Health in Switzerland
Switzerland has an infant mortality rate of about 3.6 out of 1,000. The general life expectancy in 2013 was 80.5 years for men and 84.8 years for women, with an 82.6 year average. These are among the world's best figures. About a third of the population have an immigrant background. Infants of African, Sri Lankan, Turkish nationality, and from the former Yugoslavia, have higher mortality at birth than Swiss children.
A new measure of expected human capital calculated for 195 countries from 1990 to 2016 and defined for each birth cohort as the expected years lived from age 20 to 64 years and adjusted for educational attainment, learning or education quality, and functional health status was published by the Lancet in September 2018. Switzerland had the twelfth highest level of expected human capital with 25 health, education, and learning-adjusted expected years lived between age 20 and 64 years.
It is estimated that one out of six persons in Switzerland suffers from mental illness. Other studies estimate that between 20 to 30 per cent of the population suffers from clinical psychological disorders.
Studies reveal that over 27% of Swiss workers are stressed and nearly 30% of Swiss people say that they are "emotionally exhausted". Health Promotion Switzerland says that job-related stress results in a loss of productivity worth about $6.6 billion per year or 1% of Switzerland’s GDP.
Communicable diseases and addictions
Drug use is 14% of men and 6.5% of women between 20 and 24 saying they had consumed cannabis in the past 30 days, and 5 Swiss cities were listed among the top 10 European cities for cocaine use as measured in wastewater. Since the early 90's, when drug use was dramatically increasing in urban areas, Switzerland has pioneered effective drug policies of harm reduction, prevention and treatment, including HAT as well as decriminalisation of recreational cannabis use. With the revision of Swiss federal narcotics regulations in 2008, the medical use of cannabis was also legalised.
Analysis of Swiss police records suggests that participants in medical drug rehabilitation programs tend to reduce cocaine, cannabis and heroin use, and the need to commit other crimes to buy their drugs, such as shoplifting, burglary or car theft.
According to official statistics, the percentage of adults drinking alcohol every day has decreased by 50% over the past 25 years, from 20% to 11%. Overall, 82% of the population regularly drinks alcoholic beverages. In 2016, Swiss hospitals treated 11,500 people for alcohol poisoning; about half of the patients were diagnosed as alcoholics. Among those who seek help to quit drinking, the average age is 46; 70% are male.
Between 2008 and 2018, the percentage of smokers has remained stable at around 27%.
On average in 2019, 16-25 years olds spend 4 hours on the internet every day. In 73,000-290,000 people in Switzerland had "problematic" time usage of the internet.
By the end of 2020, Switzerland had 236 registered HIV new infections (about a third fewer than in 2019, partly because of the COVID-19 pandemic). In 2018, 17,000 people were infected with HIV/AIDS according to official statistics.
Water and sanitation
Nutrition and obesity
As of 2017, the share of people classified as overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 to 30) has remained stable at 42% of the population. However, over the last 25 years, the percentage of obese people (BMI>30) has more than doubled, from 5% in 1992 to 11% in 2017.
Sports and fitness
Since 2002 until 2018, the number of people who are physically active has increased from 62% to 76%.
Major causes of death
- Ballas, Dimitris; Dorling, Danny; Hennig, Benjamin (2017). The Human Atlas of Europe. Bristol: Policy Press. p. 66. ISBN 9781447313540.
- "Components of population change – Data, indicators: Life expectancy". Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel 2014. 2013. Retrieved 2014-12-03.
- "The Human Capital Report, Insight Report". World Economic Forum. 2013. pp. 480, 12, 14, 478–481. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- "Highlights of Health in Switzerland". Health Management. 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Lim, Stephen; et, al. "Measuring human capital: a systematic analysis of 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016". Lancet. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Misicka, Susan. "What people in Switzerland are addicted to". SWI swissinfo.ch.
- sm (10 March 2018). "Zurich is Europe's weekend cocaine capital". SWI swissinfo.ch.
- ilj (6 July 2018). "Youth crime: more drug use, less dealing". SWI swissinfo.ch.
- Miriam Wolf & Michael Herzig (July 2019). "Inside Switzerland’s Radical Drug Policy Innovation". Stanford SOCIAL INNOVATION Review. Retrieved 28 September, 2020.
- Uchtenhagen et al., 1999
- Ribeaud, Denis (2004). "Long-term Impacts of the Swiss Heroin Prescription Trials on Crime of Treated Heroin Users". Journal of Drug Issues (Tallahassee, FL: University of Florida): 187. Cite journal requires