Heart of Europe Debating Tournament
|Heart of Europe Debating Tournament|
|Established||2001 by John L. Wickham|
|Location||Olomouc, Czech Republic|
|Key people||Jakub Kadlec, Chief Organiser|
|Focus||World Schools Style Debating|
|Other tournament networks|
- 1 History
- 2 Symbols
- 3 Format
- 4 British Parliamentary Track
- 5 Chief Adjudication Team
- 6 Organising Committee
- 7 Past tournaments
- 8 Future tournaments
- 9 The Goals
- 10 EFL awards
- 11 Participating Countries
- 12 Past Motions
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
The Heart of Europe Debating Tournament is a WSDC (World Schools Debating Championships) based tournament founded by John L. Wickham and the students of Olomouc - Hejcin High School. Originally a competition for high school students of European countries that had previously participated in the KPDP (Karl Popper Debate Program) established by OSI (Open Society Institute), after some time it became a truly global competition for high school debaters. The first Heart of Europe Debating Tournament was held in Olomouc, Czech Republic in 2001. The event attracted participants from Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In 2002, the tournament didn't take place because the organizers were not able to obtain the necessary funding. Nonetheless, a year later, in 2003, the second year of the tournament was held. It has been hosted in Olomouc, Czech Republic every time since then, being organised by Debate Club Olomouc throughout the years 2004–2009. Heart of Europe has lately become an annual event and has been organised by the Association of Debate Clubs of Olomouc Region since 2010.
In year 2011 there was really significant step in improvement of quality of the tournament. Organising Committee established cooperation withPalacky University Olomouc. All the dabetes took place in magnificent building of Faculty of Science. The tournament also received new visual style in this year and a lot of work on promotion was done, such as new social networks, photo and video documentation.
Year 2012 was the greatest cornerstone in the history of the tournament. It was held by a new organization, Czech Debate Society, o. s.. For the first time, the tournament was also available online to participants all around the world because of the project "Heart of Europe accessible to everyone". What more, one additional new project was connected with the promotion of the tournament, The Czech Debate TV, with purpose to monitor debate and educational events and present educational videos. The tournament enjoyed fruitful partnerships with projects Debating Europe and The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic - European Affairs Information Department. In that year we have yet again welcomed several new nations, namely Chile, Nigeria, Macedonia, as well as it was the 5th anniversary of Jakub Kadlec' involvement with the tournament.
2013 was the 10th anniversary of Heart of Europe and the tournament got its mascot Herr Heart. The biggest innovation of Heart of Europe 2013 was a test run of the British Parliamentary track before the high school competition, which proved to be a success and will be repeated in the future. As for the staff, the Chief Adjudicator panel was changed – extended to include judges from all over the planet in order to increase its diversity. There were also new participating countries (such as Bulgaria, Croatia or Ukraine) and new partneships made, mainly the one with Debate Club Pandora in Kiev, which later resulted in CDS helping with organization at their tournament called Under Chestnut Trees. Other new partners and sponsors included ARGO, ČEZ or Deleo. In terms of cultural program, Heart of Europe newly included a talent show, where everyone was invited to showcase any skill other than debating. Several debaters and judges performed singing, playing an instrument, dancing as well as some acting and stand up comedy. The next addition was a thematic tour of the city, which was special that year because of historical costumes and props used to demonstrate the legends of Olomouc. Additionally, registration to the tournament was tied to a blood donorship initiative.
Year 2014 was most notable by the outstanding quality of the teams, even by the already quite high standard of the tournament - perhaps a result of multiple delegations spending several years prior to 2014 honing their skills at our tournament every year. The teams were also extraordinarily balanced. In the first break round, the last team to make the break from the 16th place defeated the first team, two members of which were still the best two speakers of the whole tournament. Even more interestingly, the team with the best two speakers was from South Africa, just like the team that ultimately won the whole tournament, only from an entirely different institution, thus also continuing the regular cycle of different continent winning each year. This was also the first year after the definitive retirement of the founder of the tournament, John L. Wickham, from the position of Chief Judge, making it a bit of an experiment in new organizational procedures. The new paradigm for the future of the tournament was decided to be a rotating position of a chief judge, open to new ascending debate stars, as well as experienced debate masters. New participating countries were Bermuda and China.
Heart of Europe DT has become very popular during past years. There have been participants from countries such as Belarus, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Estonia, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestine, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine and United States of America.
All debates in the tournament are in English. This is for practical reasons, but it means that many countries debate in what is for them a foreign language. This has not stopped a number of these teams being very successful. Special awards have been introduced for the highest-ranked teams made-up of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) speakers.
From December 2012, Heart of Europe Debating Tournament has an official mascot – Herr Heart! Then Chief Adjudicator of the tournament, John Wickham, commented on it:
“Introducing this mascot and promoting blood giving all around the world is another significant milestone for the Czech Debate Society and the tournament itself. It is in line with the tournament’s mission to develop cooperation among the youth and to foster cultural and social understanding and exchange. Herr Heart represents the sharpness, love for freedom and effort to help and to improve the neighbourhood, which is essential for debaters, as well as the hospitality and openness of organisers and the tournament itself.”
John Wickham also explained the concept behind the logo for the HOEDT, saying that the heart in the middle of the Europe silhouette represents the central position of the place, from where the HOEDT helps spread freedom of speech, the centre of Europe which really is a crossroad of cultures. The logo also indicates the communication that will bring the students from various cultures closer to each other.
The colors chosen for the logo represent national colors of the country, as well as vitality and democracy. Herr Heart also brings a new motto, not just for our blood donor initiative, but for the tournament as a whole – Debate Is Life. Just like the blood is necessary to oxygenate the body, debating nurtures the mind, while it is literally saving lives even further through promoting peace and helping people of all ages and cultures live to the fullest. We at the HOEDT certainly live for the debate and that is why the debate lives here too.
Heart of Europe Debating Tournament debates use a special format known as 'World Schools Style Debating'. This is a combination of the British Parliamentary and Australia-Asian debating, designed to meet the needs of the tournament. Each debate comprises eight- minute speeches delivered by two three-member teams (the Proposition and the Opposition). Each speaker delivers an eight-minute speech; then both teams deliver a "reply speech" lasting four minutes, with the last word being reserved for the Proposition. Between the end of the first and the beginning of the last minute of an eight-minute speech, the opposing party may offer "points of information". The speaker may refuse these, but should take at least one or two points during his or her speech.
Originally the plan was to use KPDP style of debate at Heart of Europe Debating Tournament. However, 'World Schools Style Debating' was used in many more countries for their national competitions, including Australia, Argentina, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, New Zealand, South Africa, Slovenia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Wales, so the Organizing Committee has decided to use it.
The HOE DT normally takes place over the course of seven days. Each national team competes in eight preliminary debates: four prepared debates and four impromptu debates (for which teams have one hour to prepare). Once the eight preliminary rounds have been completed, the 16 best teams compete in knock-out debates (known as the Octofinals) culminating in a Grand Final. For each debate, three judges (or more in later rounds) mark each debater on his or her style, content and strategy.
British Parliamentary Track
The British Parliamentary Track of the Heart of Europe international debating tournament was first introduced in the year 2013, the 10th anniversary of the event. It took place between the 29th of July and 1 August 2013 and it was an international debating competition for university students in the most common format for this type of contest - the British Parliamentary debating, involving 4 teams of 2 university students in a single debate, representing two governments (affirming the motion) and two oppositions (negating the motion).
- Canada 2013;2014
- Czech Republic 2013;2014
- Netherlands 2013
- Poland 2014
- Romania 2013
- Slovakia 2014
- Slovenia 2013;2014
- South Africa 2014
- Sweden 2013;2014
- Thailand 2015
Chief Adjudication Team
The Chief Adjudication Team (CAT) of HOEDT is selected by the Chief Judge with the help of the Chief Organizer. The number of members may vary, though an odd number is more practical in terms of the CAT assembling a functional judging panel. While the principles behind the selection of the CAT members may vary as well, the CAT should consist of experienced judges of international tournaments in appropriate debate formats. In 2013, a new convention was established by extending the CAT to 5 members, each ideally representing a different region of the world.
2014 Chief Adjudication Team
|2014||Chalabi||Wissam||Sweden||Head of CAP|
|2014||Cvikl||Eva Nike||Slovenia||Member of CAP|
|2014||Mohanoe||Itumeleng Kenneth||South Africa||Member of CAP|
|2014||Belafi||Carmen||Germany||Member of CAP|
|2014||Cena||Frankie||Canada||Member of CAP|
2013 Chief Adjudication Team
|2013||Wickham||John L.||United Kingdom||Head of CAP|
|2013||Polsak||Aljosa||Slovenia||Member of CAP
|2013||Mohanoe||Itumeleng Kenneth||South Africa||Member of CAP|
|2013||Sovaiala||Nae||Romania||Member of CAP|
|2013||Cena||Frankie||Canada||Member of CAP|
The Heart of Europe Debating Tournament is governed by the Organising Committee, which is nominated by Executive Board of Czech Debate Society (CDS) and is made up of representatives and members of CDS and volunteers. Decisions are made by democratic votes of the Organising Committee members. The Organising Committee decides which town in Czech Republic will host the tournament, monitors and revises the HOE DT rules, handles matters such as adjudication, language issues, education and finance. Since 2010 till 2012 the procedure was ran by Association of Debate Clubs Olomouc Region.
There is a Code of Ethics of HOE DT which contains the Aims of the tournament and three basic principles. he principles ensure that there is no censorship of motions for debate, and that all teams take part on an equal basis. All participants and all hosts must agree to abide by the Code of Ethics before taking part.
The current 2015 Tournament Organising Committee
|2015||Kadlec||Jakub||Czech Republic||Chief Organiser
Head of Czech Debate Sociaety (CDS)
Member of Registration Team
|2015||Mohanoe||Itumeleng Kenneth||South Africa||Head of Chief Adjudicator' Panel (CAP)
|2015||Klos||Stepan||Czech Republic||Tabulation Officer|
|2015||Waic||Vlastimil||Czech Republic||Registration Officer
Project Manager of Czech Debate Society (CDS)
|2015||Cerna||Tereza||Czech Republic||Delegates Care Officer|
|2015||Siwkova||Hana||Czech Republic||Socials Officer|
|2015||Dobes||Pavel||Czech Republic||Logistics Officer|
|2015||Dankova||Denisa||Czech Republic||Catering Officer|
|2015||Mgr. Rezny||Martin||Czech Republic||Communications Officer|
|2015||Sulc||Josef||Czech Republic||IT Administrator|
|2015||Ligurska||Klara||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer
Member of Registration Team
2014 Organising Committee
|2014||Kadlec||Jakub||Czech Republic||Chief Organiser
Head of Czech Debate Sociaety (CDS)
Member of Registration Team
|2014||Chalabi.||Wissam||Sweden||Head of Chief Adjudicator' Panel (CAP)
|2014||Bc. Machacek||Lukas||Czech Republic||Registration Officer
|2014||Cerna||Tereza||Czech Republic||Delegates Care|
|2014||Tichy||Antonin||Czech Republic||Socials Officer|
|2014||Dankova||Denisa||Czech Republic||Logistics Officer & Catering Officer|
|2014||Bc. Rezny||Martin||Czech Republic||Communications Officer|
|2014||Waic||Vlastimil||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer|
|2014||Ligurska||Klara||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer
Member of Registration Team
2013 Organising Committee
|2013||Kadlec||Jakub||Czech Republic||Chief Organiser
Head of Czech Debate Society (CDS)
|2013||Wickham L.||John||United Kingdom||Head of Chief Adjudicator' Panel (CAP)
Member of CAP
|2013||Bradac||Jiri||Czech Republic||Registration Officer
|2013||Cerna||Tereza||Czech Republic||Delegates Care|
|2013||Sladky||Jakub||Czech Republic||Logistics Officer
Project Manager of Czech Debate Society (CDS)
|2013||Bc. Rezny||Martin||Czech Republic||PR & Media Officer|
|2013||Burget||Lukas||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer|
|2013||Ligurska||Klara||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer
Member of Registration Team
2012 Organising Committee
|2012||Kadlec||Jakub||Czech Republic||Chief Organiser
Head of Association of Debate Clubs of Olomouc Region
Member of CAP
|2012||Wickham L.||John||United Kingdom||Head of Chief Adjudicator' Panel (CAP)
Member of CAP
|2012||Bc. Machacek||Lukas||Czech Republic||Registration Officer
|2012||Cerna||Tereza||Czech Republic||Delegates Care and Logistics Officer|
|2012||Bc. Rezny||Martin||Czech Republic||PR & Media Officer|
|2012||Burget||Lukas||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer|
|2012||Ligurska||Klara||Czech Republic||Complaints Officer|
|2014||South Africa - South Africa A1||Canada - Canada Red||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Jakub Kadlec||Wissam Chalabi|
|2013||Canada - Canada Red||United States - USA A||Turkey - Turkish National Slovenia - DGM Black||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Jakub Kadlec||John L. Wickham|
|2012||Singapore - Raffles||Canada - Canada A||Canada - Canada West Canada - Canada East||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Jakub Kadlec||John L. Wickham|
|2011||Czech Republic - Red||Turkey - Turkey||Singapore - Raffles Knights & Hong Kong - Hong Kong 1||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Jakub Kadlec, Bc. Roman Petr||George Yeoman|
|2010||South Africa - South Africa||Hong Kong - Hong Kong 1||Canada - Bicostal & Czech Republic - ISP||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Michal Roubalik, Jakub Kadlec||John L. Wickham|
|2009||South Korea - KMLA||Slovenia - Slovenia A||Canada - Only one team & South Korea - Baumgardener||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Jakub Kadlec||John L. Wickham|
|2008||Israel - Israel||Romania - Romania 1||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Marek Stepan||John L. Wickham|
|2006||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Matej Pilat||John L. Wickham|
|2004||Hungary||Romania - Romania 1||Slovenia & Czech Republic - NAT||Olomouc, Czech Republic||Matej Pilat||John L. Wickham|
|2003||United States||Czech Republic||Estonia||Olomouc, Czech Republic||John L. Wickham||John L. Wickham|
|2001||Czech Republic||Slovakia||Olomouc, Czech Republic||John L. Wickham||John L. Wickham|
British Parliamentary Styly (highschoolers and university students)
- July 6th–9th, 2015 - to be held in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Chief Organizer is Jakub Kadlec and Chief Judge is Itumeleng Kenneth Mohanoe.
World Style (highschoolers)
- July 9th–10th, 2015 - to be held in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Chief Organizer is Jakub Kadlec and Chief Judge is Itumeleng Kenneth Mohanoe.
The Goals of Heart of Europe Debating Tournament are:
- to promote free speech;
- to nurture the skills of public speech and rhetorics;
- to develop cooperation among the youth;
- to advocate debate;
- to foster cultural and social understanding and exchange;
- to promote the Czech Republic and Olomouc Region;
- to contribute to education.
In order to further these aims, all participating countries agree that:
- The team of any participating country may be required to debate any issue.
- The team of any participating country may be required to debate against the team of any other participating country.
- The team of any participating country is entitled to take part in the tournament on the same basis as any other participating country's team.
At Heart of Europe Debating Tournament special awards are presented each year to the best-performing English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teams. These awards are open to teams from nations where English is not an official national language. To be eligible for the EFL award, a team must be predominantly made-up of students who do not come from English-speaking homes and who do not attend schools where English is used as a medium of instruction. The EFL award was instituted in 2010. Prior to that, there was just one award for teams from non-English-speaking countries. Before 2010, the HOE DT rules stipulated that teams who reached the semi-finals or Grand Final of the championship were not eligible to receive the ESL award. When the EFL award was introduced, the rules were changed to allow teams who reach the semi-finals (but not the Grand Final) to be able to receive the ESL or EFL award.
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Award Winners
|Year||EFL Award Winners|
|2013||Romania - ARGO|
|2012||Israel - Lod 1|
|2011||Czech Republic - Red|
|2010||Czech Republic - Czech 1|
So far the following nations have taken part in the Heart of Europe International Debating Tournament since its inception in 2001.
- Czech Republic
- Hong Kong
- South Africa
- South Korea
- United Kingdom
- United States
P indicates prepared motion I indicates impromptu motion.
THBT a federal Europe will never come about.
1. THBT president Bush's war on terror is making a valid contribution to combatting terrorism.
2. THBT compensation should be paid for injustice committed by previous generations.
3. THBT the United Ntions has failed.
4. THW impose economics sanctions to end child labour.
TH welcomes the Euro.
1. THBT true democracy is direct democracy.
2. THW put fat cats on a diet.
3. TH condemns gambling.
4. THBT the state should have no role in broadcasting.
Are not known.
THBT NATO has lost its importance after the Cold War.
1. THBT Extremism in the pursuit of liberty is no vice.
2. THBT China represents a Threat to World Security.
3. THBT Russian Democracy is much sham as was Soviet Socialism.
4. THBT the USA is the greatest threat to the world's future Environment.
THBT subsidizing the car industry will not solve the world economic crisis.
1. THBT BRIC states (Brazil, India, China) are a menace to Europe.
2. THW punish Mugabe.
3. THBT the World Bank is an obstacle to development.
4. THBT genetically modified foods are in the public interest.
THBT Israel should be obliged (if necessary by force) to withdraw from all lands acquired since 1966
1. THBT All Drugs should be legalized.
2. THBT Turkey should be admitted into the European Union.
3. THBT Downloading music and films from the internet should be prohibited.
4. THBT All Foreign forces should be withdrawn from Afghanistan.
THBT Central Banks should set limits on government spending.
1. THBT democracy is not the answer for every country.
2. THBT nuclear energy is a necessary means of fighting the climate change.
3. THW give preference to immigration applicants whose values are consistent with those of the host nation.
4. THBT peer pressure is more beneficial than harmful.
This House believes that attempts to create a supranational Europe are going to fail.
1. TH condemns the payment of bonuses to executives to supplement their salaries.
2. THBT a parliamentary democracy requires the inclusion of sovereign referenda to decide on important issues.
3. THBT Las Malvinas (The Falkland Islands) should be returned to Argentina.
4. THBT all young people should be required to do some form of National Service (not necessarily military) for two full years.
PRELIMINARY ROUNDS - IMPROMPTU SETS
A. Motions on Sport and Health
1. This House believes that we should establish one permanent centre for the Olympic Games to be held each Olympiad.
2. This House believes that the manufacture and sale of tobacco should be made illegal.
3. This House considers that many professional sportsmen are grossly overpaid.
B. Motions on Education
1. This House believes that all Mainstream Secondary Schools should provide Esperanto as their first Foreign Language.
2. This House believes that school History should only be taught from an international perspective.
3. This House believes that Physical Education should only be an optional for students over the age of 18.
C. Motions on Crime and Punishment
1. This House believes that there are some crimes for which Life Imprisonment without the possibility of Parole is an appropriate punishment.
2. This House believes that the right to self-defence should include the right to use firearms against house breakers.
3. This House believes that the wearing of full burqa, hijab jilbab or niqad in public should be outlawed.
D. International Motions
1. This House believes that no Nations in the UN Security Council should have the right of veto.
2. This House believes that there can be no hope of lasting peace in the Middle East until Israel withdraws to its boundaries of 1967.
3. This House believes that China should be exiled from the community of nations until it recognizes the full sovereignty of Tibet.
BREAKING ROUNDS - IMPROMPTU SETS
E. Motions for the Octofinals
1. This House would outlaw all zoos, animal park and circus animals since they represent curelty to animals.
2. Religion has done more harm than good.
3. This House believes that public transport in urban areas should be provided free by local authorities.
F. Motions for the Quarter Finals
1. The preservation of minority languages and cultures such as Welsh, Breton, Catalan makes European Integration more difficult and therefore should notbe supported by European Funding.
2. This House believes that Private Education should be made illegal.
3. This House believes that a Free Press needs some control.
G. Motions for the Semi Finals
1. This House believes that Immigration into Europe presents a positive hope for the future of Europe.
2. Modern Trends in the Arts (Music, Painting, Literature etc.) have failed to communicate with large numbers of the public.
3. This House believes that the Twentieth Century was a century of progress for humanity.
THBT the role of the Roman Catholic Church since 1945 in the world diplomacy has been overwhelmingly negative
THBT with the ending of the Warsaw Pact there is no further justification for the existence of NATO
1. THW pardon all sportsmen found guilty of using performance enhancement drugs
2. THW pay professional sportsmen as much as university professors
3. THW Ban Sports that involve killing animals
1. THBT modern art may be modern but is rarely art
2. THBT the Beetles have contributed more to society than Beethoven
3. THW stop state funding of the arts
THW stop public funding of space exploration
THBT war causes more problems than it solves
1. TH Prefers single-sex schools to co-educational schools
2. THW require all new teacher graduates from developed countries to work in the developing world for a period of twelve months.
3. THBT nationalism has no place in the school curriculum
(8)Politics and Economics
1. THS Free Trade to the developing world
2. THBT there is no place for monarchy in a democratic country
3. This house believes that corrupt democracy is better than dictatorship
1. THBT there is no future without nuclear energy
2. THW rather use its resources to adapt to climate change than to prevent it
3. THW Mandate recycling Programs in developing countries
(QF) International relations
1. THBT Tibet should be recognized as an independent state
2. THBT America has done more harm than good since 1945
3. THBT the ICC should have the authority to investigate and prosecute any cases
(SF) Religion Morality Ethics
1. THW not use medically scarce resources on terminally ill patients
2. THBT multiculturalism has failed
3. THBT religion should have a place in public education
THBT in the long run there is no hope to save Euro without a Federal Europe
This year motion were created by Motion Committee: Wissam Chalabi, Lukas Machacek and Jakub Kadlec. The committee had advisors: Carmen Belafi, Tristan Von Zahn, Eva Nike Cvikl, Itumeleng Kenneth Mohanoe, Frankie Cena, Martin Rezny, Bojana Skrt, Olesia Yakimakha.
THBT the NSA should continue using PRISM despite the reaction to its disclosure
THW prohibit the privatization of natural resources in developing countries
(3) I FAMILY ISSUES
1. TH Regrets the decision of children who cut all ties with their parents
2. TH Supports assisted suicide for terminally ill minors
3. THW abolish the right to refuse to give evidence in court cases against family members
(4) I SPORTS
1. TH Regrets giving Russia the right to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup
2. THBT sports leagues should not use cheerleading performances at their events
3. THW only allow amateur athletes to compete at the Olympic Games
Considering its role in the holocaust, THBT Germany should recognize a Palestinian state and urge Israel to do the same
(6) I EDUCATION
1. THW ban traditional circumcision/initiation schools (with info slip)
2. THW pay performance based salaries to teachers
3. THBT social media does more harm than good to education
(7) I SCIENCE
1. THBT the MarsOne mission should be cancelled (with info slip)
2. THW Stop the search for extraterrestrial intelligent life
3. THW not allow social media sites to conduct psychological experiments on their users without their knowledge
(8) I INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. THBT private military companies should be banned from UN Peacekeeping Operations (with info slip) (not picked)
2. THBT the decision to engage in any form of military intervention (including war) should be made by the political executive in a state and not by the citizens
3. THW not pay ransom to terrorist groups that hold hostages
(OF) I DEVELOPIN COUNTRIES
1. THBT violence is a legitimate tool for political opposition movements in authoritarian states
2. THBT western nations should make aid conditional on advances in gay rights
3. THBT developing countries should hold the Catholic Church financially liable for the medical expenses of AIDS victims in areas where the church campaigns against condom use. (not picked)
(QF) I EQUALITY
1. THBT the feminist movement should oppose affirmative action for women in western liberal democracies
2. THBT the state should fully subsidise gender reassignment surgery. (not picked)
3. THBT refugees should be granted voting rights in their recipient countries
(SF) I PROTESTS (all with info slip)
1. TH Opposes the extinguishing of Buddhist monks who self-immolate in Protest
2. TH Regrets the American people’s opposition to military intervention (not picked)
3. THBT hacktivism is a legitimate tool of political protest
THBT refugees should be granted voting rights in their recipient countries
- World Schools Style debate
- Parliamentary debate
- Eurasian Schools Debating Championships
- World Schools Debating Championships
- http://www.heart-of-europe.org/web/about/ About Heart of Europe Debating Tournament – Heart-of-europe.org