Health in Zambia

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Zambia faces a number of ongoing health challenges.

Health infrastructure[edit]

The Ministry of Health (MOH) provides information pertaining to Zambian health.[1] In 2010, public expenditure on health was 3.4% of GDP, among the lowest in southern Africa.[2]

Hospitals[edit]

In Zambia, there are hospitals throughout the country which include: Levy Mwanawasa General Hospital,[3] Chipata General Hospital, Kitwe Central Hospital, Konkola Mine Hospital, Lubwe Mission Hospital, Maacha Hospital, Mtendere Mission Hospital, Mukinge Mission Hospital, Mwandi Mission Hospital, Nchanga North Hospital, Chikankata Salvation Army Hospital, Kalene Mission Hospital, St Francis Hospital, and St Luke's Mission Hospital.[4]

The University Teaching Hospital serves as both a hospital and a training site for future health workers. There are very few hospitals in rural or remote places in Zambia, where most communities rely on small government-run community health centres and rural health posts.

Water supply and sanitation[edit]

Access to improved water supply and sanitation, in 7 Sub-Saharan countries, from 1990 until 2008.[5]

In 2010, 61% of the population of Zambia had access to an improved water source and 48% had access to adequate sanitation, according to UN data.[5]

87% of urban areas had access to an improved source of water supply. In urban areas, 41% have access to water connections in their house or yard and 49% rely on water kiosks and standpipes. The share of those with access to house connections has actually declined, while the share of those served by kiosks has increased.[5]

Water supply in urban areas is intermittent, with an average supply of 16 hours per day in 2010.[6] Concerning sanitation, 29% of the urban population are connected to sewers and 30% are served by septic tanks or improved household-level latrines. While these figures are low, they are actually higher than the average access in Sub-Saharan Africa.[5]

In rural areas, 46% of the population had access to an improved water source in 2010.[5] 43% of the rural population had access to adequate sanitation in 2010.[5]

Health status[edit]

Life expectancy[edit]

The 2014 CIA estimated average life expectancy in Zambia was 51.83 years.[7]

HIV/AIDS epidemic[edit]

Further information: HIV/AIDS in Zambia

Zambia faces a generalised HIV epidemic, with an estimated prevalence rate of 13.5% among adults (ages 15–49) in 2009.[8] HIV incidence in Zambia has declined by more than 25% from 2001 to 2010, an indication that the epidemic appears to be declining.[9]

Maternal and child healthcare[edit]

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zambia is 470. This is compared with 602.9 in 2008 and 594.2 in 1990. The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 145 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 25. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Zambia the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 5 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 38. [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ministry of Health". moh.gov.zm. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Forecast provided by International Futures. Historic data points from the World Bank.
  3. ^ David Smith in Lusaka. "Chinese hospital heals sore spot in Zambia | Global development". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  4. ^ Tycoon powers hospital in a remote area of north-west Zambia. ukzambians.co.uk. 11 September 2007
  5. ^ a b c d e f "WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme: www.wssinfo.org". wssinfo.org. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  6. ^ NWASCO. "Urban and Peri-Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Report 2010/11" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook Life Expectancy". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  8. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011" (PDF). UNAIDS. 
  10. ^ "The State of the World's Midwifery" (PDF). United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved August 2011.