|Regions with significant populations|
|Islam (Sunni, Sufism)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Dir, Darod, Isaaq, other Somali clans|
The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiye, Arabic: بنو هوية) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ogaden and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale.
- 1 History
- 2 Settlement and commerce
- 3 Clan tree
- 4 Notable Hawiye figures
- 5 Political factions and organizations
- 6 See also
- 7 References
According to an official Military Survey conducted during the colonial period, Hawiye clan members are by tradition believed to be descended from a forefather named Hawiya Irrir. Hawiya Irrir is held to be the brother of Dir, himself the great-grandson of Ram Nag, an Arab migrant who landed in Zeila on the northwestern Somali coast. However, other accounts maintain that Ram Nag was of Indian, or of Abyssinian extraction.
The first written reference to the Hawiye dates back to a 13th-century document by the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who described Merca at the time as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.
Settlement and commerce
Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu and Warsheikh in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiran region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.
Sub-clans of the Hawiye include the Degodia, about 40 percent of whom live in Ethiopia. When Arthur Donaldson Smith traveled through what is now Bare woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib and Dawa Rivers.
The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris.
There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.
In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:
Notable Hawiye figures
Heads of State and Government
- Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, President of Somalia, 2000–2004
- Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of Somalia, 1954–1960
- Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, President of Somalia, 1960–67
- Ali Mahdi Muhammad, President of Somalia, 1991–1995
- Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2004–2007
- Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, current President of Somalia
- Mohamed Farrah Aidid, President of Somalia 1995-1996
- Nur Hassan Hussein, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2007–2009
- Sharif Ahmed, President of Somalia, 2009-2012
- Abdirahman Janaqow, Somali leader, deputy chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia (ICU), Minister of Justice
- Abdullahi Ahmed Addow, former Somalia Ambassador to the United States (1970–80)
- Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, businessman who used to control the El-ma`an beach area which served as Mogadishu's port since the closure in 1995 of the city's main port
- Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, secular faction leader; member of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism
- Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mungab, Mayor of Mogadishu
- Mohamed Abdi Hassan, entrepreneur and faction leader
- Mohamed Afrah Qanyare, politician who was based to the south of Mogadishu and member of TFG parliament
- Mohamed Nur, former Mayor of Mogadishu
- Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant colonel who defused Mig-17 jet fighter bombs
- Daud Abdulle Hirsi, Commander-in-chief of the Somali national forces, 1960–67
- Hassan Dahir Aweys, leader of Islamist revolution in Somalia, 2006–09
- Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, vice-president of Somalia under the Siad Barre regime
- Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress, 1991–1994
- Mohammed Hussein Ali, Commissioner of the Kenyan police; 2004–08
- Muuse Suudi Yalahow, politician who served as Trade Minister in the Transitional Federal Government
- Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Father of the 1969 revolution
- Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, 2003 presidential candidate
- Abdulkadir Yahye Ali, peace activist, co-director and founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue 
- Abukar Umar Adani, businessman who operates the Elman port services
- Ali Jimale, educator at the City University of New York
- Ali Sheikh Ahmed, dual president of Mogadishu University and Al-Islaah
- Elman Ali Ahmed, entrepreneur and social activist
- Hilowle Imam Omar, co-chairman of the reconciliation program 1995-2000
- Hussein Ali Shido, founding member of the United Somali Congress
- Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, author of the Kaddariya script, 1952
- Ibrahim Hassan Addou, Former Professor of Washington University. Foreign Minister of the Union of Islamic courts in 2006
- Omar Iman Abubakar, professor and researcher in Hadith Sunna, Chairman of Hisbi Islam
Traditional elders and religious leaders
- Ahmed Diriye Ali, spokesman of the Hawiye traditional elders.
- Olol Diinle, last king of the Ajuran empire
- Sheekh Xasan Barsame, Ahmaddi anti-colonialist scholar
- Sheikh Ali Dhere, founder of the first Islamic Court in Mogadishu
Music and literature
- Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur, poet and composer, writer of several patriotic songs
- Abdulle Geedannaar, poet
- Hasan Adan Samatar, musician
- K'naan, Somali-Canadian poet, rapper and musician
- Magool (Halima Khalif Omar), musician
- Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow, 19th-century poet
Political factions and organizations
- Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, (ARPCT) a Somali alliance created by various faction leaders and entrepreneurs
- Democratic Union Party (DUP), has supporters in the area of Negele Boran in the Ogaden's Borena Zone in Ethiopia, with the majority of the Hawiye Degodia clan heading the party
- Hizbul Shabaab, the Youth Movement wing of the ICU before ceding the organisation to Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow"
- Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government.
- Juba Valley Alliance (JVA), primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement
- Somali National Alliance (SNA) formed by Mohamed Farrah Aidid
- Somali Salvation Army (SSA), the Ali Mahdi Muhammad branch of the United Somali Congress
- United Somali Congress (USC) Formed in 1987, it played a key role in the ouster of the dictatorship
- Central Intelligence Agency (2002). "Ethnic Groups". Somalia Summary Map. Retrieved February 15, 2006.
- Human Rights Watch (1990). "Somalia: Human Rights Developments". Human Rights Watch World Report 1990. Retrieved November 21, 2005.
- "The Situation in Somalia". Report of the Somali Commission of Inquiry, Vol. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2005.
- Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain
- "'Truce' after Somali gun battle". BBC News. 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2007-04-13.
- Hunt, John Anthony (1951). A general survey of the Somaliland Protectorate 1944-1950: final report on 'An economic survey and reconnaissance of the British Somaliland Protectorate 1944-1950,' Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme, Part 484. To be purchased from the Chief Secretary. p. 151. OCLC 3011788. "Dir, the father-in-law of Darod, is said to be the uncle of Esa Madoba and brother of Hawiya Irrir, who founded the Esa tribe of Zeila and the Hawiya of Somalia respectively. Ram Nag, the great-grandfather of Dir, and Samarone the patriarch of the Gadabursi, are of unknown origin, but probably Arabians who landed at Zeila."
- I. M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho, (Red Sea Press: 1998), p.14.
- Hassan Ali Jama, Who cares about Somalia: Hassan's ordeal ; reflections on a nation's future, (Schiler: 2005), p.147.
- Herbert S. Lewis, "The Origins of the Galla and Somali", in The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press, 1966, pp 27–30.
- The Somali, Afar and Saho groups in the Horn of Africa by I.M Lewis
- Donaldson-Smith, Through Unknown African Countries: the first expedition from Somaliland to Lake Rudolph (London, 1897), p. 143
- Kenya’s past; an introduction to historical method in Africa page by Thomas T. Spear
- The Shaping of Somali society; reconstructing the history of a pastoral people by Lee Cassanelli
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55 Figure A-1
- Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.56 Figure A-2
- "CRD Somalia". Center for Research and Dialogue. 2005-07-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12.