Hayabusa 2

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This article is about the 2014 mission. For the cancelled mission, see Hayabusa Mk2.
Hayabusa 2
Hayabusa probe
Computer model of Hayabusa 2 rendezvous with asteroid Ryugu
Mission type Asteroid sample return
Operator JAXA
COSPAR ID 2014-076A
SATCAT № 40319
Website Hayabusa 2 on jaxa.jp
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer NEC[1]
Launch mass Total: 590 kg (1,300 lb)
MASCOT: 10 kg (22 lb)
MINERVA: 0.5 kg (1.1 lb)
Dimensions 2 × 1.6 × 1.25 m (6.6 × 5.2 × 4.1 ft)
Start of mission
Launch date 3 December 2014, 04:22 UTC (2014-12-03UTC04:22Z)[2]
Rocket H-IIA 202
Launch site LA-Y, Tanegashima Space Center
End of mission
Landing date December 2020 (planned)
Flyby of Earth
Closest approach 3 December 2015
Distance 3,090 km (1,920 mi)[3]
(162173) Ryugu orbiter
Orbital insertion June 2018 (planned)
Departed orbit December 2019 (planned)
← Hayabusa

Hayabusa 2 is an asteroid sample return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA. It follows on from Hayabusa and addresses weak points learned from that mission.[4]

Mission overview[edit]

Initially, launch was planned for 30 November 2014 (13:23 local time),[5][6][7] but was delayed to 3 December 2014 04:22 UTC (4 December 2014 13:22:04 local time).[8]

The target is asteroid 162173 Ryugu (formerly designated 1999 JU3). Hayabusa 2 is expected to arrive at the target in July 2018, survey the asteroid for a year and a half, depart in December 2019, and return to Earth in December 2020.[7]

The spacecraft features ion engines, upgraded guidance and navigation technology, antennas and attitude control systems.[9] Operations at the asteroid will be similar[clarification needed] to those of the previous Hayabusa, but with an explosive device to dig the asteroid surface for fresh sample material.[7]

Funding[edit]

Hayabusa 2 was approved by the Space Activities Commission, a board governing funding for the Japanese space program, during 2006.[10] In July 2009, at the 27th ISTS (International Symposium on Space Technology and Science) conference in Japan, Makoto Yoshikawa of JAXA presented a proposal entitled "Hayabusa Follow-on Asteroid Sample Return Missions." In August 2010, JAXA obtained approval from the Japanese government to begin development of Hayabusa 2. The estimated cost of the project is 16.4 billion yen.[11][12]

NEC Corp., the builder of the Hayabusa probe, began the systems design of the 590 kg (1,300-pound) spacecraft, its Ka-band communications system and an intermediate infrared camera.[13]

Instruments[edit]

The German Aerospace Center built a small lander called MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) for the mission in a cooperation with the French space agency CNES.[14] The MASCOT carries an infrared spectrometer, a magnetometer, a radiometer and a camera, and is capable of lifting off of the asteroid to reposition itself for further measurements.[15]

The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) is a small drop-off explosively formed penetrator, consisting of a 2.5 kilogram (5.5 lb) copper projectile and a 4.5 kilogram (10 lb) shaped charge.[15] It will be dropped off Hayabusa 2; the low gravity leaves the spacecraft enough time to maneuver to the opposite side of the asteroid. A second instrument will then be deployed, the deployable camera (DCAM3). This camera will observe the explosion of the Small Carry-on Impactor instrument. The copper penetrator will strike the asteroid with a velocity of 2 km/s. The crater formed by the impact will be the site of further observations by the spacecraft.[16] The shaped charge will consist of 4.5 kg of plasticized HMX with a 2.5 kg copper liner.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ JAXA Launches Hayabusa 2 Asteroid Probe: NEC conducts manufacturing and testing as probe system coordinator
  2. ^ Launch of "Hayabusa2" by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 26
  3. ^ http://global.jaxa.jp/press/2015/12/20151214_hayabusa2.html
  4. ^ Wendy Zukerman (18 August 2010). "Hayabusa 2 will seek the origins of life in space". New Scientist. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  5. ^ JAXA Report on Hayabusa-2, May 21st, 2014
  6. ^ Vilas, Faith (25 February 2008). "SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HAYABUSA 2 NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID TARGETS 162173 1999 JU3 AND 2001 QC34". The Astronomical Journal. 135 (4): 1101. Bibcode:2008AJ....135.1101V. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1101. target for the planned Japanese mission Hayabusa 2 
  7. ^ a b c Makoto Yoshikawa (6 January 2011). 小惑星探査ミッション「はやぶさ2」 [Asteroid Exploration Mission "Hayabusa 2"] (PDF). 11th Symposium on Space Science (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  8. ^ Clark, Stephen (2014-12-03). "Hayabusa 2 launches on audacious asteroid adventure". spaceflightnow. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Japan's next asteroid probe approved for development
  10. ^ Keiji Tachikawa. The President's New Year Interview, 2007
  11. ^ Zukerman, Wendy (18 August 2010). "Hayabusa 2 will seek the origins of life in space". New Scientist. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  12. ^ "Asteroid probe, rocket get nod from Japanese panel". Spaceflight Now. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  13. ^ "Japan's next asteroid probe approved for development". Spaceflight Now. 29 January 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  14. ^ DLR Asteroid Lander MASCOT
  15. ^ a b Graham, William (December 2, 2014). "Japanese H-IIA kicks off Hayabusa 2's asteroid mission". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  16. ^ Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI): Its scientific purpose, operation, and observation plan in Hayabysa-2 mission
  17. ^ Saiki, Takanao; Sawada, Hirotaka; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Makoto (2013). "Small carry-on impactor of Hayabusa2 mission". Acta Astronautica. 84: 227. Bibcode:2013AcAau..84..227S. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.11.010. 

External links[edit]