He Jian

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He Jian
何鍵
He Jian2.jpg
He Jian
National Policy Advisor
In office
1950–1956
PresidentChiang Kai-shek
Interior Minister of the Republic of China
In office
November 1937 – May 1939
Preceded byChiang Tso-pin (蔣作賓)
Succeeded byChou Chung-yueh (周鐘岳)
Governor of Hunan
In office
March 1929 – November 1937
Preceded byLu Diping
Succeeded byZhang Zhizhong
Personal details
Born(1887-04-10)April 10, 1887
Liling, Hunan, Qing Empire
DiedApril 25, 1956(1956-04-25) (aged 69)
Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
NationalityRepublic of China
Political partyKuomintang
ChildrenHe Lian (daughter)
Tang Fei-fan (son-in-law)
ParentsHe Qishan (father)
Alma materBaoding Military Academy
OccupationPolitician, military officer
Military service
Allegiance Republic of China
Branch/service Republic of China Army
Years of service1916 - 1956
RankTaiwan-army-OF-9b-H.jpg General
Battles/warsNorthern Expedition
Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Civil War

He Jian (simplified Chinese: 何键; traditional Chinese: 何鍵; pinyin: Hé Jiàn; Wade–Giles: Ho Chien; 10 April 1887 - 25 April 1956) was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general and politician in the Republic of China. He was governor of Hunan province between 1929 and 1937, and Interior Minister from 1937 to 1939. He was best known for fighting the Communists, and he once ordered his subordinates to execute Yang Kaihui (Mao Zedong's wife) and Wu Ruolan (Zhu De's wife).

Names[edit]

His courtesy name was Yunqiao (雲樵) and his art name was Rongyuan (容園).

Biography[edit]

Education[edit]

He Jian was born into a family of farming background in Liling County, Hunan, on April 10, 1887. In 1903 he attended Zhuzici School (朱子祠小學) and then transferred to Liling County Lujiang Middle School (醴陵縣立渌江中學). In 1906 he enrolled at Chonggu School (崇古學堂) and three years later he studied at Hunan Public Law School (湖南法政學堂). After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution, he was educated in Wuchang Army High School. After graduating from Baoding Military Academy in 1916 he was assigned to the 1st Brigade of 1st Division of Hunan Ground Force.[1]

Northern Expedition[edit]

In March 1918, Chang Ching-yao attacked Hunan, He Jian threw down his arms and fled the field. He returned to his hometown and rebuilt an guerrilla forces. In May, Cheng Qian, the commander-in-chief of Xiang Army, commissioned him as commander of Liuyang-Liling guerrilla forces. In 1919, T'ang Sheng-chih incorporated his army and he became a brigade commander. He joined the Kuomintang and took part in the Northern Expedition. After Wuhan was captured he was promoted to army commander of the 35th Army.[1]

Encirclement and suppression[edit]

In April 1927 he fought against Chang Tso-lin's army in Hebei. At the same time, Communist revolutionaries Guo Liang, Liu Zhixun, and Xia Xi in alliance with Kuomintang leftist pressed ahead with rural land reform in Hunan, this incident lead to intensification of the contradictions between Communist Party and Kuomintang. On May 21, 1927, the Mari Incident broke out, He Jian began to crack down the Communists.

In November 1928, the Nationalist government commissioned him as commander-in-chief of Hunan-Jiangxi Jiaofei Headquarters. His army marched towards the Jinggangshan Revolutionary Base. The Red Army were defeated and fled to the Central Soviet Base Area.

In 1929, he was appointed governor of Hunan province. That same year, his subordinates arrested and then executed Wu Ruolan, wife of Communist military leader Zhu De.

In 1930, the Communist Party sent troops to attack Changsha, He Jian's car was destroyed in the war, in reprisal, he participated in the "encirclement and suppression" led by Chiang Kai-shek and Ho Ying-chin in jiangxi.[1] On November 14, his subordinates executed Yang Kaihui (Mao Zedong's wife) in Changsha.[1]

In 1933, the Nationalist government commissioned him as commander-in-chief of West Route Army.

Second Sino-Japanese War[edit]

He was Interior Minister in 1937 and chairman of Military Committee in 1939.

Chinese Civil War[edit]

After the Second Sino-Japanese War, he resigned from his post because of illness. He recuperated at Heng Mountain, in Hengyang.[2]

He Jian relocated to British Hong Kong in the Spring of 1949 and one year later he settled down in Taipei, Taiwan.[1] He served as national policy advisor to the President Chiang Kai-shek until his death.[1]

On April 25, 1956, He Jian died of cerebral hemorrhage in Taipei.

Personal life[edit]

He had a daughter, He Lian, who was married to Tang Fei-fan, a virologist best known for culturing the Chlamydia trachomatis agent in the yolk sacs of eggs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f 何键的人生及其最后归宿(图). Ifeng (in Chinese). 2007-12-27. 红军攻入长沙时,连何键本人乘坐的汽车都被烧毁,使他后来只有滑杆可坐,他为了报复,杀过著名的共产党人杨开慧。
  2. ^ 湖南王何键挖掉毛泽东祖坟后的下场是什么?. Taihainet (in Chinese). 2015-07-03.

External links[edit]

  • Li Jingzhi (1981). 《民國人物傳》 [Biography of Republic of China Characters] (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101023947.
  • Xu Youchun (2007). 《民國人物大辭典》 [Dictionary of Republic of China Figures] (in Chinese). Shijiazhuang, Hebei: Hebei People's Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-202-03014-1.
  • Liu Guoming (2005). 《中國國民黨百年人物全書》 [A Century of the Kuomintang Figures] (in Chinese). Taipei, Taiwan: Tuanjie Press. ISBN 7-80214-039-0.
  • Liu Shoulin (1995). 《民國職官年表》 [Republic of China Official Chronology] (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-01320-1.
Government offices
Previous:
Lu Diping
Governor of Hunan
March 1929 - November 1937
Next:
Zhang Zhizhong
Previous:
Chiang Tso-pin (蔣作賓)
Interior Minister of the Republic of China
1937-1939
Next:
Chou Chung-yueh (周鐘岳)