A healthy diet may contain fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health.
World Health Organization
- Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using.
- Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats.
- Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count). A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts.
- Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better).
- Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Other WHO recommendations include:
- ensuring that the foods chosen have sufficient vitamins and certain minerals;
- avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances;
- avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs);
- and replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet, which can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes.
United States Department of Agriculture
It emphasizes both health and environmental sustainability and a flexible approach. The committee that drafted it wrote: "The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promoting and is associated with less environmental impact than is the current U.S. diet. This pattern of eating can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the “Healthy U.S.-style Pattern”, the “Healthy Vegetarian Pattern" and the "Healthy Mediterranean-style Pattern". Food group amounts are per day, unless noted per week.
|Food group/subgroup (units)||U.S. style||Vegetarian||Med-style|
|Fruits (cup eq)||2||2||2.5|
|Vegetables (cup eq)||2.5||2.5||2.5|
|Grains (oz eq)||6||6.5||6|
|Dairy (cup eq)||3||3||2|
|Protein Foods (oz eq)||5.5||3.5||6.5|
|Meat (red and processed)||12.5/wk||--||12.5/wk|
|Processed Soy (including tofu)||0.5/wk||8/wk||0.5/wk|
|Solid fats limit (grams)||18||21||17|
|Added sugars limit (grams)||30||36||29|
American Heart Association / World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research
The American Heart Association, World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend a diet that consists mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis on a wide range of whole grains, legumes, and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. This healthy diet includes a wide range of non-starchy vegetables and fruits which provide different colors including red, green, yellow, white, purple, and orange. The recommendations note that tomato cooked with oil, allium vegetables like garlic, and cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, provide some protection against cancer. This healthy diet is low in energy density, which may protect against weight gain and associated diseases. Finally, limiting consumption of sugary drinks, limiting energy rich foods, including “fast foods” and red meat, and avoiding processed meats improves health and longevity. Overall, researchers and medical policy conclude that this healthy diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancer.
It is recommended that children consume less than 25 grams of added sugar (100 calories) per day. Other recommendations include no extra sugars in those under 2 years old and less than one soft drink per week. As of 2017, decreasing total fat is no longer recommended, but instead, the recommendation to lower risk of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats.
Harvard School of Public Health
- Choose good carbohydrates: whole grains (the less processed the better), vegetables, fruits and beans. Avoid white bread, white rice, and the like as well as pastries, sugared sodas, and other highly processed food.
- Pay attention to the protein package: good choices include fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. Try to avoid red meat.
- Choose foods containing healthy fats. Plant oils, nuts, and fish are the best choices. Limit consumption of saturated fats, and avoid foods with trans fat.
- Choose a fiber-filled diet which includes whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.
- Eat more vegetables and fruits—the more colorful and varied, the better.
- Include adequate amounts of calcium in the diet; however, milk is not the best or only source. Good sources of calcium are collards, bok choy, fortified soy milk, baked beans, and supplements containing calcium and vitamin D.
- Prefer water over other beverages. Avoid sugary drinks, and limit intake of juices and milk. Coffee, tea, artificially-sweetened drinks, 100% fruit juices, low-fat milk and alcohol can fit into a healthy diet but are best consumed in moderation. Sports drinks are recommended only for people who exercise more than an hour at a stretch to replace substances lost in sweat.
- Limit salt intake. Choose more fresh foods, instead of processed ones.
- Drink alcohol in moderation. Doing so has health benefits, but is not recommended for everyone.
- Consider intake of daily multivitamin and extra vitamin D, as these have potential health benefits.
David L. Katz, who reviewed the most prevalent popular diets in 2014, noted:
The weight of evidence strongly supports a theme of healthful eating while allowing for variations on that theme. A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention and is consistent with the salient components of seemingly distinct dietary approaches. Efforts to improve public health through diet are forestalled not for want of knowledge about the optimal feeding of Homo sapiens but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our failure to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do. Knowledge in this case is not, as of yet, power; would that it were so.
The basic principles of good diets are so simple that I can summarize them in just ten words: eat less, move more, eat lots of fruits and vegetables. For additional clarification, a five-word modifier helps: go easy on junk foods. Follow these precepts and you will go a long way toward preventing the major diseases of our overfed society—coronary heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis, and a host of others.... These precepts constitute the bottom line of what seem to be the far more complicated dietary recommendations of many health organizations and national and international governments—the forty-one “key recommendations” of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, for example. ... Although you may feel as though advice about nutrition is constantly changing, the basic ideas behind my four precepts have not changed in half a century. And they leave plenty of room for enjoying the pleasures of food.:22
Historically, a healthy diet was defined as a diet comprising more than 55% of carbohydrates, less than 30% of fat and about 15% of proteins. This view is currently shifting towards a more comprehensive framing of dietary needs as a global need of various nutrients with complex interactions, instead of per nutrient type needs.
For specific conditions
In addition to dietary recommendations for the general population, there are many specific diets that have primarily been developed to promote better health in specific population groups, such as people with high blood pressure (such as low sodium diets or the more specific DASH diet), or people who are overweight or obese (weight control diets). However, some of them may have more or less evidence for beneficial effects in normal people as well.
A low sodium diet is beneficial for people with high blood pressure. The Cochrane review published in 2008 concluded that a long term (more than 4 weeks) low sodium diet usefully lowers blood pressure, both in people with hypertension (high blood pressure) and in those with normal blood pressure.
The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the NIH, a United States government organization) to control hypertension. A major feature of the plan is limiting intake of sodium, and the diet also generally encourages the consumption of nuts, whole grains, fish, poultry, fruits, and vegetables while lowering the consumption of red meats, sweets, and sugar. It is also "rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as protein".
Diets to promote weight loss are divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. After two years, all of the diets in the studies that reduced calories resulted in equal weight loss regardless of whether changes in fat or carbohydrate consumption were emphasized.
Gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale), causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy. In these people, the gluten-free diet is the only available treatment.
Reduced disease risk
There may be a relationship between lifestyle including food consumption and lowering the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet high in fruit and vegetables appears to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and death, but not cancer.
Eating a healthy diet and getting enough exercise can maintain body weight within the normal range and prevent obesity in most people, and thus prevent the chronic diseases and poor outcomes associated with obesity.
The Western pattern diet, which is typically eaten by Americans and is "rich in red meat, dairy products, processed and artificially sweetened foods, and salt, with minimal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and whole grains," is increasingly being adopted by people in the developing world as they leave poverty. It is generally considered unhealthy.
An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.
The WHO estimates that 2.7 million deaths each year are attributable to a diet low in fruit and vegetables. Globally such diets are estimated to cause about 19% of gastrointestinal cancer, 31% of ischaemic heart disease, and 11% of strokes, thus making it one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide, and the 4th leading risk factor for any disease.
Some publicized diets, often referred to as fad diets, make exaggerated claims of very fast weight loss or other health advantages such as longer life or detoxification without much evidence base; many fad diets are based on highly restrictive or unusual food choices. Celebrity endorsements (including celebrity doctors) are frequently associated with such diets, and the individuals who develop and promote these programs often profit considerably.:11–12
Consumers are generally aware of the elements of a healthy diet, but find nutrition labels and diet advice in popular media confusing.
Fears of high cholesterol were frequently voiced up until the mid-1990s. However, more recent research has shown that the distinction between high- and low-density lipoprotein ('good' and 'bad' cholesterol, respectively) must be addressed when speaking of the potential ill effects of cholesterol. Different types of dietary fat have different effects on blood levels of cholesterol. For example, polyunsaturated fats tend to decrease both types of cholesterol; monounsaturated fats tend to lower LDL and raise HDL; saturated fats tend to either raise HDL, or raise both HDL and LDL; and trans fat tend to raise LDL and lower HDL.
Dietary cholesterol is only found in animal products such as meat, eggs, and dairy. The effect of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol levels is controversial. Some studies have found a link between cholesterol consumption and serum cholesterol levels. Other studies have not found a link between eating cholesterol and blood levels of cholesterol.
Vending machines in particular have come under fire as being avenues of entry into schools for junk food promoters. However, there is little in the way of regulation and it is difficult for most people to properly analyze the real merits of a company referring to itself as "healthy." Recently, the Committee of Advertising Practice in the United Kingdom launched a proposal to limit media advertising for food and soft drink products high in fat, salt or sugar. The British Heart Foundation released its own government-funded advertisements, labeled "Food4Thought", which were targeted at children and adults to discourage unhealthy habits of consuming junk food.
From a psychological and cultural perspective, a healthier diet may be difficult to achieve for people with poor eating habits. This may be due to tastes acquired in childhood and preferences for sugary, salty and fatty foods. The UK chief medical officer recommended in December 2018 that sugar and salt be taxed to discourage consumption. The UK government 2020 Obesity Strategy encourages healthier choices by restricting point-of-sale promotions of less-healthy foods and drinks.
Animals that are kept by humans also benefit from a healthy diet, but the requirements of such diets may be very different from the ideal human diet.
- Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of Human Nutrition". Medicine. 43 (2): 61–65. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.11.009.
- World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2004). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition (PDF) (2. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-9241546126.
- Melina, Vesanto; Craig, Winston; Levin, Susan (December 2016). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 116 (12): 1970–1980. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025. PMID 27886704.
- "Food information to consumers - legislation". EU. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
- "WHO | Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption around the world". WHO.
- "WHO | Diet". WHO.
- "Healthy Diet - WHO".
- "WHO guideline : sugar consumption recommendation". World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "WHO - Unhealthy diet". who.int.
- Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. "Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Archived 2018-08-27 at the Wayback Machine." Washington (DC): USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services (2015).
- US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). "2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - health.gov". health.gov (National guideline). Skyhorse Publishing Inc. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH; Apovian, CM; Ard, JD; Comuzzie, AG; Donato, KA; Hu, FB; Hubbard, VS; Jakicic, JM; Kushner, RF; Loria, CM; Millen, BE; Nonas, CA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Stevens, J; Stevens, VJ; Wadden, TA; Wolfe, BM; Yanovski, SZ; Jordan, HS; Kendall, KA; Lux, LJ; Mentor-Marcel, R; Morgan, LC; Trisolini, MG; Wnek, J; Anderson, JL; Halperin, JL; Albert, NM; Bozkurt, B; Brindis, RG; Curtis, LH; DeMets, D; Hochman, JS; Kovacs, RJ; Ohman, EM; Pressler, SJ; Sellke, FW; Shen, WK; Smith SC, Jr; Tomaselli, GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice, Guidelines.; Obesity, Society. (24 June 2014). "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society". Circulation (Professional society guideline). 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102-38. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee. PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.
- "App. E-3.7: Developing Vegetarian and Mediterranean-style Food Patterns - 2015 Advisory Report - health.gov". health.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
- Fund, World Cancer Research (2007-01-01). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective (PDF). Washington DC: AICR, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-07.
- "American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention" (PDF). Last Revised: 1/11/2012.
- Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K. (22 August 2016). "Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children". Circulation. 135 (19): e1017–e1034. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000439. PMC 5365373. PMID 27550974.
- Sacks, Frank M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Creager, Mark A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Stone, Neil J.; Van Horn, Linda V. (15 June 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 136 (3): e1–e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111. S2CID 367602.
- "What Should I Eat?". The Nutrition Source. Harvard School of Public Health. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- "Carbohydrates". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07.
- "Protein: Moving Closer to Center Stage". 2012-09-18. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- "The Bottom Line: Choose a fiber-filled diet, rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits". Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "The Bottom Line: Calcium is important. But milk isn't the only, or even best, source". Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "The Nutrition Source Healthy Beverage Guidelines". Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Katz DL, Meller S (2014). "Can we say what diet is best for health?". Annu Rev Public Health. 35: 83–103. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351. PMID 24641555.
- Fitzgerald M (2014). Diet Cults: The Surprising Fallacy at the Core of Nutrition Fads and a Guide to Healthy Eating for the Rest of US. Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-60598-560-2.
- Nestle, Marion (2006). What to Eat. New York: North Point Press (Farrar, Straus and Giroux). pp. 611. ISBN 978-0-86547-738-4.
- Matarese, LE; Pories, WJ (December 2014). "Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes". Nutrition in Clinical Practice (Review). 29 (6): 759–67. doi:10.1177/0884533614550251. PMID 25293593.
- He, FJ; MacGregor, GA (2004). MacGregor, Graham A (ed.). "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1 (3): CD004937. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004937. PMID 15266549.
- "Your Guide To Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- Walker C, Reamy BV (April 2009). "Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: what is the evidence?". Am Fam Physician. 79 (7): 571–7. PMID 19378874.
- Strychar I (January 2006). "Diet in the management of weight loss". CMAJ. 174 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1503/cmaj.045037. PMC 1319349. PMID 16389240.
- Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. (February 2009). "Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (9): 859–73. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804748. PMC 2763382. PMID 19246357.
- Biesiekierski, JR (2017). "What is gluten?". J Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review). 32 Suppl 1: 78–81. doi:10.1111/jgh.13703. PMID 28244676.
Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as “gluten.” Derivatives of these grains such as triticale and malt and other ancient wheat varieties such as spelt and kamut also contain gluten. The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease.
- Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (January 2013). "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559. PMID 22345659.
- Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). "Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders". Dig. Dis. (Review). 31 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1159/000347180. PMID 23797124. S2CID 14124370.
The only treatment for CD, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a GFD.
- Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R (Mar 1, 2006). "Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 23 (5): 559–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x. PMID 16480395. S2CID 9970042.
For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment.
- Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (Jun 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29 (3): 477–91. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112.
A recently proposed approach to NCGS diagnosis is an objective improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations assessed through a rating scale before and after GFD. Although a standardized symptom rating scale is not yet applied worldwide, a recent study indicated that a decrease of the global symptom score higher than 50% after GFD can be regarded as confirmatory of NCGS (Table 1) . (…) After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD .
- "What is the Ketogenic Diet". www.eatright.org. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. April 2019.
- Wang, X; Ouyang, Y; Liu, J; Zhu, M; Zhao, G; Bao, W; Hu, FB (Jul 29, 2014). "Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 349: g4490. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4490. PMC 4115152. PMID 25073782.
- GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators.; et al. (6 July 2017). "Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years". The New England Journal of Medicine. 377 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614362. PMC 5477817. PMID 28604169.
- Bloomfield, HE; Kane, R; Koeller, E; Greer, N; MacDonald, R; Wilt, T (November 2015). "Benefits and Harms of the Mediterranean Diet Compared to Other Diets" (PDF). VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports. PMID 27559560.
- "WHO | Diet and physical activity: a public health priority".
- Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ (May 2006). "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data". Lancet. 367 (9524): 1747–57. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9. PMID 16731270. S2CID 22609505.
- Hebden, L; O'Leary, F; Rangan, A; Singgih Lie, E; Hirani, V; Allman-Farinelli, M (13 August 2017). "Fruit consumption and adiposity status in adults: A systematic review of current evidence". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (12): 2526–2540. doi:10.1080/10408398.2015.1012290. PMID 26115001. S2CID 28000503.
- Hart, Katherine (2018). "4.6 Fad diets and fasting for weight loss in obesity.". In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in obesity. Wiley. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780470670767.
- Hankey, Catherine (2017-11-23). Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9781118857977.
- Williams, William F. (2013-12-02). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9781135955229.
- Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 2013. p106-108. ISBN 978-1-55862-847-2
- de Ridder, D; Kroese, F; Evers, C; Adriaanse, M; Gillebaart, M (August 2017). "Healthy diet: Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions". Psychology & Health. 32 (8): 907–941. doi:10.1080/08870446.2017.1316849. hdl:1874/356507. PMID 28447854.
- Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB (May 2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 77 (5): 1146–1155. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1146. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 12716665.
- Thijssen, M.A. and R.P. Mensink. (2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-3-540-22569-0.
- Hopkins, P. N. (22 March 2016). "Effects of dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis and review". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 55 (6): 1060–70. doi:10.1093/ajcn/55.6.1060. PMID 1534437. S2CID 4452674.
- "Part D. Chapter 1: Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends - Continued". Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- "Launch of public consultation on new food ad rules". Committee of Advertising Practice. 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- "British Heart Foundation launches Food4Thought campaign". British Cardiovascular Society. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- "Told to Eat Its Vegetables, America Orders Fries" article by Kim Severson in The New York Times September 24, 2010, accessed September 25, 2010
- James WP (2008). "The fundamental drivers of the obesity epidemic". Obesity Research. 9 Suppl 1 (Mar, 9 Suppl 1:6–13): 6–13. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00432.x. PMID 18307693. S2CID 19894128.
- Sarah Boseley (21 December 2018). "Chief medic calls for food taxes to cut salt and sugar intake". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- Jenneson, V.; Greenwood, D.; Clarke, G.; Hancock, N.; Cade, J.; Morris, M. (2020-10-27). "Restricting Retail Food Promotions: implementation challenges could limit policy success". eprints.whiterose.ac.uk. doi:10.5518/100/52. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
- "Heathlthy and Balanced Diet for Dogs". RSPCA. 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases, by a Joint WHO/FAO Expert consultation (2003)