Heartbreaker (Mariah Carey song)
Standard CD artwork.
|Single by Mariah Carey featuring Jay-Z|
|from the album Rainbow|
|Released||September 21, 1999|
|Mariah Carey singles chronology|
|Jay-Z singles chronology|
"Heartbreaker" is a song by American singer and songwriter Mariah Carey. It was released on September 21, 1999, by Columbia Records as the lead single from Carey's seventh studio album Rainbow (1999). The song was written by Carey and Shawn "Jay-Z" Carter, and produced by Carey and DJ Clue. Additional writers are credited, since the song's hook is built around a sample from "Attack of the Name Game" by Stacy Lattisaw. "Heartbreaker" pushed Carey even further into the R&B and hip hop market, becoming her second commercial single to feature a rapper. Lyrically, the song talks about a relationship from the female perspective, and how the protagonist incessantly returns to her lover, even though he continuously cheats on her and breaks her heart.
"Heartbreaker" received mixed reviews from music critics, many of which felt it was not original or innovative in terms of a creative step forward. Additionally, it was compared heavily to Carey's 1995 hit single "Fantasy", which also built its hook from a sampled beat. "Heartbreaker" topped the charts in Canada and the US Billboard Hot 100, becoming Carey's 14th US chart topper. Across Europe and Australia, the single topped the charts in New Zealand, and was a top-five single in France and the United Kingdom.
Carey performed "Heartbreaker" live on several television and award show appearances around the world, as well as on her concert tours. The accompanying music video for "Heartbreaker", directed by Brett Ratner, is one of the most expensive ever made, costing over $2.5 million. The video features Carey and her friends visiting a film theater and catching her boyfriend (played by Jerry O'Connell) on a date with another woman. Carey played herself and a brunette villainess named Bianca, during a physical altercation scene in between the two women. Due to contractual agreements at the time of its filming, Jay-Z was unable to make an appearance in the video, instead being portrayed as an animated cartoon. The video was inspired by several films, including Grease and Enter the Dragon.
- 1 Background
- 2 Recording and lyrics
- 3 Composition
- 4 Remix
- 5 Critical reception
- 6 Chart performance
- 7 Music video
- 8 Live performances
- 9 Track listing and formats
- 10 Credits and personnel
- 11 Charts and certifications
- 12 References
- 13 External links
With her sixth studio effort, Butterfly (1997), Carey started infusing hip hop elements in her songs, working with different, and younger, producers and songwriters. After the album's success, and the release of her first compilation album #1's (1998), Carey began to work on her seventh album, Rainbow (1999). Her main focus on the album was to continue on the same path she began with on Butterfly, producing a subtle combination between inspirational ballads and hip hop beats. "Heartbreaker" marked the first time in Carey's career that a rapper was included on a lead single, following Ol' Dirty Bastard, who was featured on the Bad Boy remix of "Fantasy" in 1995. While recording the album in Capri, Italy, Carey claimed to have spent most of the time developing what she felt to be a strong lead single.
Originally, "Heartbreaker" was intended to be part of Carey's debut film soundtrack, Glitter, however, after the film's delay, it was included on her album Rainbow. Prior to the song's radio release, Carey spoke of it in an interview: "It's pretty much [in] the classic style of my up-tempo classics like 'Fantasy' or 'Dreamlover,' [...] But it's kind of fun and has a new edge to it, I think, and definitely having Jay-Z takes it to a whole 'nother level. And [DJ] Clue makes it really fun and stuff."
Recording and lyrics
While developing Rainbow, Carey had different ideas for the lead single. After writing the song's core lyrics and producing the main idea and melody, DJ Clue, one of the earlier producers in the project, suggested to Carey the use and incorporation of the hook from "Attack of the Name Game" by Stacy Lattisaw. After agreeing to it, they incorporated Carey's lyrics and melody to the hook, and began recording the song. However, after completing "Heartbreaker", Carey felt it needed a strong male verse, hoping for a rising hip hop artist. She chose to work with Jay-Z and began re-arranging the song as he wrote out his verse. Jay-Z wrote his entire verse, and helped produce some of the song's core instrumentals. In an interview with Fred Bronson, Carey spoke of her experience working with Jay-Z:
"It's fun when you can find someone that you can relate to and that you respect. Jay-Z is someone I admire as a writer and as an artist. We could be sitting in the studio, and he can freestyle a rhyme that would be incredible just off the top of his head. He doesn't need a pen and paper. I equate that to a singer who can pick up the mike and riff and ad-lib over a song and take you to a totally new place."
Aside from her work with Clue and Jay-Z, Carey's longtime friend and background singer Trey Lorenz also took part in the song's production. He provided the back-up vocals in the song, and took part in several small areas of the development of Rainbow. When interviewed by Bronson, Carey spoke highly of Lorenz, "He's an amazing writer and singer, he's so influenced by the old school stuff, yet he's so current. He's known me since before my first album, and he's a great, loyal friend." Aside from the use of the sample and Jay-Z's verses, "Heartbreaker" contains strong female-empowering lyrics, which Carey wrote as a sort of anthem, especially because she felt that she personally has been in a similar predicament in the past.
A 28-second sample of the song, featuring Carey singing the chorus over the soft background.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
"Heartbreaker" is a moderately slow, mid-tempo dance-pop track, with R&B and hip hop influences. According to the music sheet published at Musicnotes.com, the song is written in the key of D♭ major, while the beat is set in common time which moves at a moderate pace of 100 beats per minute. It has a sequence of D♭–B♭m–D♭ as its chord progression. Carey's vocals in the song span from the note of D3 to the high note of C7. The song has a "percolating beat" over which Carey sings with nasal, silken and declarative vocals. The verses feature Carey's signature melismatic style, combined with rapid yet seamless transitions; for example, Carey starts the second verse already in mid-belt "It's a shame to be" while then going off into a whispering coo for "so euphoric and weak."
Aside from background vocal stylings from Lorenz and other females, Carey added her own lowered vocals into the song, giving the impression of a "doubled voice." "Heartbreaker" samples the 1982 song "Attack of the Name Game" by Stacy Lattisaw. The song's hook and loop were taken and incorporated into the melody of "Heartbreaker", as well as being used as its main instrumental components. The lyrics are constructed in the verse-pre-chorus-chorus form. Carey starts with the hook "Gimme your love, gimme your love," repeated eight times. Carey repeats the chorus four times, ending the song with a final "Gimme your love, gimme your love." Chuck Taylor from Billboard described its instrumentation as a "persistent guitar lick" and wrote "There's an identifiable chorus here, and some semblance of verses, but more than anything, this song comes across as a blur of jumbled in the background, including Carey's own repetitive harmonies, which in this case sound more like a competition than a compliment."
The song's main remix, titled Desert Storm Remix, features female rappers Da Brat and Missy Elliott. It is the first of Carey's remixes that was produced by Desert Storm Records producer and rapper DJ Clue, who makes an introduction on the remix. The remix contains lyrical interpolations and an instrumental sample from "Ain't No Fun (If the Homies Can't Have None)" by Snoop Dogg. In an interview with MTV News, Carey spoke of the song's remix before its official release in August 1999: "And then the remix. I'm so excited about the remix. It's also gonna go on the album, and it features Missy Elliott and Da Brat, and it's kinda like a girl-power answer record, and it's to the loop of Snoop [Dogg]'s 'Ain't No Fun.' They're not ready for that one!". A separate music video was filmed for the remix, shot in black and white and featuring a cameo appearance by Dogg. The Desert Storm Remix received mixed reviews from music critics. Stephen Thomas Erlewine chose the song as one of the top three cuts on Rainbow, alongside the original. Danyel Smith from Entertainment Weekly called it "[an] overblown [...] miscalculation" and wrote "Missy Elliott's and Da Brat's bad sexual politics sink the tired 'Heartbreaker [Remix].' Larry Flick from Billboard, called the remix "muscular" and "street-savvy" and wrote "Missy Elliott and Da Brat lace rhymes into the track, which is enhanced by the sample from Snoop Dogg's 'Ain't No Fun (If The Homies Can't Have None)'."
"Heartbreaker" received mixed reviews from contemporary music critics, some of whom compared it heavily to Carey's previous lead singles. Dara Cook from MTV called the song "airy ditty" and wrote "[On the song] Mariah exudes as much sentiment as hollowed-out driftwood." Cook continued onto the song's production, writing "By texturing it into the song, producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis have finally found productive use (other than song closing spectacle) for Mariah's high octave shriek." AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine named "Heartbreaker" as one of his top three choices from the album. Danyel Smith from Entertainment Weekly called the song a "delectable confection" and wrote "she smartly uses Jay-Z's droll rap about a bratty girlfriend as tart counterpoint to her creamy tones," however calling it a recycled version of Carey's previous songs "Dreamlover" (1993) and "Fantasy" (1995). Elysa Gardner from the Los Angeles Times called the song "breezy" and noted how Carey "brings a similarly light, sensuous touch" to "Heartbreaker". Additionally, Gardner complimented Jay-Z's rap verses, calling them "sly." Editor from Rolling Stone Arion Berger, called it "nasal, silken and declarative" while "riding the percolating beat." Additionally, Berger also compared it to Carey's "Fantasy", for its similar usage of a sampled hook. Tom Sinclair from Entertainment Weekly reviewed the song individually, giving it an F. He called it a "rehash" of "Fantasy" and wrote "What self-respecting artist would have the gall to recycle the Tom Tom Club's 'Genius of Love' (the source of 'Fantasy') for a second time in four years? It's a given that pop will eat itself, but this sort of self-cannibalization should be illegal." However, the sample used in "Heartbreaker (feat. Jay Z)" was not the same sample as the one used in "Fantasy". Chuck Taylor from Billboard gave the song a mixed review, writing "Yes it's a hit, and her voice is in fine form, but 'Heartbreaker' is a disappointment in terms of what we know she's capable of writing."
In the United States, "Heartbreaker" was released on September 21, 1999. The song became Carey's fourteenth chart topper in the US, spending two weeks atop the Billboard Hot 100. It extended Carey's lead as the female artist with the most number one singles in the country. The only acts still ahead of Carey were Elvis Presley with seventeen (a record she surpassed in 2008 with Touch My Body becoming her eighteenth number one single) and The Beatles with twenty. The song was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Additionally, "Heartbreaker" finished at number thirty-five on the Billboard Year-End of 1999. In Canada, the song peaked at number one on the Canadian Singles Chart, becoming Carey's tenth chart topper in the country. In Australia, it entered the Australian Singles Chart at number eleven, on the issue dated October 10, 1999. The next week, the song ascended to its peak of number ten, where it stayed for one week, before fluctuating inside the chart for a total of seventeen weeks. "Heartbreaker" was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA), denoting shipments of over 70,000 units within the country. In New Zealand, "Heartbreaker" was met with strong success, debuting at number four on October 10, 1999, and topping the singles chart the following week. It spent a total of eleven weeks fluctuating in the singles chart, and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ), denoting shipments of over 15,000 units.
In Europe, the song charted throughout several markets. In Austria, it debuted at number thirty-seven on the singles chart, eventually peaking at number seventeen. In total, "Heartbreaker" spent twelve weeks on the Austrian chart. In the two Belgium territories, Wallonia and Flanders, the song peaked at numbers nine and twenty-seven, and spent nineteen and sixteen weeks on the chart, respectively. In France, the song entered the singles chart at number seventy-seven on October 9, 1999. Eventually, it peaked at number four, becoming Carey's highest charting single there since "Without You" (1993), which peaked at number two. The song charted for twenty-five weeks, and was certified gold by the Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique (SNEP), denoting shipments of over 400,000 units. In Germany, "Heartbreaker" peaked at number nine, spending twenty weeks inside the singles chart. On October 2, 1999, it entered the Dutch Single Top 100 at number sixteen, eventually peaking at number seven, and spending a total of eighteen weeks in the chart. In Norway, the song's success was limited, only peaking at number fourteen and spending only four weeks charting in the countries chart. "Heartbreaker" entered the Swedish Singles Chart at number thirty, on the issue dated October 7, 1999. It charted for a total of fourteen weeks, and attained a peak of number eighteen. In Switzerland, it spent twenty-three consecutive weeks in the singles chart, attaining a peak position of number seven, where it stayed for two weeks. On the UK Singles Chart, "Heartbreaker" debuted at its peak position of number five, during the week of November 6, 1999. It spent a total of thirteen weeks charting inside the chart, exiting on January 9, 2000.
The music video was filmed at Los Angeles Theatre in Downtown Los Angeles, California on July 30–31, 1999. Directed by Brett Ratner, the music video began airing on MTV on August 16, 1999 following its premiere on the network's Making the Video series. According to Carey, the goal for the video was to mirror the lyrical content of the song, as well as showing it from a female perspective. Additionally, the video was filmed in a comedic fashion, intended to remain something "fun and exciting." The video became one of the most expensive ever made, costing over $2.5 million. Due to its strong female empowering message and nature, the video remains "a fan favorite," according to MTV News. Carey claimed that two films were used as inspirations, Grease and Enter the Dragon. Prior to filming the video, it became clear that Jay-Z would be unable to appear in the video, due to a contractual agreement not allowing him from appearing in a video for two weeks after he shot for "Girl's Best Friend," his track off the soundtrack to the movie "Blue Streak". Jay-Z and Carey managed to film a scene for the video, which was briefly documented on Making the Video, although the documentary edited Jay-Z out of the footage to focus on Carey as to not violate the contractual agreement. Carey then thought of creating the animated section in the video, which was quickly drawn and animated by Ratner's team.
The video begins with Carey driving up to a large movie theater, the Los Angeles Theatre in downtown Los Angeles, with several of her female friends. As they pull up to the front doors, they tell Carey that her boyfriend is inside with another woman, leading her to try to convince them to abort the plan of confrontation. After convincing her, they enter the theater and begin a series of small dance routines alongside some of the theater employees. As the music begins, scenes of them dancing and Carey entering the movie projection room inter-cut. Carey sits behind her boyfriend (played by Jerry O'Connell) and the woman he is cheating with, Bianca, who appears to be Carey sporting a short brown wig and red seductive clothing, and spies on them in a comedic way with her female lackeys. Soon after, Bianca leaves her seat and walks towards the bathroom, prompting Carey to follow her during a short interlude in the video. After running into each other by the washroom, Carey pokes Bianca, starting a large brawl between the two women. Afterwards, Carey appears to have defeated Bianca, and heads back towards the movie room. During this scene, Jay-Z's rap verse is played, while an animated clip of Jay-Z and Carey is projected onto the screen, with an announcement that Jay-Z would appear in the video two weeks from the premiere date. This is followed by a scene where Carey and her friends, wearing oversized bob wigs, dance around in a bedroom. Later, a version of the video was released where Jay-Z raps his verse in a jacuzzi while Carey and a security guard appear behind, followed by segments of the animated film. During the verse, Carey's friends begin throwing popcorn and other candies at O'Connell, prompting a small food fight in between them. As they halt their attack on him, Carey walks towards O'Connell's seat and acts as though she is Bianca. After she sits next to him and he notices who it is, Carey spills a large soda on his lap and bids him farewell, leaving the theater with her friends smiling.
In order to promote "Heartbreaker", Carey performed the song live on several television and award show appearances, as well as recorded her own Fox Broadcasting Company special. Titled The Mariah Carey Homecoming Special, it was a mini-concert filmed at Carey's old high school in Huntington, New York. The special aired on Fox on December 21, 1999 and featured Jay-Z live on stage for his verses. Carey performed "Heartbreaker" and its accompanying remix at the MTV European Music Awards, held on November 11, 1999 in Dublin, Ireland. For the performance, Da Brat and Missy Elliott both joined Carey on-stage. Additionally, the song was performed on The Oprah Winfrey Show, which again featured the female duo live on stage, British music chart program Top of the Pops, French program Vivement Dimanche, and The Today Show.
For Rainbow, Carey embarked on her fourth and third worldwide tour, titled the Rainbow World Tour (2000). Throughout it, Carey performed the song live during every show. The synopsis behind each performance was a wrestling match in between Carey and Bianca, where Carey would sing the remix and original versions of the song throughout each small interlude of the fight. Carey was brought out with boxing gloves to the stage, performing the remix version of the song. After she began wrestling and boxing with Bianca, she defeated her, prompting her to begin the original version of the song. "Heartbreaker" featured a very different set up for Carey's Charmbracelet World Tour: An Intimate Evening with Mariah Carey (2002–03). During the tour, Carey wore a sparkling, Swarovski bikini number, and performed both the remix and original versions back-to-back. Several male and female dancers were on stage during the performances, as well as different musicians and back-up vocalists. During Carey's following tour, The Adventures of Mimi Tour, "Heartbreaker" was once again performed at each of the shows. For the song's recital, Carey's donned a black bikini and matching silk cape, as well as Christian Louboutin platform pumps. Several male dancers were present on stage, wearing black overalls and jackets while performing heavy dance routines. For the show at Madison Square Garden in New York City, Carey was joined by both Da Brat and Jay-Z for the remix and original versions, respectively. During the Angels Advocate Tour, the song was paired with Love Hangover by Diana Ross, and performed in a mash-up, the same as she did in VH1 Divas in 2000.
Track listing and formats
Credits and personnel
Credits adapted from the Rainbow liner notes.
- Mariah Carey – co-production, songwriting, vocals
- Shawn Carter – songwriting, vocals
- DJ Clue – co-production
- Shirley Elliston – songwriting
- Lincoln Chase – songwriting
- Michael Walden – songwriting
- Jeffrey Cohen – songwriting
Charts and certifications
Certifications and sales
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker Sheet Music (Digital Download)". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing Company. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
- Elysa Gardner (November 2, 1999). "For Mariah, a life that glitters". USA Today. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
- Shapiro 2001, pp. 121
- "Jay-Z, Mariah Carey Break Hearts Together". MTV News. MTV. August 5, 1999. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Bronson 2003, p. 888
- "BPM for 'heartbreaker' by mariah | songbpm.com". songbpm.com. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Berger, Arion (November 25, 1999). "Mariah Carey Rainbow". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Limited Liability Company. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- Taylor, Chuck (August 28, 1999). "Reviews and Previews: Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 111 (35): 27. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey Casts "Rainbow" For Next LP; Taps Missy, Da Brat For Remix". MTV News. MTV. August 13, 1999. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
- Erlewine Thomas, Stephen. "Rainbow – Mariah Carey". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. All Media Guide. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- Smith, Danyel (November 12, 1999). "Mariah Carey – Rainbow". Entertainment Weekly. Time. Time Warner. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- Flick, Larry (October 16, 1999). "'Rainbow' Displays Array Of Styles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 111 (42): 101. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Cook, Dara (October 31, 1999). "Mariah Carey – Rainbow". MTV Networks Asia Pacific. MTV. Viacom. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Gardner, Elysa (October 31, 1999). "Record Rack". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Sinclair, Tom (November 12, 1999). "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Entertainment Weekly. Time. Time Warner. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". MCarey.com. Sony. Archived from the original on October 12, 1999. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "RIAA – Gold & Platinum > Search Results (singles)". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Allmusic ((( Mariah Carey > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles )))". Allmusic. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- Kent, David (2003). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Charts.org.nz. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "The Official New Zealand Music Chart". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. December 19, 1999. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Ultratop.be. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Lescharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Certifications Singles Or – année 2000". Disque Queen France (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- "Chartverfolgung/Carey, Mariah/Single" (in German). musicline.de PhonoNet. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- "Mariah Carey: Heartbreaker". Dutch Top 40 (in German). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Norwegiancharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Swedishcharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Hitparade.ch. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive". The Official Charts Company. British Phonographic Industry. November 6, 1999. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- "Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive". The Official Charts Company. British Phonographic Industry. January 29, 2000. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- Shapiro 2001, pp. 133–134
- "The Most Expensive Music Videos Ever Made: Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". MSN Music. MSN. October 17, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Vineyard, Jennifer (May 17, 2007). "Avril, Christina's Multiple-Personality Clips Copy A Page From Madonna's Handbook". MTV News. MTV. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- "Mariah Reveals Her Animated Side In "Heartbreaker"". MTV News. MTV. August 19, 1999. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- Shapiro 2001, pp. 135–136
- Argenson 2010, pp. 29–33
- Argenson 2010, pp. 38–42
- Argenson 2010, pp. 44–48
- Argenson 2010, pp. 54–58
- Heartbreaker (US vinyl single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1999. 44 79261.
- Heartbreaker (US maxi single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1999. 44K 79261.
- Heartbreaker (US CD single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1999. 38-73348.
- Heartbreaker (European 12" vinyl single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1999. COL 667868 6.
- Heartbreaker) (Australia/UK CD maxi-single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1999. 655932 0.
- Carey, Mariah (1999). Rainbow (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Mariah Carey. New York City, New York: Columbia Records.
- "Australian-charts.com – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Austriancharts.at – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 9976." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 8431." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "RPM Top 30 Dance". RPM. November 1, 1999. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Hits of the World". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 111 (43). October 23, 1999. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Hits of the world". Billboard. November 20, 1999. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Lescharts.com – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Íslenski Listinn Topp 40 (Vikuna 25.11. - 2.12. 1999 48. Vika)" (PDF) (in Icelandic). Dagblaðið Vísir. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Heartbreaker". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- マライア・キャリーのアルバム売り上げランキング (in Japanese). Oricon. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 46, 1999" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40 Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Charts.nz – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". VG-lista. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Hits of the World" (PDF). Billboard. November 13, 1999. p. 51. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Singles Top 100. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Swisscharts.com – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Official R&B Singles Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Latin Pop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Pop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Rhythmic)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Tropical Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "ARIA Charts - End Of Year Charts - Top 100 Singles 1999". ARIA. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Rapports Annuels 1999" (in French). Ultratop. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Top Singles - Volume 70, No. 8, December 13, 1999". RPM. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- "RPM 1999 Top 100 Adult Contemporary". RPM. December 13, 1999. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "RPM 1999 Top 50 Dance Tracks". RPM. December 13, 1999. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Classement Singles - année 1999" (in French). SNEP. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Top 100 Single-Jahrescharts" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1999" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Jaarlijsten 1999" (in Dutch). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Jaaroverzichten - Single 1999" (in Dutch). GfK Dutch Charts. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Top Selling Singles of 1999". RIANZ. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Najlepsze single na UK Top 40-1999 wg sprzedaży" (in Polish). Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 11, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "The Year in Music: 1999". Billboard. December 25, 1999. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Jaarlijsten 2000" (in Dutch). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 1999 Singles". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2013. Check date values in:
- "French single certifications – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 2013. Check date values in:
- "New Zealand single certifications – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- "British single certifications – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2013. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help) Select singles in the Format field. Select Silver in the Certification field. Type Heartbreaker in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American single certifications – Mariah Carey – Heartbreaker". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help) If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH.
- Trust, Gary (February 17, 2014). "Ask Billboard: Katy Perry Regains No. 1 Momentum". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Argenson, Jim (2010), Mariah Carey Concert Tours, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 1-155-56204-6
- Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Shapiro, Marc (2001), Mariah Carey: The Unauthorized Biography, ECW Press, ISBN 978-1-55022-444-3