|1st Chancellor of Sheridan College|
June 6, 2016 – January 29, 2023
|Preceded by||Position established|
|5th Mayor of Mississauga|
December 1, 1978 – November 30, 2014
|Preceded by||Ron Searle|
|Succeeded by||Bonnie Crombie|
February 14, 1921
Port Daniel, Quebec, Canada
|Died||January 29, 2023 (aged 101)|
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
(m. 1951; died 1997)
Hazel McCallion née Journeaux; February 14, 1921 – January 29, 2023) was a Canadian politician who served as the fifth mayor of Mississauga. First elected in November 1978, McCallion was mayor for 36 years until her retirement in 2014, making her the longest-serving mayor in the city's history. She was a successful candidate in twelve municipal elections, having been acclaimed twice and re-elected ten other times. Her supporters gave her the nickname "Hurricane Hazel" because of her outspoken political style with reference to the hurricane of 1954, which had a considerable impact. When the 1979 Mississauga train derailment occurred early in her tenure, she helped oversee evacuation of 200,000 residents from the resulting explosion, fire, and spill of hazardous chemicals.(
Before marriage, McCallion played professional women's ice hockey while attending school in Montreal, then worked for engineering firm Canadian Kellogg, and was transferred to Toronto in 1942. She moved to Streetsville in 1951, and left the business world in 1967 to pursue politics. She served as mayor of Streetsville from 1970 to 1973, prior to its amalgamation into Mississauga. Following her tenure as mayor of Mississauga, McCallion remained an active public figure, serving as the first chancellor of Sheridan College, on the Greater Toronto Airport Authority board, and as a special advisor to the Ontario government.
McCallion received multiple honours including the Order of Canada in 2005, the Order of Ontario in 2020, the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal in 2002, the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012, and honorary doctorate of law degrees from the University of Toronto, and Ryerson University. She died at 101, and was given a state funeral on what would have been her 102nd birthday.
Early life and career
Hazel Journeaux was born on February 14, 1921, in Port Daniel, on the Gaspé Coast of Quebec. Her father, Herbert Armand Journeaux (1879–1944), owned a fishing and canning company. Her mother, Amanda Maude Travers (1876–1955), was a homemaker and ran the family farm. The family included two older sisters and two older brothers. After graduating from Quebec High School, she attended business secretarial school in Quebec City and Montreal.
Journeaux began playing ice hockey in the late 1920s in Port Daniel with her two sisters, and was a forward on their team. She then joined a professional women's hockey team while attending school in Montreal, receiving $5 per game. The team was sponsored by Kik Cola and was part of a three-team women's league. She wanted to attend university, but her family could not afford it. After beginning her career in Montreal with the Canadian division of engineering firm Kellogg, she was transferred to Toronto in 1942, where she helped set up the local office. She left the business world in 1967 to devote her life to a career in politics.
McCallion began her political career in Streetsville (now part of Mississauga). Her first campaign was in 1964 for the position of deputy reeve. It was unsuccessful, and she later considered herself to be a victim of "dirty tricks". Having later been appointed the chairman of the Streetsville Planning Board, she was elected as deputy reeve in the 1967 election and was appointed reeve in 1968. She was elected as Streetsville's mayor in 1970, serving until 1973.
The Town of Streetsville was amalgamated with the Town of Mississauga and the Town of Port Credit to form the City of Mississauga at the beginning of 1974; McCallion advocated unsuccessfully to preserve Streetsville as a separate municipality. In the same year she was elected to the Mississauga City Council, and retained her seat on the council by acclamation in the 1976 municipal election. By the time she was elected mayor of Mississauga, she had sat on virtually every committee in Peel Region and the City of Mississauga. She had also served on the executive of many federal and provincial committees and associations.
Mayor of Mississauga
McCallion was first elected mayor in 1978, defeating popular incumbent Ron Searle by about 3,000 votes. She had been in office only a few months when the 1979 Mississauga train derailment occurred, in which a Canadian Pacific train carrying toxic chemicals derailed in a heavily populated area near Mavis Road. A large explosion and fire ensued as hazardous chemicals spilled. McCallion, along with the Peel Regional Police and other governmental authorities, oversaw the evacuation of the city. There were no deaths or serious injuries during the week-long emergency, and Mississauga gained renown for the successful evacuation of its then 200,000 residents.
During McCallion's terms in office, Mississauga grew from a small collection of towns and villages to one of Canada's largest cities, with much of the growth occurring after the 1976 election of René Lévesque's Parti Québécois government sparked an exodus of Anglophones and corporations from Montreal to the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The high rate of low-density growth led to McCallion being nicknamed "Queen of Sprawl" by urban planning critics.
McCallion was easily re-elected throughout her tenure as mayor, with no serious challengers coming close to unseating her. She received more than 90% of the votes at the 1997, 2000 and 2003 mayoral elections. She never campaigned during elections and refused to accept political donations, instead asking her supporters to donate the money to charity. Her final term as mayor, won in the election of October 2010, was her twelfth consecutive term. She announced during her final term that she would not be running for re-election in the 2014 municipal elections and endorsed councillor and former federal member of Parliament Bonnie Crombie to replace her as Mayor. Crombie defeated former city councillor, member of Provincial Parliament and federal cabinet minister Steve Mahoney to win the 2014 municipal election.
In 2012, McCallion was the third-highest paid mayor in Canada, with a salary of $187,057.
In a first-person account for Canadian magazine Confidence Bound, McCallion credited her faith with giving her energy, and said she still did her own household chores. "Housework and gardening are great forms of exercise and keep one humble."
On her 90th birthday in 2011, McCallion was assessed by Dr. Barbara Clive, a geriatrician, who stated that "at 90 her gait is perfect, her speech is totally sharp and she has the drive to still run this city. She's the poster child for seniors".
Conflict of interest allegations
In 1982, McCallion was found guilty of a conflict of interest on a planning decision by the Ontario High Court of Justice due to not absenting herself from a council meeting on a matter in which she had an interest. In 1983, The Municipal Conflict of Interest Act would have required her to vacate her seat and prohibited her from running for the following term.
In 2009, McCallion was the focus of public opinion when it was alleged that she failed to disclose a conflict of interest when attending meetings that concerned her son's company, World Class Developments Ltd. On October 3, 2011, Judge Douglas Cunningham found McCallion "acted in a 'real and apparent conflict of interest' while pushing hard for a real estate deal that could have put millions of dollars in her son's pocket." On June 14, 2013, charges under the Municipal Conflict of Interest Act were dismissed as World Class Developments did not have a financial interest as defined under the Act, and the application was also statute-barred. In a later ruling concerning costs, Judge J. Sproat said, "Out of seven major issues, Mayor McCallion was successful on only three. On two of the three issues Mayor McCallion was successful, not because of any prudence or diligence, but only because World Class Developments's project had not progressed at a faster pace."
While party preferences are not usually expressed in Canadian municipal politics, McCallion supported the Liberal Party at the federal and provincial levels, and was asked in 1982 to consider running for the leadership of the Ontario Liberal Party. She endorsed Kathleen Wynne on the convention floor of the 2013 Ontario Liberal Party leadership election, and later endorsed her and her party in the 2014 Ontario general election. Otherwise, McCallion was sometimes described as a small-c conservative. McCallion endorsed Liberal leader Justin Trudeau for the 2015 election. She also appeared in a notable television advertisement for the federal Liberals during the final days of the 2015 election. In the 2018 Ontario provincial election, McCallion endorsed PC leader Doug Ford, who went on to become Premier of Ontario.
In 2007, McCallion responded to the federal government's refusal to give any of the Canadian goods and services tax to cities, a funding source long requested by many municipalities across Canada, by planning a five percent surcharge on property taxes in the city. She was able to have the levy introduced and approved on the same day by Mississauga City council. Most media coverage, as well as Toronto mayor David Miller, noted that McCallion was arguably one of the few mayors in the country with the political capital to implement such a strategy.
McCallion was one of the first Canadian politicians to openly support the creation of a Palestinian state. Addressing the annual convention of the Canadian Arab Federation in 1983, she argued that Palestinian issues had been distorted by the national media and was quoted as saying, "The Palestinians need and require and deserve a country of their own. Why shouldn't they get it?"
McCallion established the GTA Mayors' Committee in 1992. She brought together the 30 mayors, later adding the chair of Metropolitan Toronto and the four regional chairs to work cooperatively for the economic promotion of the GTA. From 1992 to January 2000, the committee, chaired by McCallion, was a strong voice on key issues affecting the future of the GTA. She was a founder and honorary co-chair of the Greater Toronto Marketing Alliance.
In 1996, McCallion was appointed to the "Who Does What" panel. She was also appointed to two sub-panels: Assessment and Property Taxation Reform, and Emergency Services. She represented the Association of Municipalities of Ontario on the Electricity Transition Committee for the Ministry of Electricity, Science and Technology.
McCallion is the first woman to hold such significant positions as president of the Streetsville and District Chamber of Commerce, president of the Anglican Young Peoples' Association of Canada, mayor of Streetsville, and mayor of Mississauga. She was responsible for the formation of Hazel's Hope, a campaign to fund health care for children afflicted with AIDS and HIV in southern Africa.
McCallion hosted an annual gala in Mississauga to raise money for arts and culture in the city.
At the 1987 World Women's Hockey Tournament, the championship trophy was named the Hazel McCallion World Cup. McCallion was once a board member of the Central Ontario Women's Hockey League, and was instrumental in the construction of the Hershey Centre in Mississauga. She provided assistance to Don Cherry's group to bring an Ontario Hockey League franchise to the city in 1998, and she was instrumental in bringing the IIHF Women's World Hockey Championships to the city in 2000.
In September 2011, Sheridan College opened the doors to its Hazel McCallion Campus in Mississauga, which was greatly expanded in 2018, more than doubling its enrollment. Furthering her ties with the college, in 2016, McCallion was named Sheridan's first chancellor, as part of its bid to attain university status. In February 2015, McCallion became a special advisor to the University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM), the Mississauga campus of the University of Toronto, providing advice on matters related to strategic development of the school.
In 2017 McCallion was appointed to the board of the Greater Toronto Airport Authority, a position for which she accepted a three-year renewal in April 2022. In January 2019, Ontario Premier Doug Ford appointed McCallion as a special adviser. She soon after said she wanted more details before accepting or declining, but later decided to decline the job offer. In October 2022, McCallion was appointed the head of the Greenbelt Council advisory group by Premier Ford. In January 2023, she endorsed his plan to take protected areas out of the Greenbelt for housing development, calling it "brave".
Journeaux met her future husband, Sam McCallion (1923–1997), at an Anglican Church congregation in Toronto in 1951; they married on September 29 of that year. As a marriage present from McCallion's in-laws, a piece of land near the village of Streetsville was given to the newlyweds, to which they moved in December 1951. The couple had three children, and were married until Sam McCallion's death from Alzheimer's disease in 1997. Their son Peter unsuccessfully ran for Mississauga Ward 9 councillor in the 2022 municipal election.
As a volunteer, McCallion also served as president of the Anglican Young People's Association of Canada, and later provided leadership as a district commissioner with the Girl Guides of Canada in the early 1960s. Before entering politics, she and her husband founded The Streetsville Booster in 1964.[a]
Death and state funeral
McCallion died from pancreatic cancer at home on January 29, 2023, at age 101. A state funeral was held for McCallion on February 14, 2023, on what would have been her 102nd birthday. Her body lay in repose at Mississauga Civic Centre for two days, prior to her funeral at the Paramount Fine Foods Centre. Dignitaries attending the funeral included prime minister Justin Trudeau, former prime minister Jean Chrétien, and Ontario premier Doug Ford. Flags in Ontario were flown at half-mast on the day of her funeral.
In 2016, February 14 was renamed Hazel McCallion Day across Ontario in honour of her birthday.
The following have been conferred on McCallion:
- 1999: Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for her role in bringing German companies to Canada.
- 2002: Canadian version of the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal.
- 2003: Leadership in Public Service Award from the International Economic Development Council.
- 2005: Runner-up for the World Mayor Award, behind Dora Bakoyannis of Athens.
- 2005: Member of the Order of Canada (CM).
- 2007: President's Award from Professional Engineers Ontario.
- 2010: Honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Toronto.
- 2012: Shahid Rassam unveiled a portrait of McCallion in support of the SickKids Foundation.
- 2012: Canadian version of the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.
- 2014: Order of the Rising Sun, 4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette, for her support of Japanese businesses in Mississauga and furthering of Canada–Japan relations.
- 2017: Key to the City of Mississauga.
- 2019: Honorary Doctor of Law degree from Ryerson University.
- 2021: Announced as a 2020 appointee to the Order of Ontario (OOnt).
The following have been named in her honour:
- Hazel McCallion Senior Public School
- Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre, University of Toronto Mississauga
- Hazel McCallion Centre for Heart Health, Mississauga Hospital
- Hazel McCallion Campus, Sheridan College
- Hazel McCallion Canada Day Parade, Port Credit
- Mississauga McCallion Women's Softball League, established in 1980
- Hazel McCallion Central Library of the Mississauga Library System, renamed after her ahead of her 100th birthday in 2021
- Hazel McCallion Hall, Vic Johnston Community Centre
- Hazel McCallion Line, formerly known as the Hurontario LRT, is a light-rail transit project spanning from Mississauga to Brampton.
- Alectra Utilities Hazel McCallion Municipal Substation, in Streetsville, named in 2008 by predecessor Enersource
- Hazel McCallion Walk for Health, run by Trillium Health Partners, created in 2022
- "About the Mayor". City of Mississauga. May 2013. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.
- "City of Mississauga Celebrates Hazel McCallion Ahead of 100th Birthday". City of Mississauga. February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- McGuinty, Dalton (April 2, 2004). "Remarks In Tribute To Hazel McCallion". Government of Ontario. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Radia, Andy (May 11, 2014). "From hay fields to metropolis: Hazel McCallion reflects on her career as mayor of Mississauga". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- Wilson, Kerrisa (February 14, 2021). "'It has been an exciting day in my life,' Hazel McCallion says as she celebrates 100th birthday". CP24. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
- Brown, Louise (February 23, 2016). "Sheridan College adds Hazel McCallion as first chancellor". Toronto Star.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 13.
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- Urbaniak 2009, p. 33.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 34.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 35.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 38.
- Urbaniak 2009, pp. 42–51.
- Platiel, Rudy; Bruner, Arnold (December 7, 1976). "Some upsets, a close votes and a no to regional government". The Globe and Mail. p. 11.
- "Mississauga Mourns the Passing of Former Mayor Hazel McCallion". CNW Group. January 29, 2023. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
- "Plain talk in Mississauga wins Hazel mayor's job". Toronto Star. November 14, 1978. p. A14.
- "Blast's miracle: No one injured, evacuation of 220,00 goes smoothly". Toronto Star. January 29, 2023.
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- Linteau, Paul-Andre (April 7, 2009). "Montreal: Economy and Labour". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
- Couture, Patrick. "René Lévesque: La loi 101" [Rene Levesque: Bill 101]. Chez Couture (in French). Retrieved September 1, 2007.
- Mendleson, Rachel (January 19, 2023). "Greenbelt Council does about-face on safeguarding protected lands with Hazel McCallion at the helm". The Toronto Star. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- Woloshyn, Ted (September 17, 2010). "Pretenders testing contender Hazel". Toronto Sun.
- "Hazel McCallion, longtime Mississauga mayor, dies at age 101". Toronto Star. January 29, 2023.
- "McCallion wins 12th term as Mississauga mayor". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 25, 2010.
- "Former MP Steve Mahoney enters Mississauga mayoral race". 680 News. March 17, 2014.
- D'Aliesio, Renata (October 12, 2014). "Hazel McCallion endorses Bonnie Crombie in Mississauga mayoral race". The Globe and Mail.
- Loney, Heather (October 27, 2014). "Bonnie Crombie wins Mississauga mayoral election". Global News. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "The 9 highest paid mayors in Canada". Yahoo! News. November 13, 2013.
- D'Cruz, Archie (2007). "Hazel: I don't believe in regrets". Confidence Bound. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.
- Grewal, San (February 14, 2011). "Hazel McCallion at 90: 'the poster child for seniors'". Toronto Star.
- Graham v. McCallion, 1982 CanLII 2014, 39 OR (2d) 740 (30 September 1982), Superior Court of Justice (Ontario, Canada)
- Gombu, Phinjo (September 30, 2009). "McCallion didn't declare conflict: Probe". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on October 4, 2009.
- O'Toole, Megan (August 18, 2010). "Mississauga inquiry: World Class enlisted Mayor Hazel McCallion's help". National Post. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
- Rider, David (October 3, 2011). "McCallion: a 'real and apparent' conflict of interest". Toronto Star.
- "Hazel McCallion cleared on conflict of interest charges". CBC News. June 14, 2013.
- Hazineh v. McCallion, 2013 ONSC 6619, par. 20 (24 October 2013)
- Bascaramurty, Dakshana (June 27, 2014). "For Hazel McCallion, the campaign never stops". The Globe and Mail. Toronto.
- Kelley, Susanna (February 7, 2013). "Hoskins Discussed Health Ministry, Sousa Finance, with Pupatello Prior To Supporting Wynne: Senior Sources". Ontario News Watch. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- "Mississauga Mayor Hazel McCallion endorses Kathleen Wynne". CBC News. May 14, 2014.
- Grant, Kelly (November 9, 2007). "McCallion shows Miller how it's done". National Post. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013.
- Mississauga Watch (February 22, 2015). "Jean Chretien's Canada Flag 50th anniv UTM speech—with Justin Trudeau and Hazel McCallion". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021.
- Liberal Video channel (October 14, 2015). "Do I look scared to you?". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015.
- "'Hurricane' Hazel Endorses Doug Ford To Become 'People's Premier'". HuffPost Canada. May 24, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Grant, Kelly (November 9, 2007). "McCallion shows Miller how it's done". National Post. p. 13. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Palestinians get support from Mississauga mayor". Globe and Mail. May 23, 1983. p. 5.
- "The Talks – List". www.gfierheller.ca. Archived from the original on March 22, 2010.
- "Hazel McCallion: Life and legacy". City of Mississauga. 2023. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
- "Hazel's Hope – A Vision of World Citizenship". Empire Club of Canada. June 22, 2006.
- Miller, Jason (November 9, 2008). "Mississauga parties with Regis and Hazel". Toronto Star.
- Etue, Elizabeth; Williams, Megan K. (1996). On the Edge: Women Making Hockey History. Toronto: Second Story Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-929005-79-1.
- Posner, Michael (September 9, 2010). "Life of a legend". The Globe and Mail. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
- "Revera Appoints Hazel McCallion as Chief Elder Officer". News Wire. November 10, 2015.
- "Hazel McCallion, 94, takes job at University of Toronto". CTV News. February 24, 2015.
- "Hazel McCallion, 101, accepts three-year contract extension working for Toronto Pearson". Toronto. April 8, 2022. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
- "Hazel McCallion appointed adviser to Ontario Premier Doug Ford". CTV News. January 18, 2019.
- Stone, Laura (January 23, 2019). "Hazel McCallion says she hasn't formally accepted role as special adviser to Doug Ford". The Globe and Mail.
- "Hazel McCallion turns down Ontario government's job offer". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 31, 2019. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- "Nominate a super volunteer for Sam McCallion Award". Mississauga.com. February 28, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
- "McCallion, Hazel". Cultural Heritage. Heritage Mississauga. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 30.
- "Hazel McCallion's son registers as Mississauga political candidate". InSauga. August 19, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
- "Live 2022 Mississauga municipal election results for mayor, council, and school board trustees". InSauga. October 24, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
- Urbaniak 2009, p. 122.
- Rider, David; Hurley, Janet; Funston, Mike (January 29, 2023). "Hazel McCallion, longtime Mississauga mayor, dies at age 101". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
- "Funeral details announced for former longtime Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion". Toronto Star. Toronto, Ontario. The Canadian Press. February 2, 2023. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
- Carter, Adam (February 14, 2023). "Former Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion remembered as an icon at state funeral". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
- Clay, Chris (December 8, 2016). "Hazel McCallion Finally Gets Her Day". Mississauga News.
- "Hazel McCallion – biography". Speigel Nichols Fox LLP. Retrieved August 3, 2022.
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- "Mayor Hazel McCallion, A health care champion close to all our hearts". Trillium Giving. 2009. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014.
- "Mrs. Hazel McCallion". Governor General of Canada. 2005. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
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- "University of Toronto Honorary Degree Recipients 1850–2016" (PDF). The Office of the Governing Council, University of Toronto. September 14, 2016.
- "Portrait of mayor unveiled". The Mississauga News. March 19, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
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- Newport, Ashley (April 12, 2017). "Hazel McCallion Set to Receive Key to the City of Mississauga". InSauga.
- "Meet Ryerson's 2019 honorary doctorates". Toronto Metropolitan University. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
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- "Long-time former Mississauga mayor 'Hurricane Hazel' McCallion dies at 101". City News. January 29, 2023. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
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- "Trillium Gala honours Mayor Hazel McCallion and issues Cardiac Challenge to the community" (Press release). Trillium Health Centre. April 25, 2008. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013.
- "Sheridan College's 90th Birthday Gift to Mayor Hazel McCallion Will Honour Her Legacy". News Wire. February 13, 2011. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
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- "Official website". Mississauga McCallion Women's Softball League.
- "Hazel McCallion Honoured by City of Mississauga with 100th Birthday Celebration and Library Renaming". City of Mississauga. February 10, 2021. Archived from the original on February 22, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
- "Facility Rentals". Vic Johnston Community Centre. Mississauga ON. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
The Hazel McCallion Hall has been the home to every type of reception and event imaginable.
- Rodrigues, Gabby (February 14, 2022). "Hurontario LRT to be named after former Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion". Global News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Slack, Julie (October 19, 2008). "Mayor adds new building to growing list". Mississauga News. Mississauga ON: Metroland Media Group. Retrieved September 23, 2022.
- Noori, Qiam (June 1, 2023). "Hazel McCallion Walk for Health this weekend in Mississauga". Mississauga News. Mississauga ON: Metroland Media Group. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
- Urbaniak, Tom (2009). Her Worship: Hazel McCallion and the Development of Mississauga. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9902-0.
- McCallion, Hazel (2014). Hurricane Hazel: A Life with Purpose. Toronto, Ontario: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-1-44343-473-7.
- Morrow, Adrian (January 29, 2023). "Hazel McCallion, Mississauga's 'Hurricane,' rode the winds of public opinion". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 22, 2023.
As mayor for 36 years, she read the changing moods of her city and transformed it, distinguishing herself as a master of realpolitik