.png Order of Knowledge (1st class)[3]

Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (Persian: حسن ابراهیم حبیبی‎, b. 29 January 1937 – d. 31 January 2013) was an Iranian politician, lawyer, scholar and the first vice president from 1989 until 2001 under Presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami. He was also a member of the High Council of Cultural Revolution and head of Academy of Persian Language and Literature from 2004 until his death in 2013.

Early life and education[edit]

Habibi was born on 29 January 1937. He studied sociology in France.[4][5] He held a PhD in law and sociology. When he was a university student he visited Khomeini while the latter was in exile.[6]


Habibi was tasked by Ayatollah Khomenei to draft the prospective constitution of Iran when the latter was in exile in Paris.[7] His version was heavily modified due to criticisms and the final text was approved by the election in November 1979.[5]

Following the Iranian revolution, Habibi was named public spokesman for the revolutionary council.[8] He was among the main architects of the first draft of Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which was later passed for more discussion to an elected Assembly of Experts for Constitution.[9] The assembly made significant changes in the original draft, e.g. by introducing the new position of "leader of the Islamic Republic" based on Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, which gave almost unlimited power to the clergy. The modified version was approved in a popular referendum in 1979. In the 1980 presidential election, Habibi run for office, but received only ten percent of the vote against Banisadr's seventy percent.[10] Habibi was backed by Mohammad Beheshti in the election process.[10] In the same year he won a parliamentary seat, being a representative of the Islamic Republican Party.[11]

Habibi served as the minister of justice under Prime Minister Mousavi. He was first vice president of Iran from 1989 to 2001, eight years under President Rafsanjani and then four years under President Khatami.[9] He was replaced by Mohammad Reza Aref in the post in Khatami's second term. He was also head of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature[12] and a member of the Expediency Council.[13]


Habibi died on 31 January 2013. He was buried at the mausoleum of Imam Khomeini in Tehran on 1 February.[13] The funeral service was attended by leading Iranian political figures, including President Ahmedinejad.[13]


Habibi is the author of several books, including God (1981), Society, Culture, Politics (1984), Islam and the Crisis of Our Time (1984), In the Mirror Of Rights: Views Of International Rights, Comparative Rights And Sociology (1988), Seeking the Roots (editing & translation) (1994), Casework of An Ages Student (1997), One Word Out Of Thousands (2 vol.) (1998-2001) and General International Rights (2 vol.) (2003).[14]


  1. ^ Dana Dabir (7 March 2011). همسران حکومتی؛ از حاشیه تا متن [Governmental spouses; from the margin to the text]. Khodnevis (in Persian). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  2. ^ اعطای نشان عالی استقلال به آقای حسن حبیبی معاون اول رئیس‌جمهور [Endowing the Excellent Order of Independence to Mr. Hassan Habibi, First Vice President]. Iranian Parliament (in Persian). 26 July 1997. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  3. ^ نشان‌های دولتی در روزهای پایانی خاتمی و احمدی‌نژاد به چه کسانی رسید؟. Tasnim News Agency (in Persian). 24 August 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  4. ^ Chehabi, H. E. (Summer 1991). "Religion and Politics in Iran: How Theocratic Is the Islamic Republic?". Daedalus. 120 (3): 69–91. JSTOR . 20025388 .
  5. ^ a b Randjbar-Daemi, Siavush (2013). "Building the Islamic State: The Draft Constitution of 1979 Reconsidered". Iranian Studies. 46 (4): 641–663. doi:10.1080/00210862.2013.784519.
  6. ^ Paola Rivetti (February 2012). "Islamic Republic: Shaping Iran's politics through the campus" (Chaillot Papers). In Rouzbeh Parsi (ed.). Iran: A Revolutionary Republic in Transition. Paris: Institute for Security Studies European Union. ISBN 978-92-9198-198-4. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  7. ^ Akhavi, Shahrough (2008). "The Thought and Role of Ayatollah Hossein'ali Montazeri in the Politics of Post-1979 Iran". Iranian Studies. 41 (5): 645–666. doi:10.1080/00210860802518301.
  8. ^ Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 284.
  9. ^ a b "Hassan Ebrahim Habibi, Iranian scholar & former VP passes away". PressTV. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  10. ^ a b Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs. 59 (1): 1–20. doi:10.2307/20040651. JSTOR 20040651.
  11. ^ Bahman Baktiari (1996). Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: The Institutionalization of Factional Politics. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. p. 69.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  12. ^ "Iranologists condemn deliberate distortion of Persian Gulf's name". Payvand. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  13. ^ a b c "Iran's former first vice president laid to rest". Tehran Times. 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  14. ^ "Dr. Hassan Habibi". Eve Literary Agency. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
Political offices
Preceded by
Office established
First Vice President of Iran
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Reza Aref
Party political offices
Preceded by
Jalaleddin Farsi
Islamic Republican Party nominee for President of Iran
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Ali Rajaei

asr:Hassan Habibi