The monument of Hatuey, in Baracoa city, Cuba—the place he besieged the most while fighting the Spanish forces.
|Died||c. February 2, 1512|
|Occupation||Taíno Cacique (chief)|
|Known for||"Cuba's First National Hero."|
Hatuey (//), also Hatüey (//; died February 2, 1512), was a Taíno Cacique (chief) originally from what is now called the island of Hispaniola, who lived in the early sixteenth century and fled to Cuba during the Spanish conquest. He has attained legendary status for leading a group of Natives in a fight against the invading Spaniards, and thus becoming one of the first fighters against colonialism in the New World. He is celebrated as "Cuba's First National Hero". The 2010 film Even the Rain includes a cinematic account of Hatuey's execution.
In 1511, Diego Velázquez set out from Hispaniola to colonize what is now known as the island of Cuba, to steal gold and enslave Taíno (Cuba's indigenous people, the Taíno, were previously recorded by Columbus). Velázquez was preceded, however, by Hatuey, who fled Hispaniola with a party of four hundred in canoes and warned some of the Native people of eastern Cuba about what to expect from the Spaniards.
Bartolomé de Las Casas later attributed the following speech to Hatuey. He showed the Taíno of Caobana a basket of gold and jewels, saying:
- Here is the God the Spaniards worship. For these they fight and kill; for these they persecute us and that is why we have to throw them into the sea... They tell us, these tyrants, that they adore a God of peace and equality, and yet they usurp our land and make us their slaves. They speak to us of an immortal soul and of their eternal rewards and punishments, and yet they rob our belongings, seduce our women, violate our daughters. Incapable of matching us in valor, these cowards cover themselves with iron that our weapons cannot break...
The Taino chiefs in Cuba did not respond to Hatuey's message, and few joined him to fight. Hatuey resorted to guerrilla tactics against the Spaniards, and was able to confine them for a time. He and his fighters were able to kill at least eight Spanish soldiers. Eventually, using mastiffs and torturing the Native people for information, the Spaniards succeeded in capturing him. On February 2, 1512, he was tied to a stake and burned alive at Yara, near the present-day City of Bayamo.
Before he was burned, a priest asked Hatuey if he would accept Jesus and go to heaven. Las Casas recalled the reaction of the chief:
- [Hatuey], thinking a little, asked the religious man if Spaniards went to heaven. The religious man answered yes... The chief then said without further thought that he did not want to go there but to hell so as not to be where they were and where he would not see such cruel people. This is the name and honor that God and our faith have earned.
Hatuey also lives on in as a beer brand name. Beer has been brewed in Santiago de Cuba and sold under the Hatuey brand name since 1927, initially by the native Cuban company, Compañia Ron Bacardi S.A.. After nationalization of industry in 1960, brewing was taken over by Empresa Cerveceria Hatuey Santiago. Beginning in 2011, the Bacardi family again began making beers in the United States to market under the Hatuey label. Hatuey is also a brand of a type of sugary, non-alcoholic malt beverage called Malta. Hatuey is also a brand of soda cracker.
The imagery of Hatuey has been appropriated and/or incorporated into diverse artistic genres, most notably into the Afro-Cuban Yiddish Opera, "Hatuey: Memory of Fire". In the visual arts, multiple artists have used the Taino chief's image, most notably Cuban-American artist Ric Garcia, U.S. Marine Corps artist Donald Dickson, and Australian artist damefine, among others.
- Running Fox, 'The Story of Cacique Hatuey, Cuba's First National Hero', La Voz del Pueblo Taíno (The Voice of the Taíno People) (United Confederation of Taino People, U.S. Regional Chapter, January 1998)
- J. A. Sierra. 'The Legend of Hatuey', The History of Cuba (August 2006). Retrieved September 9, 2006.
- Bartolomé de Las Casas, Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Translated by Nigel Griffin. (London: Penguin, 1999) ISBN 0-14-044562-5[page needed]
- Barreiro, Jose "A Note on Taino," in Akwe, Cornell, View From the Shore, Pon Press, 1990[page needed]
- "A violent evangelism: the political and religious conquest of the Americas", Luis N. Rivera, Luis Rivera Pagán, Westminster John Knox Press, 1992, ISBN 0-664-25367-9[page needed]
- Klein, Lee. Hatuey Beer Returns as a Microbrew. Miami New Times, Dec. 6, 2011.
- "Bacardi Launches National Distribution of Hatuey". Brewbound. 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- Soda Pop Stop Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine
- Quaffmaster. "Malta Hatuey". Weird Soda Review. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "También la lluvia".
- Bronxnet. "OPEN Artist Spotlight with cast of Hatuey: Memory of Fire". Bronxnet. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "Afro-Cuban Yiddish opera with music by The Klezmatics' Frank London". Arts & Cultural Programming. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "Hatuey Memory Of Fire". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "Hatuey: Rebel Chief – MARYLAND MILESTONES". Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "The Drinks of the Marine Corps: Hatuey Beer". National Museum of the Marine Corps. 2020-08-06. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "Hatuey Chooses Hell by damefine". www.deviantart.com. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
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