List of heads of government of Ethiopia

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Prime Minister of the
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር
Coat of arms of Ethiopia.svg
Coat of Arms
Hailemariam Desalegn - Closing Plenary- Africa's Next Chapter - World Economic Forum on Africa 2011.jpg
Incumbent
Hailemariam Desalegn

since 20 August 2012
Residence Menelik Palace, Addis Ababa
Appointer Mulatu Teshome,
as President of Ethiopia
Term length No term limit
Inaugural holder Habte Giyorgis
(Chief Minister)
Makonnen Endelkachew
(Prime Minister)
Formation 1909 (Chief Minister)
1942 (Prime Minister)
Coat of arms of Ethiopia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ethiopia

The Prime Minister of Ethiopia is the head of the Ethiopian government and the most powerful figure in Ethiopian politics. Although the President of Ethiopia is the country's head of state and nominal chief executive, his powers are largely ceremonial; the Prime Minister holds most of the real power. The official residence of the prime minister, Menelik Palace is in Addis Ababa. The current prime minister is Hailemariam Desalegn of EPRDF, the eleventh person to hold the position.

Following an election, the President nominates a member of the House of Peoples' Representatives to become prime minister after asking party leaders whom they support for the position. The nominee then presents a government platform and must receive a vote of confidence in order to become prime minister. In practice, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the House of Peoples' Representatives.

Origins and history[edit]

The heads of government of Ethiopia have been Chief Ministers (1909–1942), and then Prime Ministers (1942–Present). Since 1995 Ethiopia follows a Parliamentary system of government. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e., the monarch or president or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position.

The prime minister is expected to become a member of House of Peoples' Representatives within six months of beginning their tenure, if they are not a member already. They are expected to work with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature.

Role and power of the prime minister[edit]

The prime minister leads the functioning and exercise of authority of the Government of Ethiopia. He is invited by the President of Ethiopia in the House of Peoples' Representatives as leader of the majority party to form a government at the federal level and exercise its powers. In practice the prime minister nominates the cabinet ministers.

The prime minister is also the commander in chief of the Ethiopian Army and Air forces. The bodyguards of the Ethiopian Prime Minister have been seen with the TAR-21 assault rifle.[1]

The prime minister, in consultation with the Cabinet, schedules and attends the sessions of the Houses of Parliament and is required to answer the question from the Members of Parliament to them as the in-charge of the portfolios in the capacity as Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

The prime minister represents the country in various delegations, high level meetings and international organisations that require the attendance of the highest government office.

Heads of Government of Ethiopia (1909–present)[edit]

No. Name
(birth–death)
Picture Took office Left office Political party
Ethiopian Empire
1 Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis
(1851–1927)
Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis.JPG 1909 1927[2] Independent
2 Ras Tafari Makonnen
(1892–1975)[3]
Selassie restored.jpg 1927 1 May 1936 Independent
3 Wolde Tzaddick[4] No image.png 1 May 1936 1942 Independent
4 Ras Betwoded Makonnen Endelkachew
(1890–1963)
Endalkachew Makonnen.jpg 1942 1 November 1957 Independent
5 Ras Abebe Aregai
(1903–1960)
Abebe-Aregai.jpg 27 November 1957 17 December 1960[5] Independent
Leul Ras Imru Haile Selassie
(1892–1980)[6]
No image.png 12 December 1960 15 December 1960 Independent
Vacant (17 December 1960 – 17 April 1961)
6 Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold
(1912–1974)
Aklilu Habte Wold.jpg 17 April 1961 1 March 1974[7] Independent
7 Lij Endelkachew Makonnen
(1927–1974)
Endelkachew Makonnen.jpg 1 March 1974 22 July 1974[8] Independent
8 Lij Mikael Imru
(1929–2008)
Mikael Imru, Ambassador of Ethiopia, 1961 (JFKWHP-AR6379-A).jpg 3 August 1974 12 September 1974[8] Independent
Derg (Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia)
Post Abolished (12 September 1974 – 10 September 1987)
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
9 Fikre Selassie Wogderess
(c. 1941–)
No image.png 10 September 1987 8 November 1989[9] Workers' Party of Ethiopia
Hailu Yimenu
(acting)
(?–1991)
No image.png 8 November 1989 26 April 1991 Workers' Party of Ethiopia
Tesfaye Dinka
(acting)
No image.png 26 April 1991 27 May 1991 Workers' Party of Ethiopia
Transitional Government of Ethiopia
Tamirat Layne
(acting)
(1955–)
No image.png 6 June 1991 22 August 1995 Amhara National Democratic Movement
(Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front)
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
10 Meles Zenawi
(1955–2012)
Meles Zenawi - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg 23 August 1995 20 August 2012[2] Tigrayan People's Liberation Front
(Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front)
11 Hailemariam Desalegn
(1965–)
Hailemariam Desalegn - Closing Plenary- Africa's Next Chapter - World Economic Forum on Africa 2011.jpg 20 August 2012 Incumbent Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement
(Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1] and [2]
  2. ^ a b Died in office
  3. ^ From 2 April 1930, Emperor Haile Selassie I
  4. ^ In exile from 1936 until 1941
  5. ^ Killed during the 1960 coup attempt
  6. ^ In rebellion during the 1960 coup attempt
  7. ^ Resigned after mass protests
  8. ^ a b Removed from office by the Derg
  9. ^ Removed from office by President Mengistu Haile Mariam

External links[edit]