Hayashi Hōkō

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Hayashi Hōkō
Hayashi Hōkō, 1st rector of Yushima Seidō
Born 1644
Died 1732
Occupation Neo-Confucian scholar, academic, administrator, writer
Subject Japanese history, literature
Children Hayashi Ryūkō, son
Relatives Hayashi Gahō, father
Hayashi Razan, grandfather

Hayashi Hōkō (林 鳳岡?, January 11, 1644 – July 22, 1732), also known as Hayashi Nobutatsu, was a Japanese Neo-Confucian scholar, teacher and administrator in the system of higher education maintained by the Tokugawa bakufu during the Edo period. He was a member of the Hayashi clan of Confucian scholars.

Hōkō was the tutor of Tokugawa Tsuneyoshi.[1]

Following in the footsteps of his father, Hayashi Gahō, and his grandfather, Hayashi Razan, Hōkō would be the arbiter of official neo-Confucian doctrine of the Tokugawa shogunate. As a result of his urging, the shogun invested Confucian scholars as samurai.[1]


Hōkō was the third Hayashi clan Daigaku-no-kami of the Edo period. After 1691, Hōkō is known as the first official rector of the Shōhei-kō (afterwards known as the Yushima Seidō) which was built on land provided by the shogun.[1] This institution stood at the apex of the country-wide educational and training system which was created and maintained by the Tokugawa shogunate. Gahō's hereditary title was Daigaku-no-kami, which, in the context of the Tokugawa shogunate hierarchy, effectively translates as "head of the state university.[2]

The scholars of the Hayashi school were taught to apply what they had learned from a Confucian curriculum. Typically, they applied the Confucian texts conservatively, relying on Soong Confucian anlayis and metaphysical teachings.[3]

The neo-Confucianist scholar Arai Hakuseki generally expressed scant regard for opinions expressed by Hayashi Hōkō.[3]

Selected works[edit]

  • Kai hentai (Chinese Metamorphosis), reports of Chinese junks arriving in Nagasaki, 1640–1740.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia, p. 300.
  2. ^ De Bary, William et al. (2005). Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. 2, p. 443.
  3. ^ a b Arakai, James et al. (2008). Early Modern Japanese Literature: an Anthology, 1600-1900, p. 378 n12.
  4. ^ Tarling, Nicholas. (1998). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol. 1, p. 161.


Flags mark the entrance to the reconstructed Yushima Seidō (Tokyo).

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Hayashi Gahō
1st rector of Yushima Seidō
Succeeded by
Hayashi Ryūkō