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Hawiye

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Main article: Somali people
Hawiye
بنو هوية
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Somali
Religion
Islam (Sunni, Sufism)
Related ethnic groups
Dir, Darod, Isaaq, Rahanweyn, other Somali people

The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiye, Arabic: بنو هوية‎‎) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ogaden and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale. According to U.S. Department of Justice report "Hawiye (part of the Irir clan family) is probably the largest clan within Somalia, while Darood is the largest clan among all Somalis across borders."[1]

The Hawiye are either the largest[2][3] or second-largest[4][5] Somali clan in Somalia, but are the dominant clan in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia,[6]

History

According to an official Military Survey conducted during the colonial period, Hawiye clan members are by tradition believed to be descended from a forefather named Hawiya Irrir. Hawiya Irrir is held to be the brother of Dir. I.M. Lewis maintains that "strictly speaking… the Hawiye… together with the Dir are linked as 'Irir [Samaale]' at a higher level of genealogical grouping.".[7] Together with the Dir they trace ancestry through Irir Samaale to Arabian origins with Aqiil Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib.[8][9]

The first written reference to the Hawiye dates back to a 13th-century document by the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who described Merca at the time as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.[10]

Settlement and commerce

Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu and Warsheikh in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiran region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.[11]

Sub-clans of the Hawiye include the Degodia, about 40 percent of whom live in Ethiopia. When Arthur Donaldson Smith traveled through what is now Bare woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib and Dawa Rivers.[12]

The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris.[13][14]

Clan tree

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[15][16]

In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:[17]

  • Hawiye
    • Karanle
      • Murusade
    • Gorgate
      • Abgal
      • Habargidir
      • Sheikhal
      • Duduble
      • Ujeien
    • Gugun-Dhabe
    • Rarane
    • Haskul
    • Jambeele
      • Hawadle
      • Galje'el
      • Ajuran
      • Dagodi

The Silcis are a subclan of the Gorgate. They were the rulers of the Silcis Sultanate in the 17th and 18th centuries and later became established at Warsheikh.

A few clans in the southern part of Greater Somalia do not belong to the Hawiye clan, but came to be associated with them and were eventually adopted into the confederation:

Thus the Gaalje'el, Degoodi and Hawaadle are said to have patrilateral ties with the Dir and Hawiye through Samaale to Aqeel Abu Talib, whereas the Sheekhaal and Ajuraan traces descent to a different forefather than the Samaale progeny, but also trace to Aqeel Abu Talib.

Notable Hawiye figures

Politicians

Military personnel

Leading intellectuals

Traditional elders and religious leaders

Music and literature

Political factions and organizations

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/08/overview.pdf
  2. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2002). "Ethnic Groups". Somalia Summary Map. Retrieved February 15, 2006. 
  3. ^ Human Rights Watch (1990). "Somalia: Human Rights Developments". Human Rights Watch World Report 1990. Retrieved November 21, 2005. 
  4. ^ "The Situation in Somalia". Report of the Somali Commission of Inquiry, Vol. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2005. 
  5. ^ Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain
  6. ^ "'Truce' after Somali gun battle". BBC News. 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  7. ^ Lewis, I.M. (2008). Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society: Culture History and Society. Hurst. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85065-898-6. 
  8. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-932415-98-1. 
  9. ^ Lewis, Ioan. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-932415-92-9. 
  10. ^ Herbert S. Lewis, "The Origins of the Galla and Somali", in The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press, 1966, pp 27–30.
  11. ^ The Somali, Afar and Saho groups in the Horn of Africa by I.M Lewis
  12. ^ Donaldson-Smith, Through Unknown African Countries: the first expedition from Somaliland to Lake Rudolph (London, 1897), p. 143
  13. ^ Kenya’s past; an introduction to historical method in Africa page by Thomas T. Spear
  14. ^ The Shaping of Somali society; reconstructing the history of a pastoral people by Lee Cassanelli
  15. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55 Figure A-1
  16. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
  17. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.56 Figure A-2
  18. ^ a b c Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739. 
  19. ^ a b c Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998. 
  20. ^ Schlee, Günther (1989-01-01). Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya. Manchester University Press. p. 214. ISBN 9780719030109. 
  21. ^ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165
  22. ^ "CRD Somalia". Center for Research and Dialogue. 2005-07-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  23. ^ http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=85097&sectionid=351020501
  24. ^ http://allafrica.com/stories/200902080003.html