Hawaii County, Hawaii
Location within the U.S. state of Hawaii
Hawaii's location within the U.S.
|Named for||Hawaiian Islands|
|• Mayor||Mitch Roth|
|• Total||5,086.70 sq mi (13,174.5 km2)|
|• Land||4,028.02 sq mi (10,432.5 km2)|
|• Water||1,058.69 sq mi (2,742.0 km2) 20.81%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||46/sq mi (17.7/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−10 (Hawaii–Aleutian)|
|• Summer (DST)||HADT|
Hawaiʻi County is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands. It is coterminous with the Island of Hawaii, often called the "Big Island" to distinguish it from the state as a whole. As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaii County (see Hawaii Counties). The Hilo Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hawaii County. Hawaii County has a mayor–council form of government. Hawaii County is the largest county in the state in terms of geography.
The mayor of Hawaii County is Mitch Roth, who took office in 2020. Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member Hawaii County Council.
Hawaii County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state they are in (the other six are Arkansas County, Idaho County, Iowa County, New York County, Oklahoma County, and Utah County).
Hawaiʻi County has a total area of 5,086.70 square miles (13,174.5 km2); 4,028.02 square miles (10,432.5 km2) is land and 1,058.69 square miles (2,742.0 km2) is water (mostly all off the ocean shoreline but counted in the total area by the U.S. Census Bureau). The county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. (Delaware's Sussex County comes in second at 48.0 percent, while Rhode Island's Providence County is third at 39.55 percent.)
- Maui County - northwest
|U.S. Decennial Census|
Historical Population 1900-1990
As of 2010[update], the island had a resident population of 185,079. There were 64,382 households in the county. The population density was 17.7/km2 (45.9/mi2). There were 82,324 housing units at an average density of 8/km2 (20/mi2). The racial makeup of the county was 34.5% White, 29.2% from two or more races, 22.6% Asian, 12.4% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander and 0.7% African American; 11.8% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. The largest ancestry groups were:
- 9.8% Japanese
- 9.6% German
- 8.6% Filipino
- 8.5% Native Hawaiian
- 8.3% Portuguese
- 6.9% Irish
- 5.7% English
- 5.1% Puerto Rican
- 3.2% Mexican
- 2.5% French
- 2.2% Italian
- 1.9% Spanish
- 1.7% Scottish
- 1.5% Scotch-Irish
- 1.5% Swedish
- 1.1% Polish
- 1.1% Dutch
- 1.0% Norwegian
There were 64,382 households, out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a woman whose husband did not live with her, and 30.4% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24.
The age distribution was 26.1% under 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98 males.
41.3% of the people on Hawaii island are religious, meaning they affiliate with a religion. 18.4% are Catholic; 3.7% are of another Christian faith; 5.1% are LDS; 0.1% in Hawaii, 5.0% are of an eastern faith; 0.1% are Muslim.
Government and infrastructure
Executive authority is vested in the mayor of Hawaii County, who is elected for a four-year term. Since 2004, the election by the voters has been on a nonpartisan basis. In 2020, Mitch Roth was elected mayor, succeeding Harry Kim, who lost reelection after being defeated in the primary election. Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member County Council. Members of the County Council are elected on a nonpartisan basis to two-year terms from single-member districts. As of December 2016, Hawaiʻi County Council has a female supermajority for the first time, with six women and three men.
Administrative districts were originally based on the traditional land divisions called Moku of Ancient Hawaii. Some more heavily populated districts have since been split into North and South districts to make them more comparable on a population basis.
The number following each district is the Tax Map Key (TMK) number, used to locate state property information. They are assigned in a counter-clockwise order beginning on the eastern side of the island.
|Hawaiʻi County||4028.02||148677||6 moku|
County council districts do not directly match the property tax districts because of the variation in the population density of voters in urban areas to rural areas; Hilo & Kailua (Kailua-Kona) towns are densely populated areas, while other districts such as Kaʻū, Puna, Hāmākua, and North & South Kohala are more sparsely populated.
Several government functions are administered at the county level that are at the state or municipal level in other states. For example, the county has its own office of liquor control.
Hawaii Department of Public Safety previously operated the Kulani Correctional Facility in Hawaii County, on the Island of Hawaii. In 2009, the Hawaii Department of Public Safety announced that Kulani Correctional Facility would close.
Presidential election results
- Captain Cook
- Eden Roc
- Fern Acres
- Fern Forest
- Hawaiian Acres
- Hawaiian Beaches
- Hawaiian Ocean View
- Hawaiian Paradise Park
- Leilani Estates
- Mountain View
- Nanawale Estates
- Orchidlands Estates
- Waikoloa Village
National protected areas
- Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail
- Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge
- Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
- Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park
- Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge
- Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park
- Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site
According to the county's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the county are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||State of Hawaii||8,115|
|3||United States Government||1,364|
|4||Hilton Waikoloa Village||984|
|6||KTA Super Stores||800|
|7||Mauna Kea Beach Hotel||685|
|8||The Fairmont Orchid||577|
|9||Four Seasons Resort Hualalai||562|
|10||Hapuna Beach Prince Hotel||487|
Hawaiʻi County has 10 sisters:
- Hualien City, Taiwan (1971)
- La Serena, Chile (1994)
- Legazpi City, Philippines (1970)
- Nago City, Okinawa, Japan (1986)
- Izu Ōshima, Japan (1962)
- Sao Miguel Island, Portugal (1980)
- Shibukawa, Gunma, Japan (1997) 
- Sumoto, Hyōgo, Japan (2000)
- Tasmania, Australia (1997)
- Yurihama, Tottori, Japan (1996)
- Joseph Nathan Kane; Charles Curry Aiken (2005). The American Counties: Origins of County Names, Dates of Creation, and Population Data, 1950-2000. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5036-1.
- "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 9, 2019.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- Hawaii Historical Population 1900-1990
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2014-06-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Office of the Mayor". official web site. County of Hawaii. Retrieved 2020-12-11.
- "Hawaiʻi County Council". official web site. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. Retrieved 2017-12-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Hawaii County: 2000[permanent dead link]
- "Hawaii County Council". official web site. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
- "Office of Liquor Control". Hawaii County web site. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved December 25, 2010.
- "Kulani Correctional Facility." Hawaii Department of Public Safety. Retrieved on September 30, 2010.
- "Closure of Kulani Saves $2.8M Annually; Facility to Help At-Risk Youth." Hawaii Department of Public Safety. July 2009. Retrieved on September 30, 2010.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- County of Hawaii CAFR Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
- State of Hawaii’s Sister States/Cities A Report to the Hawaii State Legislature 2006
- "Hula and economy bind Hawaii, Shibukawa sister cities". Big Island Video News. Retrieved 2015-05-02.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hawaii County, Hawaii.|
- Official Hawaiʻi County website
- Volcanoes National Park
- Economic background from the Revision of the Hawaii County General Plan
- Media related to Hawaii (island) at Wikimedia Commons