Headquarters House (Fayetteville, Arkansas)
Headquarters House, August 2011
|Location||118 E. Dickson St., Fayetteville, Arkansas|
|Area||0.8 acres (0.32 ha)|
|Built by||Jonas Tebbetts|
|Architectural style||Greek Revival, Georgian|
|NRHP Reference #||71000129|
|Added to NRHP||June 24, 1971|
Headquarters House (sometimes called the Tebbetts House) is a historic house museum at 118 East Dickson Street in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Built in 1850, it saw action in the American Civil War, serving as a headquarters for both the Union and Confederacy. During the action at Fayetteville, the house was attacked by Confederate troops while serving as a Union outpost. The building was donated to the Washington County Historical Society as a museum in 1967 and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.
The house was constructed by Judge Jonas Tebbetts and his wife in the Greek Revival architectural style. It was completed by 1853. Although northwest Arkansans had both Union and Confederate sympathies, Tebbetts became an outspoken supporter of the Union and was arrested in March 1862. Tebbetts was taken to Fort Smith by Rebel General Benjamin McCulloch, but was released upon his death in the Battle of Pea Ridge. He escaped to Fayetteville where he learned of a price on his head and fled to Missouri. He returned for his family later in the year, which was the last time the family inhabited the home. The Union took command of the house shortly after their departure.
Action at Fayetteville
The Headquarters House was the intended target of a Confederate attack on April 18, 1863. Union forces were using the house as a base for their northwest Arkansas operations. With a successful capture of the Headquarters House the Rebels could sweep the Union from northwest Arkansas.
The Rebels attacked at 6:00 am in east Fayetteville, drawing fire while artillery climbed East Mountain and fired into the city. One cannonball struck the front door of the Headquarters House, and the house sustained lots of damage throughout the battle. The Union rallied and began to push the Confederates out of Fayetteville later in the morning. Despite a desperate charge up Dickson Street, the Confederates finally decided they could not take the Headquarters House and withdrew. The door and cannonball remain and are now displayed within the museum.
The Headquarters House exhibits many key characteristics of Greek Revival architecture. The porch's fluted columns and dentil trimmed eaves are common in similar structures. The parlor fireplace is also typical of Greek Revival style.