February 14, 1871
Demak, Dutch East Indies
|Died||July 25, 1947
|Known for||Rais 'Aam Nahdlatul Ulama|
Hasyim Asy'ari was born Muhammad Hasyim in Gedang, Jombang Regency on February 14, 1871. His parents were Asy'ari and Halimah. His grandfather, Kiai Usman was the founder of Pesantren Gedang and his great grandfather was the founder of Pesantren Tambakberas. He was the third son of ten siblings.
At the age of twenty, he married Khadijah, daughter of Pesantren Siwalan Panji leader. One year later, they went to Mecca. After seven months, his wife was dead and also his son, Abdullah two months later.
In 1899, he founded Pesantren Tebuireng, which later became the largest pesantren in Java in the early 20th century. The pesantren also became the center for the reform of traditional Islamic teaching.
On January 31, 1926 he and several traditional Islamic leaders founded Nahdatul Ulama (Awakening of Ulama). In Japanese occupation era, he was arrested, several months later he was released and became Head of Religious Affairs.
He died suddenly on July 25, 1947 due to hypertension, after hearing news that Dutch troops were winning a battle in Malang.
He married seven times and all of his wives were daughters of ulama. Four of his wives were Khadijah, Nafisah, Nafiqah and Masrurah. One of his son, Wahid Hasyim was one of Jakarta Charter formulator and later became Minister of Religious Affair, while his grandson Abdurrahman Wahid became President of Indonesia.
- Khuluq, Lathiful (2008). Fajar Kebangunan Ulama: Biografi K.H. Hasyim Asy'ari. Yogyakarta: LKiS Yogyakarta. ISBN 978-979-8966-37-8.