Hastings (UK Parliament constituency)

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Hastings
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1366–1983
Number of membersone
Replaced byHastings and Rye

Hastings was a parliamentary constituency in Sussex. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until the 1885 general election, when its representation was reduced to one member. It was abolished for the 1983 general election, when it was partially replaced by the new Hastings and Rye constituency.

Boundaries[edit]

1918-1950: The County Borough of Hastings.

1950-1955: The County Borough of Hastings, the Municipal Borough of Rye, and part of the Rural District of Battle.

1955-1983:

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1366–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1386 John Clyvessend Edward Martham [1]
1378 John Salerne
1382 (May) John Salerne
1383 (Feb) John Salerne
1383 (Oct) John Salerne
1388 (Feb) John Clyvessend Edward Martham [1]
1388 (Sep) Richard Bannok John Scott [1]
1390 (Jan) John Clyvessend Richard Wybard [1]
1390 (Nov)
1391 John Clyvessend Richard Bannok [1]
1393 John Scott John Sharp [1]
1394
1395 Edward Martham John Hokere [1]
1397 (Jan) John Clyvessend John Hokere [1]
1397 (Sep)
1399 Edward Martham Henry Mordant [1]
1401
1402 John Sharp Robert Burgrove [1]
1404 (Jan)
1404 (Oct)
1406 Henry Mordant John Bexle [1]
1407 Robert Burgrove Thomas Wybard [1]
1410 Edward Martham John Harry [1]
1411
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) Henry Mordant Richard Huntingdon [1]
1414 (Apr)
1414 (Nov) Jihn Sharp Thomas Julyan [1]
1415
1416 (Mar)
1416 (Oct)
1417 John Lyvett Richard Huntingdon [1]
1419 Simon Lymbergh John Martham [1]
1420 Simon Lymbergh William Courthope [1]
1421 (May) John Parker William Courthope [1]
1421 (Dec) Richard Huntingdon William Courthope [1]
1510 No names known[2]
1512 Robert Hall Henry Benever [2]
1515 ?
1523 Edmund Jacklin alias Bocher Edmund Franke [2]
1529 Richard Calveley Thomas Shoyswell [2]
by 1534 John Durrant John Taylor [2]
1536 ?John Durrant ?John Taylor [2]
1539 ?
1542 John Franke Richard Bishop [2]
1545 ?
1547 Sir William Stafford John Isted [2]
1553 (Mar) John Isted ?
1553 (Oct) Thomas Rhodes John Peyton [2]
1554 (Apr) John Franke John Isted [2]
1554 (Nov) Thomas Rhodes John Peyton [2]
1555 Thomas Rhodes Roger Manwood [2]
1558 Thomas Brett Henry Tennant [2]
1559 John Franke James Hobson[3]
1562/3 Sir William Damsell[4] Richard Lyffe [3]
1571 Richard Lyffe James Bryan [3]
1572 Richard Lyffe Thomas Lake [3]
1584 Thomas Lake Thomas Phillips[3]
1586 Thomas Lake Thomas Phillips[3]
1588/9 Richard Lyffe John Parker [3]
1593 Richard Lyffe Henry Apsley [3]
1597 Richard Lyffe Edmund Pelham [3]
1601 Sir Thomas Shirley Richard Lyffe [3]
1604–1611 Richard Lyffe died and
replaced by
James Lasher
Sir George Carew ennobled and
replaced 1605 by
Sir Edward Hales[5]
1614 Sir Edward Hales James Lasher
1621 Samuel Moore James Lasher
1624 Nicholas Eversfield Samuel Moore
1625 Nicholas Eversfield Sackville Crowe
1626 Sir Dudley Carleton
replaced by Sir Thomas Parker
Nicholas Eversfield
1628 John Ashburnham Nicholas Eversfield

MPs 1640–1885[edit]

Election 1st Member 1st Party 2nd Member 2nd Party
April 1640 Sir John Baker Robert Reed
November 1640 John Ashburnham Royalist (Sir) Thomas Eversfield Royalist
February 1644 Ashburnham and Eversfield disabled from sitting - both seats vacant
1645 John Pelham Roger Gratwick
December 1648 Pelham excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653 Hastings was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
January 1659 Samuel Gott Nicholas Delves
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Sir Denny Ashburnham Nicholas Delves
1661 Edmund Waller
1679 Sir Robert Parker John Ashburnham
1681 Thomas Mun
1685 Sir Denny Ashburnham John Ashburnham
Jan 1689 Thomas Mun
Aug 1689 John Beaumont
1690 Peter Gott
1695 John Pulteney Robert Austen
1698 Peter Gott
1701 John Mounsher
1702 Hon. William Ashburnham
Feb 1710 John Ashburnham Tory
Oct 1710 Sir William Ashburnham Sir Joseph Martin
1713 Archibald Hutcheson
1715 Henry Pelham
1722 Sir William Ashburnham
1727 Thomas Townshend [6]
1728 Thomas Pelham
1741 James Pelham Andrew Stone Whig
1761 Hon. James Brudenell William Ashburnham
1768 Samuel Martin
1774 Henry Temple Charles Jenkinson
1780 John Ord
1784 John Dawes John Stanley Tory[7]
1790 Sir Richard Pepper Arden Tory[7]
1794 Robert Dundas Tory[7]
1796 Sir James Sanderson Tory[7] Nicholas Vansittart Tory[7]
1798 William Sturges Tory[7]
1802 Sylvester Douglas Tory[7] George Gunning Tory[7]
1806 Sir John Nicholl Sir William Fowle Middleton Tory[7]
1807 George Canning Tory[7] Sir Abraham Hume Tory[7]
1812 James Dawkins Tory[7]
1818 George Peter Holford Tory[7]
1820 William Scott Tory[7]
June 1826 Sir William Curtis, Bt. Tory[7] Sir Charles Wetherell Tory[7]
December 1826 Evelyn Denison Whig[7] James Lushington Tory[7]
1827 Joseph Planta Tory[7]
1830 Sir Henry Fane Tory[7]
1831 John Ashley Warre Whig[8][9][10][7] Frederick North Whig[11][8][12][7]
1835 Howard Elphinstone Radical[10][13][14][15][16]
1837 Joseph Planta Conservative[7] Robert Hollond Radical[17][18][19]
1844 Musgrave Brisco Conservative[7]
1852 Patrick Francis Robertson Conservative
1854 Frederick North Whig[11][8][12]
1859 Liberal Lord Harry Vane Liberal
1864 Hon. George Waldegrave-Leslie Liberal
1865 Patrick Francis Robertson Conservative
1868 Thomas Brassey Liberal Frederick North Liberal
1869 Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth Liberal
1880 Charles James Murray Conservative
1883 Henry Bret Ince Liberal
1885 Redistribution of Seats Act: representation reduced to one member

MPs 1885–1983[edit]

Election Member Party
1885 Thomas Brassey Liberal
1886 Wilson Noble Conservative
1895 William Lucas-Shadwell Conservative
1900 Freeman Freeman-Thomas Liberal
1906 Harvey du Cros Conservative
1908 by-election Sir Arthur du Cros Conservative
1918 Laurance Lyon Coalition Conservative
1921 by-election Lord Eustace Percy Coalition Conservative
1937 by-election Maurice Hely-Hutchinson Conservative
1945 Sir Neill Cooper-Key Conservative
1970 Kenneth Warren Conservative
1983 constituency abolished: see Hastings and Rye

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1841: Hastings [20][7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Robert Hollond Unopposed
Conservative Joseph Planta Unopposed
Registered electors 952
Radical hold
Conservative hold

Planta resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election.

By-election, 30 March 1844: Hastings [20][7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Musgrave Brisco 513 74.7 N/A
Radical Robert Ross Rowan Moore 174 25.3 N/A
Majority 339 49.3 N/A
Turnout 687 79.9 N/A
Registered electors 860
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1847: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Robert Hollond 423 27.0 N/A
Conservative Musgrave Brisco 407 26.0 N/A
Whig John Ashley Warre 387 24.7 N/A
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 348 22.2 N/A
Independent Liberal William Downing Bruce[21] 0 0.0 N/A
Turnout 783 (est) 86.1 (est) N/A
Registered electors 909
Majority 16 1.0 N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
Majority 20 1.3 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 501 27.1 +4.9
Conservative Musgrave Brisco 487 26.3 +0.3
Whig John Ashley Warre 477 25.8 +1.1
Radical John Locke[22][23] 386 20.9 −6.1
Majority 10 0.5 −0.8
Turnout 926 (est) 84.9 (est) −1.2
Registered electors 1,090
Conservative hold Swing +4.0
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +1.7

Brisco resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election.

By-election, 10 May 1854: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Frederick North Unopposed
Whig gain from Conservative
General Election 1857: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Frederick North Unopposed
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson Unopposed
Registered electors 1,199
Whig gain from Conservative
Conservative hold
General Election 1859: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frederick North 613 33.5 N/A
Liberal Harry Vane 557 30.5 N/A
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 429 23.5 N/A
Conservative William Drew Lucas-Shadwell[24] 230 12.6 N/A
Majority 128 7.0 N/A
Turnout 915 (est) 74.0 (est) N/A
Registered electors 1,235
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

Powlett succeeded to the peerage, becoming Duke of Cleveland, and causing a by-election.

By-election, 6 October 1864: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Waldegrave-Leslie 645 51.1 −12.9
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 616 48.9 +12.8
Majority 29 2.3 −4.7
Turnout 1,261 78.2 +4.2
Registered electors 1,613
Liberal hold Swing −12.9
General Election 1865: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Waldegrave-Leslie 746 26.6 −3.9
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 737 26.3 +2.8
Liberal Frederick North 728 26.0 −7.5
Conservative John Eldon Gorst 591 21.1 +8.5
Turnout 1,401 (est) 74.9 (est) +0.9
Registered electors 1,871
Majority 9 0.3 −6.7
Liberal hold Swing −4.8
Majority 9 0.3 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.3
Brassey
General Election 1868: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Brassey 1,508 31.5 +4.9
Liberal Frederick North 1,446 30.2 +4.2
Conservative Somerset Gough-Calthorpe[25] 967 20.2 −6.1
Conservative Clement Arthur Thurston 873 18.2 −2.9
Majority 479 10.0 +9.7
Turnout 2,397 (est) 85.6 (est) +10.7
Registered electors 2,801
Liberal hold Swing +3.9
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +5.2

North's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 18 November 1869: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth 1,218 52.9 −8.8
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 1,084 47.1 +8.7
Majority 134 5.8 −4.2
Turnout 2,302 82.2 −3.4
Registered electors 2,801
Liberal hold Swing −8.8

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Brassey 1,721 31.8 +0.3
Liberal Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth 1,495 27.7 −2.5
Conservative Patrick Francis Robertson 1,244 23.0 +2.8
Conservative Richard Nicholson[26] 945 17.5 −0.7
Majority 251 4.6 −5.4
Turnout 2,703 (est) 87.7 (est) +2.1
Registered electors 3,082
Liberal hold Swing +0.5
Liberal hold Swing −2.7

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1880: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles James Murray 1,873 34.6 −5.9
Liberal Thomas Brassey 1,838 34.0 +2.2
Liberal Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth 1,702 31.4 +3.7
Majority 35 0.6 N/A
Turnout 3,711 (est) 95.0 (est) +7.3
Registered electors 3,905
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing −3.3
Liberal hold Swing +2.6

Brassey was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 10 May 1880: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Brassey Unopposed
Liberal hold

Murray resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 2 Jul 1883: Hastings [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Henry Bret Ince 2,138 50.4 −15.0
Conservative John Henry Boyer Warner[27] 2,101 49.6 +15.0
Majority 37 0.9 N/A
Turnout 4,239 89.4 −5.6 (est)
Registered electors 4,743
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1885: Hastings [28][29][30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Brassey 2,712 51.5 −13.9
Conservative Wilson Noble 2,550 48.5 +13.9
Majority 162 3.0 N/A
Turnout 5,262 92.8 −2.2 (est)
Registered electors 5,672
Liberal hold Swing −13.9
General Election 1886: Hastings [28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Wilson Noble 2,765 55.4 +6.9
Liberal Thomas Seymour Brand 2,230 44.6 -6.9
Majority 535 10.8 N/A
Turnout 4,995 88.1 -4.7
Registered electors 5,672
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.9

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Hemphill
General Election 1892: Hastings [28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Wilson Noble 3,077 53.9 −1.5
Liberal Charles Hemphill 2,628 46.1 +1.5
Majority 449 7.8 −3.0
Turnout 5,705 86.8 −1.3
Registered electors 6,576
Conservative hold Swing +1.5
Lucas-Shadwell
General Election 1895: Hastings [28][29][31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Lucas-Shadwell 3,205 52.8 -1.1
Liberal Cecil Henry Blundell Ince 2,863 47.2 +1.1
Majority 342 5.6 -2.2
Turnout 6,068 83.2 −3.6
Registered electors 7,292
Conservative hold Swing -1.1

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Thomas
General Election 1900: Hastings [28][29][32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Freeman Freeman-Thomas 3,399 51.6 +4.4
Conservative Edward Boyle 3,191 48.4 −4.4
Majority 208 3.2 N/A
Turnout 6,590 80.9 −2.3
Registered electors 8,142
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +4.4
General Election 1906: Hastings [28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Harvey du Cros 4,348 52.5 +4.1
Liberal Freeman Freeman-Thomas 3,935 47.5 −4.1
Majority 413 5.0 N/A
Turnout 8,283 94.6 +13.7
Registered electors 8,758
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.1
Du Cros
Hastings by-election, 1908[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Du Cros 4,495 56.4 +3.9
Liberal Robert Harcourt 3,477 43.6 −3.9
Majority 1,018 12.8 +7.8
Turnout 7,972 91.6 −3.0
Registered electors 8,707
Conservative hold Swing +3.9

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election January 1910: Hastings [28][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Du Cros 4,634 54.7 -1.7
Liberal Robert Tweedy-Smith 3,833 45.3 +1.7
Majority 801 9.4 -3.4
Turnout 93.8 +2.2
Conservative hold Swing -1.7
General Election December 1910: Hastings [28][34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Du Cros 4,397 55.6
Liberal Arthur Frederick William Johnson 3,515 44.4
Majority 882 11.2
Turnout 87.6
Conservative hold Swing

General Election 1914/15

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

General Election 1918: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Laurance Lyon 11,210 75.9 +20.3
Labour Joseph George Butler 3,556 24.1 N/A
Majority 7,654 51.8 +40.6
Turnout 14,766 59.2 −28.4
Registered electors 24,958
Unionist hold Swing N/A
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

Lord Percy
Hastings by-election, 1921[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Coalition Unionist Eustace Percy 11,685 54.7 −21.2
Labour W Richard Davies 5,437 25.5 +1.4
Liberal Arthur Blackman 4,240 19.8 N/A
Majority 6,248 29.2 −22.6
Turnout 21,362 78.0 +18.8
Registered electors 27,386
Unionist hold Swing −11.3
General Election 1922: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Eustace Percy 13,991 68.3 −7.6
Labour W Richard Davies 6,492 31.7 +7.6
Majority 7,499 36.6 −15.2
Turnout 20,483 71.2 +12.0
Registered electors 28,785
Unionist hold Swing −7.6
Maria Gordon
1923 General Election: Hastings [36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Eustace Percy 11,914 52.6 −15.7
Liberal Maria Gordon 5,876 25.9 N/A
Labour W. Richard Davies 4,859 21.5 −10.2
Majority 6,038 26.7 −9.9
Turnout 22,649 76.4 +5.2
Registered electors 29,662
Unionist hold Swing −2.8
General Election 1924: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Eustace Percy 15,217 71.4 +18.8
Labour Muriel Matters 6,082 28.6 +7.1
Majority 9,135 42.8 +16.1
Turnout 21,299 70.5 −5.9
Registered electors 30,195
Unionist hold Swing +5.9
General Election 1929: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Eustace Percy 15,928 52.3 −19.1
Liberal Thomas Austen Edwin Spearing 8,004 26.3 N/A
Labour Basil Noble 6,516 21.4 −7.2
Majority 7,924 26.0 −16.8
Turnout 30,448 73.4 +2.9
Registered electors 41,503
Unionist hold Swing −6.0

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1931: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Eustace Percy 22,640 70.3
Labour Irene Goddard 4,983 15.5
Liberal Thomas Austen Edwin Spearing 4,561 14.2
Majority 17,657 54.9
Turnout 32,184 73.8
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1935: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Eustace Percy 20,905 69.0
Labour William Wate Wood 9,404 31.0
Majority 11,501 38.0
Turnout 30,309 66.5
Conservative hold Swing
Hastings by-election, 1937[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Maurice Hely-Hutchinson 18,428 62.1
Labour William Wate Wood 11,244 37.9
Majority 7,184 24.2
Turnout 65.3
Conservative hold Swing

General Election 1939/40

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 14,105 51.8
Labour Lewis Gassman 10,580 38.8
Independent Progressive Sydney Muller Parkman 2,564 9.4 n/a
Majority 3,525 13.0
Turnout 74.9
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1950: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 30,035 52.92
Labour Lewis Cohen 17,603 31.01
Liberal Peter L. M. Hurd 9,122 16.07
Majority 12,432 21.90
Turnout 82.14
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1951: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 34,495 63.74
Labour Catherine Williamson 19,621 36.26
Majority 14,874 27.49
Turnout 77.36
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1955: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 20,469 55.77
Labour Reginald George White 11,933 32.51
Liberal John Montgomerie 4,303 11.72
Majority 8,536 23.26
Turnout 75.69
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1959: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 22,458 62.32
Labour James Paterson Bryant 13,576 37.68
Majority 8,882 24.65
Turnout 74.19
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1964: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 16,902 44.55
Labour Harry Arthur Fountain 11,324 29.85
Liberal Jeremy John Arnold 9,716 25.61
Majority 5,578 14.70
Turnout 76.34
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1966: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Neill Cooper-Key 15,324 40.27
Labour Cyril Bernard Kissen 12,984 34.12
Liberal Jeremy John Arnold 9,744 25.61
Majority 2,340 6.15
Turnout 76.41
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1970: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Kenneth Warren 20,364 50.61
Labour Cyril Bernard Kissen 13,549 33.67
Liberal Pamela Maud Shields 6,324 15.72
Majority 6,815 16.94
Turnout 72.77
Conservative hold Swing
General Election, February 1974: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Kenneth Warren 20,075 44.85
Labour Michael Foster 12,992 29.02
Liberal MG Cass 11,690 26.12
Majority 7,083 15.83
Turnout 79.06
Conservative hold Swing
General Election, October 1974: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Kenneth Warren 18,337 44.93
Labour Michael Foster 13,685 33.53
Liberal A Leggett 8,793 21.54
Majority 4,652 11.40
Turnout 71.58
Conservative hold Swing
General Election, 1979: Hastings[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Kenneth Warren 21,311 51.53
Labour Michael Foster 12,392 29.96
Liberal A Leggett 6,474 15.65
Independent GL McNally 839 2.03
National Front HJ Anderson 344 0.83
Majority 8,919 21.56
Turnout 71.68
Conservative hold Swing

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  4. ^ Stanley T. Bindoff, The House of Commons: 1509-1558, vol. 4, p. 9
  5. ^ Cobbett's Parliamentary History records the second member for Hastings in the 1604 Parliament as being James Lasher, but this seems to be an error; Lasher is mentioned only in the Commons Journal from 1621 while Carew was certainly a member in 1604, and other sources name his constituency as Hastings
  6. ^ Townshend was also elected for Cambridge University, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Hastings
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 80–82. Retrieved 6 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ a b c Gash, Norman (2013). Politics in the Age of Peel: A Study in the Technique of Parliamentary Representation, 1830–1850. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571302901. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  9. ^ Jenkins, Terry. "WARRE, John Ashley (1787–1860), of West Newton Manor, nr. Taunton, Som.; West Cliff House, Ramsgate, Kent and 71 Belgrave Square, Mdx". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b The Spectator, Volume 7. F. C. Westley. 1834. p. 316. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  11. ^ a b "About Marianne North". Botanical Art & Artists. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b Tipperary Free Press. 27 May 1835. p. 3 https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000789/18350527/015/0003. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ "Arguments for the Ballot". The Examiner. 23 December 1832. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  14. ^ Fisher, David R. (2009). "Hastings". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  15. ^ "The Approaching Revolution". The Royal lady's magazine, and archives of the court of St. James's. Horticultural Journal. 1831. p. 283. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  16. ^ Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 176. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Elections in Kent". Kentish Gazette. 1 August 1837. p. 2. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  18. ^ "Hastings". Dover Telegraph and Cinque Ports General Advertiser. 15 July 1837. p. 8. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. ^ "Morning Post". 5 July 1837. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 6 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  21. ^ "Electioneering Intelligence". Leicester Journal. 16 July 1847. p. 4. Retrieved 6 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  22. ^ "Hastings". Brighton Gazette. 15 July 1852. p. 6. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  23. ^  Hamilton, John Andrew (1893). "Locke, John (1805–1880)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  24. ^ "East Sussex Election". Sussex Agricultural Express. 23 April 1859. p. 4. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  25. ^ "Lieutenant General The Honourable Somerset Gough Calthorpe". Birmingham Images. Library of Birmingham. 1897. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  26. ^ "The General Election". London Evening Standard. 30 January 1874. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 31 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  27. ^ "Election News". Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette. 28 Jun 1883. p. 5. Retrieved 29 November 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  29. ^ a b c d e f g The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  30. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  31. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  32. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  33. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  34. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  36. ^ FWS Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949; Political Reference Publications, Glasgow 1949
  37. ^ Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939
  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 2)