Hearing Voices Network
Hearing Voices Networks, closely related to the Hearing Voices Movement, are peer-focused national organisations for people who hear voices (commonly referred in western culture as auditory hallucinations) and supporting family members, activists and mental health practitioners. Members may or may not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Networks promote an alternative approach, where voices are not necessarily seen as signs of mental illness. Networks regard hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. In themselves voices are not seen as the problem. Rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.
In the past twenty years twenty-nine national Hearing Voices Networks have been established in the world. There are also regional networks in Australia (Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and southwest Australia), Quebec, UK (Greater London, southwest England) and the United States. The National and Regional Networks are affiliated to the international umbrella organisation known as INTERVOICE (The International Network for Training Education and Research into Hearing Voices) and often referred to as the Hearing Voices Movement. Within these international networks, the combined experience of voice-hearers and professionals have overseen the development of ways of working with people who hear voices that draw on the value of peer support and which help people to live peacefully and positively with their experiences.
The principal roles of Hearing Voices Networks are as follows:
- To support and develop local Hearing Voices Support Groups
- Raise awareness of the hearing voices approach
- To campaign for human rights and social justice for people who hear voices
- To provide information, advice and support to people who hear voices, their family, friends
- To provide training and education for mental health services and practitioners
Description and philosophy
The first hearing voices network was founded in the Netherlands in 1987 by the Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme, the science journalist, Sandra Escher and voice hearer, Patsy Hage. This was followed by the founding of the UK network in 1988 based in Manchester, England. Subsequently Networks have been established in 29 countries over the world, including Australia (2005), Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Canada, Denmark (2005), England (1988), Finland (1996), France (2011), Hungary (2013), Germany (1998), Greece, Ireland (2005), Italy, Japan, Kenya, Palestine, Malaysia, New Zealand (2007), Netherlands (1987), Norway, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda, USA (2010) and Wales (2001). The first 15 years of the development of the global networks is outlined by Adam James in his book "Raising Our Voices" (2001)
These networks provide support to voice hearers specifically through the establishment of local hearing voices support groups, where people who hear voices are afforded the opportunity in a non-medical setting to share their experiences, coping mechanisms and explanatory frameworks. These groups are run in different ways and some are exclusive to individuals who hear voices, whilst others are supported by mental health workers.
National networks have developed considerably over the years and host websites, publish newsletters, guides to the voice hearing experience and workbooks where individuals can record and explore their own experiences with voice hearing.
Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme, the co-author of Accepting Voices, has provided an intellectual basis for these group. He advocates a view that the hearing of voices is not necessarily an indication of mental illness, and that patients should be encouraged to explore their voices and negotiate with them.
Hearing Voices Groups
The development of peer support groups for voice-hearers, known as “hearing voices groups” (HVGs), are an essential part of the work of Hearing Voices Networks throughout the world. For instance there are over 180 groups in England, 60 in Australia and growing numbers of groups in the USA. World Map of Hearing Voices Groups The groups are based in a range of settings including community centres, libraries, pubs, churches, child and adolescent mental health services, prisons and inpatient units.
Hearing Voices Groups are based on an ethos of self-help, mutual respect and empathy. They provide a safe space for people to share their experiences and support one another. They are peer support groups, involving social support and belonging, not therapy or treatment. Hearing Voices Groups are intended to help people to understand and come to terms with their voices and begin to recover their lives.
Members are encouraged to talk about their experiences, to learn what the voices mean for them and how to gain control over their experiences. In voices groups, people are enabled to choose the way they want to manage their experiences. Voices groups assist people to access information and resources so they can make their own choices. Furthermore, voices groups allow people to explore the relationship between their life history and their experience of hearing voices, should they want to do so.
Studies have found that after attending hearing voices groups, members’ hospital bed use decreased. There was also a trend for less formal admissions. People used far more coping strategies and were able to talk to far more people about their voices after attending groups. Learning coping strategies was something people valued about groups and one of the common topics was to explore and experiment with different coping strategies. After attending groups, self-esteem increased. User empowerment also increased. Feeling more empowered is one of the aims of groups particularly valued by voice hearers and may be associated, not only with the voices themselves, but also with other aspects of recovery and getting better. People’s relationships with the voices were mostly improved. They heard the voices less frequently. The voices were perceived as less powerful (omnipotent) relative to them. People felt much better able to cope with their voices, and there were trends towards people feeling less controlled by their voices and feeling less alone. Perhaps most importantly, evaluations show that people improved in relation to what they had identified as their own goals for the group. 
- Barker, Paul K. (2011) . The voice inside. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network. OCLC 181679777.
- Blackman, Lisa (2001). Hearing voices, embodiment and experience. London New York: Free Association Books. ISBN 9781853435331.
- Coleman, Ron; Smith, Mike (1997). Working with voices: victim to victor. Newton-le-Willows, Merseyside: Handsell. ISBN 9781903199015.
- Dillon, Jacqui; Longden, Eleanor (2011), "Hearing voices groups: creating safe spaces to share taboo experiences", in Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (eds.), Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experience based approach, Hove, East Susex New York, New York: Routledge for The International Society for the Psychological Treatments of the Schizophrenias and other pychoses (ISPS), pp. 129–139, ISBN 9780415673303.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Downs, Julie, ed. (2001). Starting and supporting voices groups: a guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network.
- Downs, Julie, ed. (2001). Coping with voices and visions: a guide to helping people who experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other sensations. Manchester England: Hearing Voices Network.
- James, Adam (2001). Raising our voices: an account of the hearing voices movement. Handsell Publishing. ISBN 9781903199138.
- Jaynes, Julian (1976). The origin of consciousness and the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780395207291.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (2000). Voices of reason, voices of insanity: studies of verbal hallucinations. London New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415147866.
- Longden, Eleanor (2013). Learning from the voices in my head. Cambridge: TED Books.
- McCarthy-Jones, Simon (2012). Hearing voices: the histories, causes, and meanings of auditory verbal hallucinations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139017534.
- Romme, Marius A.J. (1996). Understanding voices: coping with auditory hallucinations and confusing realities. Runcorn, Cheshire: Handsell Publications. ISBN 9789072551092.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (1992). Accepting voices. London: Mind Publications. ISBN 9781874690139.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (2000). Making sense of voices: the mental health professional's guide to working with voice-hearers. London: Mind Publications. ISBN 9781874690863.
- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D.; Dillon, Jacqui; Corstens, Dirk; Morris, Mervyn (2009). Living with voices: 50 stories of recovery. Herefordshire: PCCS Books in association with Birmingham City University. ISBN 9781906254223.
- Watkins, John (2008) . Hearing voices: a common human experience. Melbourne, Victoria: Michelle Anderson Publishing. ISBN 9780855723903.
Articles, Chapters and Pamphlets
- Christine, A. (1990). "Heard but not seen". Independent on Sunday. Independent Print Ltd.
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- Barker, Paul K. (1995). "Accepting the inner voices". Nursing Times. Emap Publishing Ltd. 91 (31): 59–61. PMID 7638080.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barker, Paul K. (1996). Can you hear me, a research and practice summary. Stavanger: Psykiatrisk Opplysningsfond. OCLC 472812459.
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- Bentall, Richard P.; Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (Winter 1994). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations: from theory to therapy". Behavioral Psychotherapy. 25 (1): 51–56. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80145-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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- Bentall, Richard P.; Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (Winter 1994). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations". Behaviour Therapy. 25 (1): 51–66. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80145-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chadwick, Paul; Birchwood, Max J. (February 1994). "Challenging the omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations". British Journal of Psychiatry. 164 (2): 190–201. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.413.7816. doi:10.1192/bjp.164.2.190. PMID 8173822.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) [Challenging the omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations Pdf.]
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- Ensink, Bernardine J. (1993). Confusing realities: a study of child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms. Amsterdam: VU University Press. ISBN 9789053830857.
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- Freedland, Jonathan (22 April 1995). "Hearing is believing". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group.
- Grierson, Mike (1991). A report on the Manchester hearing voices conference November 1990. Manchester, England: Hearing Voices Network.
- Haddock, Gillian; Bentall, Richard P.; Slade, Peter D. (1996), "Psychological treatments for auditory hallucinations, focussing or distraction?", in Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (eds.), Cognitive-behavioural interventions with psychotic disorders, London: Routledge, pp. 45–71, ISBN 9780415102902.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Haddock, Gillian; Bentall, Richard P.; Slade, Peter D. (1993). "Psychological treatment of chronic auditory hallucinations: two case studies". Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 21 (4): 335–346. doi:10.1017/S1352465800011668.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Heery, Myrtle W. (1989). "Inner voice experiences: an exploratory study of thirty cases". Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Association for Transpersonal Psychology. 21 (1): 73–82.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Pdf.
- Holmes, Doug (1998). Hearing voices: Hillary, Angels, and O.J. to the voice-producing brain. Rileyville, Virginia: Shenandoah Psychology Press. ISBN 9780966397376.
- Haddock G Slade P. Empowering people who hear voices in cognitive behavioral interventions with psychotic disorders, Routledge, London (1996)
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (1995). The Verbal Hallucinations Pragmatics Schedule: Guidelines for establishing pragmatic aspects of voice-voice hearer talk. Manchester, UK: Department of Psychology, University of Manchester.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; Johnston, Margaret (October 1992). "Self repair for in dialogues of schizophrenics: effects of hallucinations and negative symptoms". Brain and Language. 43 (3): 487–511. doi:10.1016/0093-934X(92)90114-T. PMID 1446215.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip (2000). Voices of reason, voices of insanity: studies of verbal hallucinations. London New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415147866.
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; Johnston, Margaret (August 1994). "Self monitoring in speech production: effects of verbal hallucinations and negative symptoms". Psychological Medicine. 24 (3): 749–761. doi:10.1017/S0033291700027902. PMID 7991757.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Leudar, Ivan; Thomas, Philip; McNally, D.; Glinsky, A. (July 1997). "What can voices do with words? Pragmatics of verbal hallucinations". Psychological Medicine. 27 (4): 885–898. doi:10.1017/S0033291797005138. PMID 9234466.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lineham, Tim (26 March 1993). "Hearing is believing". New Statesman and Society. 245: 18–19. ISSN 0954-2361. OCLC 224602448.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Loekhort, Russell A. (September 1975). "Mary's dog is an ear mother: listening to the voices of psychosis". Psychological Perspectives: A Quarterly Journal of Jungian Thought. 6 (2): 144–160. doi:10.1080/00332927508409446.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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- Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (1996), "Empowering people who hear voices", in Haddock, Gillian; Slade, Peter D. (eds.), Cognitive-behavioural interventions with psychotic disorders, London: Routledge, pp. 137–150, ISBN 9780415102902.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Available online.
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- Sidgwick, Henry A.; Johnson, Alice; Myers, Frederic W. H.; Podmore, Frank; Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1894). Report on the Census of Hallucinations. UK. Preview.
- Described in: James, William (1986), "The Census of Hallucinations (1889-1897)", in James, William (ed.), Essays in psychical research, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 56–78, ISBN 9780674267084.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- See also: "Report on the Census of Hallucinations Society for Psychical Research: Chapter XII Death-coincidences". History of Psychiatry. 5 (19): 403–415. September 1994. doi:10.1177/0957154X9400501909.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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- INTERVOICE World Map https://maps.google.co.uk/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=206854668906561198640.0004d62ee0abdfd28256e&dg=feature
- Adam James, Raising Our Voices: An Account of the Hearing Voices Movement, Handsell Publishing (2001)
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