Hathras

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Hathras
हाथरस
city
Nickname(s): Braj ki Dehri
Hathras is located in Uttar Pradesh
Hathras
Hathras
Coordinates: 27°36′N 78°03′E / 27.60°N 78.05°E / 27.60; 78.05Coordinates: 27°36′N 78°03′E / 27.60°N 78.05°E / 27.60; 78.05
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Hathras
Area
 • Total 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi)
Elevation 178 m (584 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 15,65,678
 • Density 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 204101
Telephone code 05722
Vehicle registration UP-86
Sex ratio 870 /
Website hathras.nic.in

Hathras is a city and a municipal board in Hathras district, in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the headquarters of the district that was created on 3 May 1997, by incorporating parts of: Aligarh, Mathura, Agra Districts, and Khair Tehsil. It forms a part of Aligarh Division.[1]

Hathras lies within the Braj region in Central or Middle Doab, and is associated with the epic Mahabharata and Hindu theology. The principal spoken language is Hindi. Its dialect, Braj Bhasha, which is closely related to Khariboli, is spoken in this region.

Geography[edit]

Hathras is located at 27°36′N 78°03′E / 27.6°N 78.05°E / 27.6; 78.05.[2] It has an average elevation of 178 metres (584 feet). It is situated on Agra, Aligarh and Mathura, and Bareilly Highways' crossing. Variations in temperature are extreme.[3]

Name of Cities Distance from Hathras town Direction from Hathras town
Aligarh 36 km Towards the north
Mathura 41 km Towards the west
Khair 46 km Towards the northwest
Agra 53.8 km Towards the south

History[edit]

No documentary proof is available indicating when the town was built and who populated it. The Jat, Kushan, the Gupta, Varshney, Rajput, and Maratha rulers ruled the region. In 1716 CE, the Jat[4] ruler Raja Nandram’s son, Bhoj Singh, took over the rule of Hathras from the Rajput rulers. After Bhoj Singh, his son Sadan Singh became the ruler of Hathras, followed by his son Bhoori Singh. It is believed that during the reign of Bhoori Singh the temple of the Lord Balarama was built within the Hathras fort. At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was held by Indrajeet Singh Thainua, whose ruined fort (Qila) still stands at the east end of the town. The railway station is named Hathras Qila meaning Hathras Fort. The region was annexed by the British in 1803, but insubordination on the part of the chief necessitated a siege of the fort in 1817. Every year Lakkhi mela is celebrated on Dev Chatt at the Lord Balram Temple popularly known as Dau Baba. The history of Hathras begins after Shri Bhoori Singh when his son Raja Dayaram was crowned in 1775 CE. In 1784 Scindia ruler Madhavrao I Scindia established his regime in the Hathras area.

Archaeological remains of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain culture as well as items from the Shung and Kushan periods were found at many locations in Hathras. Among the archaeological and historical items found are: the fort of Raja Dayaram from the Maurya period located in Hathras town, a 2nd century BC. brown coloured pot, and Sapt Matrikafalam, a Kushan period clay statue. Veereshwar Mahadev is among the notable old temples in the area. Remains of objects the periods when Shaiv rulers and Naag Rajas dominated the area have been located in numerous, scattered locations. During the period of Nagavanshi Kshatriya Clan Rulers: Nairs Seshavtara lord Balram Ji was of great importance and his temples can be found in the region. Old broken statues which have great archeological value are still worshiped in the Braj region. The archeological remains and statues discovered here are kept in the Mathura Museum. The Jain Temple at Nayaganj tells the story of Jain Culture. Samvat 1548 "Vi." is written on the oldest statues here. More historical objects have been uncovered under the remains of Sikandra Rao, Maho, and Sasni, among others. Remains of statues from the Buddhist period were scattered in places like Sahpau, and Lakhnoo; many were collected and kept in the Muthra Museum and Zila Parishad Office in Aligarh. The Bhadra Kali temple of Sahpau also fall under the category of archeological temples. By writing Ghat Ramayana Sant Tulsi Sahab spread the fame of Hathras to faraway places and his disciples gather in the thousands at his grave at Siyal, Kila Gate, Hathras to express their devotion.

There are many other temples in the area including: Bohrey Wali Devi, Gopeshwar Mahadev, at the city station, Chaubey wale Mahadev, Chinta Haran, Masani Devi, Shri Naath Ji Chamunda Maa temple at Chawar Gate, Lord Varah temple at Dibba Gali, and many temples of Lord Balram. Among rural temples, the temple of Lord Dauji Maharaj Ji is very significant. Garhis, Hawelis and forts whose remains still exist belong to old Jamindars. Nawab Mendu and Sadabad, Haweli of Jamindar of Laakhnu, Phaharpur, and Hasayan can also be included in this category.

Baghraya[edit]

Located in Hathras District, Baghraya is a one of the largest village in the Hathras district about 8 km Hathras Junction to Jalesar road. It is famous for Baba Jaharveer or Gogaji Temple which was constructed on a three acre field by Baba Yogesh Singh and his family. Many people visit on Mondays and Tuesdays. The temple is a prototype of Gogamedi. Thousands of people come to the temple in August for the Fair and to display their faith in Jaharveer Baba. It is also famous for its fifty-one freedom fighters. The population is 99 percent Hindu. Most of the people belong to the Rajput clan.

Hathras Junction Railway Station is the nearest railway station to Baghraya. There are 84 villages of the Rajput Community called Chaurasi. Their inhabitants are well educated and financially well off.

After coming under British rule, Hathras rapidly rose to commercial importance. On 19 October 1875, the first train ran between Hathras Road and Mathura Cantonment. Hathras city is now connected by Broad Gauge railway with Mathura Junction, and by a branch with Hathras junction on the North Eastern line.

While the history of the city dates back to ancient times, it also appears that there was an ancient fort in Hathras at the site of the ruins of the modern day fort.

Hathras played a role during India's freedom struggle and is famous for its fifty-one freedom fighters. Raja Mahendra Pratap, Munshi Gajadhar Singh, were among the eminent personalities from Hathras during the freedom struggle.

Economy[edit]

Industries[edit]

Hathras was an industrial hub during the British Raj. Cotton milling, knives, the spice asafoetida or "hing", and Desi Ghee products were the main industries. The last two continue to thrive. Cotton milled at the Purana Mill Compound was exported around the world. The chief articles of commerce are sugar and grain. Hathras is now notable for: HoliColour and Gulal skin powders, the manufacture of ready made garments, chemicals, carpet manufacturing, artificial Moonga-Moti pearls, brass, artware and hardware, edible oil, Metal Handicrafts and beverages.

Art and culture[edit]

The city boasts a rich cultural heritage and presents a wide array of literature, architecture, music, drama, poetry, cuisine and local festivities.

Literature and Poetry: Hathras has been a seat of great works, both in a variety prose and poetry, in various periods. It was the home of the famous 18th century saint Tulsi Sahib, whose works consist of Shabdavali, Ratan Sagar and Ghat Ramayan. Saint Gaya Prassad Ji and Pandit Bansh Gopal tiwari known as most renowned vedantic personality from this city. In modern times, Prabhu Lal Garg famously known as Kaka Hathrasi, a poet, musician and painter, has been the most renowned personality from this city. He was conferred with the Padma Shri award by the Government of India. Kaka ke Kartoos (Bullets of Kaka), Kaka ke Prahasan, Kaka ki Cocktail, Kaka ki Phuljhariyan, Hasant-Basant, and Kaka-Kaki ke Love Letters, etc. are some of his famous works. The residents of Hathrasa have an immense interest in poetry.

Music and Drama: The important folk songs of the city are the - Rasiya while the traditional folk dance of the city is the Swang or Ras. The city has been a regular centre for the development of these arts and has thrived on its cultural richness. The most eminent figure in this field has been Natharam Gaur, the master of the art of 'Swang and Nautanki', a form of dramaa. A proponent of the legendary ‘Indaraman’ school of Swang his works include Amar Singh Rathore, Harishchandra, and Siri Farhad among others. These traditional arts are still enjoyed all over the district and are conducted throughout the year.

Architecture: The city still has many buildings from older periods some with intricate designs on their facades and ornate carvings at their entrances. There are various Haveli (townhouses) built by wealthy individuals in the past; Bagla ki Haveli is the most famous one. The old havelis are mostly constructed with red stone from Rajasthan and the style also imitates that of Rajasthani Havelis.

Food: The city is famous in the region for its sweets made from Desi Ghee. Unlike nearby Mathura city which is famous for sweets made from milk and milk products, in Hathras sweets are mainly prepared from ghee. These sweets are Sohan Halwa or Son Papdi, Balushahi, Jalebi, and Imarti, Gajar Halwa, and Mung Halwa. In the city there is a tradition and culture to distribute or share sweets on celebrations and used the, as gifts on special occasions. People living in the region love sweets and traditionally consume sweets in their day-to-day life. There are numerous sweet shops in the city.

Chaat (savoury snack)s including Tikki, Samose, Padake, and Dahi Vada are popular in the area.

For breakfast sweet shops serve Bedami Puri, which are poori's (unleavened bread )filed with Moong lentils, served with potato curry and curd Raita.

Fairs and Festivities: Throughout the year the city organizes various cultural fairs and events, the most popular being the historical Dauji Fair held in the vicinity of the 19th century ruined fort which has the famous Dauji temple at its top. On the 101st anniversary of this fair (Ganesha Chaturthi, 19 September 2012) the divine tree Kalpavriksha was planted by Green man Vijaypal Baghel at Dauji temple compound. The fifteen-day fair hosts wrestling competitions, poetry summits (kavi sammelan), 'Swangs' and 'Nautankis' as well as other cultural programmes.

The 'Baghichis' or the gardens of the city are still a popular rendezvous for evening sittings. Bohrey Wala Bagh named on Bohre Natthi Lal ji was known in Agra Region for its natural beauty and Ancient Mahadev Temple and renowned Bohre Wali Devi. A typical feature of almost every bagichi is the akhara or the wrestling ring where juveniles and adults practice various forms of wrestling. As such the city has been always on the country's wrestling circuit and has produced mand of the country's top-notch wrestlers or the Pahalwans.

The Laxmi-Narayan Temple was built about one hundred years ago by Lala Jyotiprasadji (Gotewale). He installed the sacred images (murti sthapana) of the Hindu god Narayan and goddess Laxmi on jyeshta sudi panchami according to the Hindu calendar. Every year, a huge function celebrating the anniversary of the temple, and the deities, is organized by the successors of Lala Jyotiprasadji (presently Sanjay Gotewale). The temple celebrates all the Hindu festivals like: Janmashatmi Nandotasava, Holi utsav including smaller occasions like Annakut, and Sankrati Darshan (Khichdi ke Darshan) among others.

The city, owing to its historical cultural background, has numerous temples. Besides them a temple-cum-research complex Mangalaytan has been developed on the Aligarh-Agra Highway. The Mangalaytan complex is one of the largest Jain religious centers of its kind in the country and also houses the Mangalayatan University. Eid is celebrated by the Muslim poulation.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 census, Hathras urban agglomeration had a population of 161,289; 86,028 males and 75,261 females. The literacy rate was 78.05 per cent. .[5]

Religions in Hathras
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
77%
Muslims
  
21%
Jains
  
1.0%
Others†
  
1.0%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Transport[edit]

Four railway stations serve Hathras: Hathras Junction railway station, Hathras Road railway station, Hathras City railway station, and Hathras Kila railway station. The distance between Malipura, Khair and Hathras is 48 km. and Aligarh is 38 km. far away from Hathras.

Education[edit]

'Hathras has a number of schools and colleges, some of which are listed below.

  • Krishna public school. kailora Chauraha Hathras Jn.
  • New Chanakya Competition Academey
  • Rajendra Lohia Vidya Mandir,Aligarh Road,Hathras
  • Krishna International inter college budhoo Iglas road Hathras
  • Shri Radhe Lal Arya Inter college Hathras jalesar road aihan bilokari hathras
  • Shri K.L.Jain Inter College Sasni Hathras
  • Pilikothi Govt. Girls' School.
  • BLS school
  • Kendriya Vidyala
  • M.L.D.V. Inter College
  • Seksaria Sushila Devi Public School
  • Seth Phool Chand Bagla (PG) College
  • Saraswati Degree College
  • Rameshwar Das Agrawal Girls (PG) College
  • SS memorial Degree College
  • Phool Chand Bagla Anglo-Sanskrit Inter College
  • Akrur Inter College Mahow
  • Saraswati Inter College
  • Daulat Ram Barahsaini Inter College
  • St. Francis Senior Secondary School
  • Ram Chandra Girls Inter College
  • Seth Harchararan Das Girls Inter College
  • Adarsh Inter College
  • Government Girls Inter College
  • CLRN Seksaria Inter College
  • Saraswati Vidya Mandir
  • BLS International School
  • S.S.D. Public School
  • R.P.M. Mahavidhyalaya, Kota Road, Hathras
  • Shri Malkhan Singh Mahavidhyalaya, Thulai, Hathras Junction
  • Shri Malkhan Singh Inter College, Thulai, Hathras Junction
  • Sudha Sengar Inter College Hathras Janction.
  • Sri Balbant Singh Sr.Sec.School, Salempur Hathras
  • Kamal Public Jr. High School, Garhi Tamana, Indra Nagar, Hathras
  • vivek pachauri school
  • G.P.G.D inter college chandpa hathras
  • center public inter college nagla dana hathras
  • suraj public school
  • Delhi public school Hathras
  • Shri Balwant Singh Senior Secondary School,Salempur,Hathras
  • Doon Public School,Hathras

References[edit]

  1. ^ July 2012
  2. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Hathras". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2012-06-23. 
  3. ^ Temperature Variations
  4. ^ http://hathras.nic.in/
  5. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 

External links[edit]