Hearing Voices Network
Hearing Voices Networks, closely related to the Hearing Voices Movement, are peer-focused national organizations for people who hear voices (commonly referred to as auditory hallucinations) and supporting family members, activists and mental health practitioners. Members may or may not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Networks promote an alternative approach, where voices are not necessarily seen as signs of mental illness and regard hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. Voices are not seen as the problem, rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.
The first hearing voices network was founded in the Netherlands in 1987 by the Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme, the science journalist, Sandra Escher, and voice hearer, Patsy Hage. This was followed by the founding of the UK network in 1988 based in Manchester, England. Subsequently networks have been established in 29 countries over the world, including Australia, Canada, the UK, and the United States. The first 15 years of the global networks' development is outlined by Adam James in his book Raising Our Voices (2001).
The National and Regional Networks are affiliated with the international umbrella organization known as INTERVOICE (The International Network for Training Education and Research into Hearing Voices) and often referred to as the Hearing Voices Movement. Within these international networks, the combined experience of voice-hearers and professionals have overseen the development of ways of working with people who hear voices, drawing on the value of peer support and helping people live peacefully and positively with their experiences.
The principal roles of Hearing Voices Networks are as follows:
- To support and develop local Hearing Voices Support Groups
- Raise awareness of the hearing voices approach
- To campaign for human rights and social justice for people who hear voices
- To provide information, advice and support to people who hear voices, their family, friends
- To provide training and education for mental health services and practitioners
Practices and philosophy
These networks are designed to support voice hearers specifically through local hearing voices support groups, where people who hear voices are afforded the opportunity in a non-medical setting to share their experiences, coping mechanisms, and explanatory frameworks. These groups are run in different ways and some are exclusive to individuals who hear voices, while others are supported by mental health workers. Groups are based in a range of settings, from community centers, libraries, churches, child and adolescent mental health services, prisons, and inpatient units.
Groups are designed to function as peer support groups meant foster socialization and belonging, not therapy and treatment. Members are encouraged to talk about their experiences, to learn what the voices mean to them, and how to gain control over their experiences. Should members desire to, groups can help members explore the relationship between their life history and their experience of hearing voices.
Studies show that members found attending hearing voices groups a largely positive experience, being able to share their experiences and explore and experiment with different coping strategies. Members also said that attending improved their self esteem, helped them make friends, and allowed them to feel more prepared for the future.
Studies have found that after attending hearing voices groups, members' hospital bed use decreased and there was a trend for less formal admissions. People's relationships with the voices were mostly improved and heard the voices less frequently. The voices were perceived as less powerful and having less control over them, and participants reported feeling better able to cope the voices and less alone. Importantly, evaluations showed that members improved in what they had identified as their own goals for the group.
National networks have developed considerably over the years and host websites, publish newsletters, guides to the voice hearing experience, and workbooks where individuals can record and explore their own experiences with voice hearing.
Romme has provided an intellectual basis for these groups in the book Accepting Voices, where he advocates a view that the hearing of voices is not necessarily an indication of mental illness and that patients should be encouraged to explore their voices and negotiate with them.
- Barker, Paul K. (2011) . The voice inside. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network. OCLC 181679777.
- Blackman, Lisa (2001). Hearing voices, embodiment and experience. London New York: Free Association Books. ISBN 9781853435331.
- Coleman, Ron; Smith, Mike (1997). Working with voices: victim to victor. Newton-le-Willows, Merseyside: Handsell. ISBN 9781903199015.
- Dillon, Jacqui; Longden, Eleanor (2011), "Hearing voices groups: creating safe spaces to share taboo experiences", in Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (eds.), Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experience based approach, Hove, East Sussex New York, New York: Routledge for The International Society for the Psychological Treatments of the Schizophrenias and other pychoses (ISPS), pp. 129–139, ISBN 9780415673303.
- Downs, Julie, ed. (2001). Starting and supporting voices groups: a guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network.
- Downs, Julie, ed. (2001). Coping with voices and visions: a guide to helping people who experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other sensations. Manchester England: Hearing Voices Network.
- James, Adam (2001). Raising our voices: an account of the hearing voices movement. Handsell Publishing. ISBN 9781903199138.
- Jaynes, Julian (1976). The origin of consciousness and the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780395207291.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (2000). Voices of reason, voices of insanity: studies of verbal hallucinations. London New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415147866.
- Longden, Eleanor (2013). Learning from the voices in my head. Cambridge: TED Books.
- McCarthy-Jones, Simon (2012). Hearing voices: the histories, causes, and meanings of auditory verbal hallucinations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139017534.
- Romme, Marius A.J. (1996). Understanding voices: coping with auditory hallucinations and confusing realities. Runcorn, Cheshire: Handsell Publications. ISBN 9789072551092.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (1992). Accepting voices. London: Mind Publications. ISBN 9781874690139.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (2000). Making sense of voices: the mental health professional's guide to working with voice-hearers. London: Mind Publications. ISBN 9781874690863.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D.; Dillon, Jacqui; Corstens, Dirk; Morris, Mervyn (2009). Living with voices: 50 stories of recovery. Herefordshire: PCCS Books in association with Birmingham City University. ISBN 9781906254223.
- Watkins, John (2008) . Hearing voices: a common human experience. Melbourne, Victoria: Michelle Anderson Publishing. ISBN 9780855723903.
Articles, Chapters and Pamphlets
- Christine, A. (1990). "Heard but not seen". Independent on Sunday. Independent Print Ltd.
- Barker, Paul K. (October 1990). "I hear voices and I'm glad to!". Critical Public Health. 1 (4): 21–27. doi:10.1080/09581599008406791.
- Barker, Paul K. (1995). "Accepting the inner voices". Nursing Times. Emap Publishing Ltd. 91 (31): 59–61. PMID 7638080.
- Barker, Paul K. (1996). Can you hear me, a research and practice summary. Stavanger: Psykiatrisk Opplysningsfond. OCLC 472812459.
- Barret, Terry R.; Etheridge, Jane B. (September–October 1992). "Verbal hallucinations in normals, I: people who hear 'voices'". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 6 (5): 379–387. doi:10.1002/acp.2350060503.
- Bentall, Richard P. (January 1990). "The illusion of reality: a review and integration of psychological research into psychotic hallucinations". Psychological Bulletin. 107 (1): 82–95. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.82. PMID 2404293.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Jackson, Howard F.; Pilgrim, David (November 1988). "Abandoning the concept of "schizophrenia": some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 27 (4): 303–324. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1988.tb00795.x. PMID 3063319.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Claridge, Gordon S.; Slade, Peter D. (1989). "The multidimensional nature of schizotypal traits: a factor analytic study with normal subjects". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 28 (4): 363–375. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1989.tb00840.x. PMID 2605389.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (Winter 1994). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations: from theory to therapy". Behavioral Psychotherapy. 25 (1): 51–56. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80145-5.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Kaney, Sue; Dewey, Michael E. (February 1991). "Paranoia and social reasoning: an attribution theory analysis". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 30 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1991.tb00915.x. PMID 2021784.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Slade, Peter D (1985). "Reliability of a scale for measuring disposition towards hallucinations: a brief report". Personality and Individual Differences. 6 (4): 527–529. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(85)90151-5.
- Bentall, Richard P.; Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (Winter 1994). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations". Behaviour Therapy. 25 (1): 51–66. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80145-5.
- Chadwick, Paul; Birchwood, Max J. (February 1994). "Challenging the omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations". British Journal of Psychiatry. 164 (2): 190–201. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.413.7816. doi:10.1192/bjp.164.2.190. PMID 8173822. [Challenging the omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations Pdf.]
- Cullberg, Johan (September 1991). "Recovered versus non-recovered schizophrenic patients among those who have had intensive psychotherapy". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 84 (3): 242–245. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1991.tb03137.x. PMID 1950624.
- Eaton, William W.; Romanoski, Alan; Anthony, James C.; Nestadt, Gerald James (1991). "Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self-report interview". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 179 (11): 689–693. doi:10.1097/00005053-199111000-00007. PMID 1940893.
- Ensink, Bernardine J. (1993). Confusing realities: a study of child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms. Amsterdam: VU University Press. ISBN 9789053830857.
- Falloon, Ian R.H.; Talbot, Ralph E. (May 1981). "Persistent auditory hallucinations: coping mechanisms and implications for management". Psychological Medicine. 11 (2): 329–339. doi:10.1017/S0033291700052144. PMID 7267874.
- Freedland, Jonathan (22 April 1995). "Hearing is believing". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group.
- Grierson, Mike (1991). A report on the Manchester hearing voices conference November 1990. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network.
- Haddock, Gillian; Bentall, Richard P.; Slade, Peter D. (1996), "Psychological treatments for auditory hallucinations, focussing or distraction?", in Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (eds.), Cognitive-behavioural interventions with psychotic disorders, London: Routledge, pp. 45–71, ISBN 9780415102902.
- Haddock, Gillian; Bentall, Richard P.; Slade, Peter D. (1993). "Psychological treatment of chronic auditory hallucinations: two case studies". Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 21 (4): 335–346. doi:10.1017/S1352465800011668.
- Heery, Myrtle W. (1989). "Inner voice experiences: an exploratory study of thirty cases". Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Association for Transpersonal Psychology. 21 (1): 73–82. Pdf.
- Holmes, Doug (1998). Hearing voices: Hillary, Angels, and O.J. to the voice-producing brain. Rileyville, Virginia: Shenandoah Psychology Press. ISBN 9780966397376.
- Haddock G Slade P. Empowering people who hear voices in cognitive behavioral interventions with psychotic disorders, Routledge, London (1996)
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (1995). The Verbal Hallucinations Pragmatics Schedule: Guidelines for establishing pragmatic aspects of voice-voice hearer talk. Manchester, UK: Department of Psychology, University of Manchester.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; Johnston, Margaret (October 1992). "Self repair for in dialogues of schizophrenics: effects of hallucinations and negative symptoms". Brain and Language. 43 (3): 487–511. doi:10.1016/0093-934X(92)90114-T. PMID 1446215.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (2000). Voices of reason, voices of insanity: studies of verbal hallucinations. London New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415147866.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; Johnston, Margaret (August 1994). "Self monitoring in speech production: effects of verbal hallucinations and negative symptoms". Psychological Medicine. 24 (3): 749–761. doi:10.1017/S0033291700027902. PMID 7991757.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; McNally, D.; Glinsky, A. (July 1997). "What can voices do with words? Pragmatics of verbal hallucinations". Psychological Medicine. 27 (4): 885–898. doi:10.1017/S0033291797005138. PMID 9234466.
- Lineham, Tim (26 March 1993). "Hearing is believing". New Statesman and Society. 245: 18–19. ISSN 0954-2361. OCLC 224602448.
- Loekhort, Russell A. (September 1975). "Mary's dog is an ear mother: listening to the voices of psychosis". Psychological Perspectives: A Quarterly Journal of Jungian Thought. 6 (2): 144–160. doi:10.1080/00332927508409446.
- Miller, Laura J.; O'Connor, Eileen; DiPasquale, Tony (April 1993). "Patients' attitudes toward hallucinations". American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (4): 584–588. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.4.584. PMID 8465874. Pdf.
- Posey, Thomas B.; Losch, Mary E. (October 1983). "Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices in 375 normal subjects". Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 3 (2): 99–113. doi:10.2190/74V5-HNXN-JEY5-DG7W.
- Rector, Neil A.; Seeman, Mary V. (September 1992). "Auditory hallucinations in women and men". Schizophrenia Research. 7 (3): 233–236. doi:10.1016/0920-9964(92)90017-Y. PMID 1390402.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (1996), "Empowering people who hear voices", in Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (eds.), Cognitive-behavioural interventions with psychotic disorders, London: Routledge, pp. 137–150, ISBN 9780415102902. Available online.
- Sarbin, Theodore R. (Summer–Autumn 1990). "Towards the obsolescence of the schizophrenia hypothesis". The Journal of Mind and Behavior. University of Maine. 11 (3–4): 259–283. Pdf.
- Sidgwick, Henry A.; Johnson, Alice; Myers, Frederic W. H.; Podmore, Frank; Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1894). Report on the Census of Hallucinations. UK. Preview.
- Described in: James, William (1986), "The Census of Hallucinations (1889-1897)", in James, William (ed.), Essays in psychical research, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 56–78, ISBN 9780674267084.
- See also: "Report on the Census of Hallucinations Society for Psychical Research: Chapter XII Death-coincidences". History of Psychiatry. 5 (19): 403–415. September 1994. doi:10.1177/0957154X9400501909.
- and: James, William (January 1895). "Review of Report on the Census of Hallucinations". Psychological Review. 2 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1037/h0068910.
- Siegel, Ronald K. (1992). Fire in the brain: clinical tales of hallucination. New York, New York: Dutton Books. ISBN 9780525934080.
- Slade, Peter D. (1994), "Models of hallucination: from theory to practice", in David, Anthony S.; Cutting, John C. (eds.), The neuropsychology of schizophrenia, Brain, Behaviour and Cognition Series, Hove, UK Hillsdale, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., pp. 245–254, ISBN 9780863773037.
- Slade, Peter D.; Bentall, Richard P. (1988). Sensory deception: towards a scientific analysis of hallucinations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801837609.
- Stephens, G. Lynn; Graham, George (2000). When self-consciousness breaks: alien voices and inserted thoughts. Philosophical Pychopathology Series. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262194372.
- Tarrier, Nicholas; Harwood, Susan; Yusupoff, Lawrence; Beckett, Richard; Baker, Amanda (October 1990). "Coping Strategy Enhancement (CSE): a method of treating residual schizophrenic symptoms". Behavioural Psychotherapy. 18 (4): 283–293. doi:10.1017/S0141347300010387.
- Tien, Allen Y. (November 1991). "Distributions of hallucinations in the population". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 26 (6): 287–292. doi:10.1007/BF00789221. PMID 1792560.
- Tiihonen, Jari; Hari, Riitta; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Rimón, Ranan; Jousmäki, Veikko; Kajola, Matti (February 1992). "Modified activity of the human auditory cortex during auditory hallucinations". American Journal of Psychiatry. 149 (2): 255–257. doi:10.1176/ajp.149.2.255. PMID 1734750.
- Yusopoff, Lawrence; Tarrier, Nicholas (1996), "Coping strategy enhancement for persistent hallucinations and delusions", in Haddock, Gillian; Slade, P.D. (eds.), Cognitive, behavioural interventions with psychotic disorders, London: Routledge, pp. 86–103, ISBN 9780415102902. Read online.
- McCarthy-Jones S (2013) Hearing Voices - The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp.346-354
- Romme M. Escher S. Dillon J. Corstens D. Morris M. (2009) Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery, PCCS Books/Birmingham City University
- Escher S. Romme M. The Hearing Voices Movement, Chapter 28 page 385 in “Hallucinations” by Jan Dirk Blom and Iris E.C. Sommer, Editors Springer, New York; Dordrecht; Heidelberg; London (2012).
- INTERVOICE World Map https://maps.google.co.uk/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=206854668906561198640.0004d62ee0abdfd28256e&dg=feature
- Adam James, Raising Our Voices: An Account of the Hearing Voices Movement, Handsell Publishing (2001)
- Bracken, Pat; Thomas, P (24 March 2001). "Postpsychiatry: a new direction for mental health". British Medical Journal. 322 (7288): 724–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7288.724. PMC 1119907. PMID 11264215.
- Casstevens, Willa J.; Coker, Joy; Sanders, Tia D. (2012) Mentored Self-Help: A Promising Approach to Exploring Voices, Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 14, Number 2, pp. 110-124(15)
- Longden, Eleanor; Read, John; Dillon, Jacqui (21 June 2017). "Assessing the Impact and Effectiveness of Hearing Voices Network Self-Help Groups". Community Mental Health Journal: 184–188 – via SpringerLink.
- Meddings S, Walley L, Collins T, Tullett F, McEwan B. (2006) The voices don't like it. Mental Health Today. Sep:26-30.
- A Ruddle, O Mason, T Wykes (2011) A review of Hearing voices groups: Evidence and mechanisms of change, Clinical psychology review
- Martin, P.J. (2000). "Hearing voices and listening to those that hear them". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 7 (2): 135–41. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2850.2000.00276.x. PMID 11146909.
- Romme, M. A. J., Escher A. D. M. A. C. (Eds.). (1993). Accepting voices. London: Mind