|ʻIʻiwi (Drepanis coccinea)|
Hawaiian honeycreepers are small, passerine birds endemic to Hawaiʻi. They are closely related to the rosefinches in the genus Carpodacus. Their great morphological diversity is the result of adaptive radiation in an insular environment.
Before the introduction of molecular phylogenetic techniques, the relationship of the Hawaiian honeycreepers to other bird species was controversial. The honeycreepers were sometimes categorized as a family Drepanididae, other authorities considered them a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of Fringillidae, the finch family. The entire group was also called "Drepanidini" in treatments where buntings and American sparrows (Passerellidae) are included in the finch family; this term is preferred for just one subgroup of the birds today. Most recently, the entire group has been subsumed into the finch subfamily Carduelinae.
Today, the flowers of the native ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha) are favored by a number of nectarivorous honeycreepers. The wide range of bill shapes in this group, from thick, finch-like bills to slender, down-curved bills for probing flowers have arisen through adaptive radiation, where an ancestral finch has evolved to fill a large number of ecological niches. Some 20 species of Hawaiian honeycreeper have become extinct in the recent past, and many more in earlier times, following the arrival of humans who introduced non-native animals (ex: rats, pigs, goats, cows) and converted habitat for agriculture.
Genera and species
The term "prehistoric" indicates species that became extinct between the initial human settlement of Hawaiʻi (i.e., from the late 1st millennium AD on) and European contact in 1778.
- Genus Aidemedia Olson & James, 1991 – straight thin bills, insectivores
- Genus Akialoa Olson & James, 1995 – pointed, long and down-curved bills, insectivorous or nectarivorous
- Akialoa ellisiana Gray, 1859 – Oʻahu ʻAkialoa (extinct, 1940)
- Akialoa lanaiensis Rothschild, 1893 – Maui Nui ʻAkialoa (extinct, 1892)
- Akialoa stejnegeri Wilson, 1889 – Kauaʻi ʻAkialoa (extinct, 1969)
- Akialoa obscura Cabanis, 1889 – Lesser ʻAkialoa (extinct, 1940)
- Akialoa upupirostris – Hoopoe-billed ʻAkialoa (prehistoric)
- Genus Chloridops Wilson, 1888 – thick-billed, hard seed (e.g. Myoporum sandwicense) specialist
- Genus Chlorodrepanis Olson & James, 1995 – pointed bills, insectivorous and nectarivorous
- Genus Ciridops Newton, 1892 – finch-like, fed on fruit of Pritchardia species
- Genus Drepanis Temminck, 1820 – down-curved bills, nectarivores
- Genus Dysmorodrepanis Perkins, 1919 – pincer-like bill, possibly snail specialist
- Genus Hemignathus Lichtenstein, 1839 – pointed or long and down-curved bills, insectivorous
- Genus Himatione – thin-billed, nectarivorous
- Genus Loxioides Oustalet, 1877 – finch-like, Fabales seed specialists
- Genus Loxops – small pointed bills with the tips slightly crossed, insectivorous
- Genus Magumma - small pointed bills, insectivorous and nectarivorous
- Genus Melamprosops Casey & Jacobi, 1974 – short pointed bill, insectivorous and snail specialist
- Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & Jacobi, 1974 – Poʻouli (possibly extinct, November 28, 2004?)
- Genus Oreomystis Wilson, 1891 – short pointed bills, insectivorous
- Genus Orthiospiza – large weak bill, possibly soft seed or fruit specialist?
- Genus Palmeria Rothschild, 1893 – thin-billed, nectarivorous, favors Metrosideros polymorpha
- Genus Paroreomyza – short pointed bills, insectivorous
- Paroreomyza maculata Cabanis, 1850 – Oʻahu ʻAlauahio (possibly extinct, early 1990s?)
- Paroreomyza flammea (Wilson, 1889) – Molokaʻi Creeper or Kākāwahie (extinct, 1963)
- Paroreomyza montana
- Genus Pseudonestor – parrot-like bill, probes wood for insect larvae
- Genus Psittirostra – slightly hooked bill, Freycinetia arborea fruit specialist
- Genus Rhodacanthis – large-billed, granivorous, legume specialists
- Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild, 1892 – Lesser Koa-Finch (extinct, 1891)
- Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson, 2005 – Scissor-Billed Koa-Finch (prehistoric)
- Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson, 2005 – Primitive Koa-Finch (prehistoric)
- Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild, 1892 – Greater Koa-Finch (extinct, 1896)
- Genus Telespiza Wilson, 1890 – finch-like, granivorous, opportunistic scavengers
- Genus Vangulifer – flat rounded bills, possibly caught flying insects
- Genus Viridonia
- Genus Xestospiza James & Oslon, 1991 – cone-shaped bills, possibly insectivorous
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drepanidinae.|
- Lerner, H.R.L.; Meyer, M.; James, H.F.; Fleischer, R.C. (2011). "Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers". Current Biology. 21 (21): 1838–1844. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.039. PMID 22018543.
- Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2012). "The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (2): 581–596. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002. PMID 22023825.
- Clements, J. 2007. The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. 6th ed. ISBN 978-0-7136-8695-1
- Dickinson, E, ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World (3rd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11701-0.
- AOU Check-list of North American Birds Accessed 26 December 2007
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (eds.). "Finches, euphonias". World Bird List Version 5.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Pratt, H Douglas (2002). The Hawaiian Honeycreepers. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-854653-5.
- Pratt, H. Douglas (1992). "Is the Poo-uli a Hawaiian Honeycreeper (Drepanidinae)?" (PDF). The Condor. Cooper Ornithological Society. 94 (1): 172–180. doi:10.2307/1368806. JSTOR 1368806.
- Olson, Storrs L.; James, Helen F (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes". Ornithological Monographs. 45 (45): 1–91. doi:10.2307/40166794. hdl:10088/1745. JSTOR 40166794.
- James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes". Ornithological Monographs. 46 (46): 1–92. doi:10.2307/40166713. hdl:10088/1746. JSTOR 40166713.
- Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2014). The Eponym Dictionary of Birds. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781472905741. The genus Aidemedia is named in honor of Joan Aidem.
- James, Helen F; Storrs L. Olson (2003). "A giant new species of nukupuu (Fringillidae: Drepanidini: Hemignathus) from the island of Hawaii". The Auk. 120 (4): 970–981. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[0970:AGNSON]2.0.CO;2.
- James, Helen F.; Johnathan P. Prince (May 2008). "Integration of palaeontological, historical, and geographical data on the extinction of koa-finches". Diversity & Distributions. 14 (3): 441–451. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00442.x.
- Groth, J. G. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of the cardueline finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers. Ostrich, 69: 401.