Heat-assisted magnetic recording

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Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is a magnetic storage technology for hard drives in which a small laser is used to heat the part of the disk that is being written to. The heat reduces the coercivity of the material, hence allowing the head to write on materials with higher coercivity, which in turn allow for smaller grain size which is limited by the superparamagnetic effect hence increasing the maximum possible areal density. The net effect of HAMR is to allow writing on a much smaller scale than before, greatly increasing the amount of data that can be held on a standard disk platter.[1]

The technology was initially seen as extremely difficult to achieve, with doubts expressed about its feasibility as late as 2013.[2] As of 2017, no hard disks using HAMR are currently on the market, but HAMR is in an advanced state of development with demonstration drives produced by companies such as Seagate. TDK originally predicted that HAMR hard disks could be commercially released in 2015,[3] which did not materialize. In June 2015, Seagate demonstrated a HAMR based server with storage of eight HAMR drives, running continually for 3 days.[4] In May 2017, Seagate confirmed that they expect to launch HAMR drives commercially "in late 2018", and the announcement was noted by commentators as being the first time that Seagate had committed to such a specific timeframe for HAMR drive launch.[5] Commentators suggest a likely capacity at launch could be about 16TB, although specific capacities and models will not be known until launch.[5] Seagate also stated that they will be sampling drives with customers in 2017, that launch capacity is expected to be 16TB or greater, and that they aim for 20TB HAMR drives to be available by 2020.[6][7]

Although HAMR has not yet been released to the market, its planned successor, known as heated-dot magnetic recording (HDMR), is already under development, although not expected to be available until at least 2025 or later.[4]


There have been a series of technologies developed to allow hard drives to increase in capacity with little effect on cost; one of the latest is perpendicular recording. To go beyond the limits of perpendicular recording, new technologies are being developed, including helium-filled drives, shingled magnetic recording (SMR), as well as heat-assisted magnetic recording ("HAMR").

The limitation of perpendicular recording is often characterised by the competing requirements of readability, writeability and stability commonly known as the Magnetic Recording Trilemma. HAMR is one technique proposed to break the trilemma and produce a workable solution. The problem is that to store data reliably for very small bit sizes the magnetic medium must be made of a material with a very high coercivity. At increasing areal densities, the size occupied by one bit is so small, and the coercivity required becomes so high, that the strongest magnetic field able to be created for writing data with current technology is not strong enough to flip the magnetic domain. In effect, a point exists at which it becomes impractical or impossible to make a working disk drive because magnetic writing activity is no longer viable.

Coercivity happens to be temperature dependent. If the temperature rises then the coercivity would be lower. HAMR uses this physical behavior to solve the problem. In HAMR, a small laser is used to temporarily spot-heat the tiny area being written to at any given time. When the temperature of the area being written is raised in this way above the Curie temperature, the magnetic medium effectively loses much of its coercivity, so a realistically achievable magnetic write field can write data to the medium. As only a tiny part of the disk is heated at a time, the heated part cools very quickly, and comparatively little power is needed.

HAMR could eventually increase the limit of magnetic recording by more than a factor of 100[citation needed]. This could result in storage capacities as great as 50 terabits per square inch. Running costs are not expected to differ significantly from non-HAMR drives, since the laser only uses a few tens of milliwatts (around 1% of the common 5 to 12 watts in active use of large 3.5 inch HDDs).[2] It competes with technologies such as SMR.[dubious ]

Industry observer IDC stated in 2013 that "The technology is very, very difficult, and there has been a lot of skepticism if it will ever make it into commercial products", with opinions generally that HAMR is unlikely to be commercially available before 2017.[2] Seagate commented that the challenges include "attaching and aligning a semiconductor diode laser to an HDD write head and implementing near-field optics to deliver the heat", along with the scale of use which is far greater than previous near-field optic uses.[2]


  • In 1954, engineers of PL Corp working for RCA filed a patent which described the basic principle of using heat in conjunction with a magnetic field to record data.[8] This was followed by many other patents in this area with the initial focus on tape storage.
  • In the 1980s, a class of mass storage device called the magneto-optical drive became commercially available which used essentially the same technique for writing data to a disk. One advantage of magneto-optic recording over purely magnetic storage at that time was that the bit size was defined by the size of the focused laser spot rather than the magnetic field. In 1988, a 5.25-inch magneto-optic disk could hold 650 megabytes of data with a roadmap to several gigabytes; a single 5.25" magnetic disk had a capacity of around 100 megabytes.[9]
  • In late 1992, Sony introduced MiniDisc, a music recording and playback format intended to replace audio cassettes. Recordable MiniDiscs used heat-assisted magnetic recording but the discs were read optically via the Kerr effect.[10]
  • 2006 - Fujitsu demonstrates HAMR.[11]
  • As of 2007, Seagate believed it could produce 300 terabit (37.5 terabyte) Hard disk drives using HAMR technology.[12] Some news sites erroneously reported that Seagate would launch a 300 TB HDD by 2010. Seagate responded to this news stating that 50 terabit per-square-inch density is well past the 2010 timeframe and that this may also involve a combination of Bit Patterned Media.[13]
  • In early 2009 Seagate achieved 250 Gb per square inch using HAMR. This was half of the density achieved via perpendicular recording at that time.[14]
  • Hard disk technology progressed rapidly and as of January 2012, desktop hard disk drives typically had a capacity of 500 to 2000 gigabytes, while the largest-capacity drives were 4 terabytes.[15] It was recognised as early as 2000 [16] that the then current technology for hard disk drives would have limitations and that heat-assisted recording was one option to extend the storage capacity.
  • In March 2012 Seagate became the first hard drive maker to achieve the milestone storage density of 1 terabit per square inch using HAMR technology.[17]
  • In October 2012 TDK announced that they had reached a storage density of 1.5 terabit per square inch, using HAMR.[18] This corresponds to 2 TB per platter in a 3.5" drive.
  • November 2013 - Western Digital demonstrates a working HAMR drive,[19] although not yet ready for commercial sales, and Seagate states they expect to begin selling HAMR based drives around 2016.[20]
  • In May 2014, Seagate said they planned to produce low quantities of 6 to 10 TB capacity hard disks in the "near future", but that this would require "a lot of technical investment as you know, it’s also a lot of test investment". Though Seagate has not stated that the new hard disks would use HAMR, bit-tech.net speculates that they will.[21] Seagate started shipping 8 TB drives around July 2014, but without saying how that capacity was reached; extremetech.com speculates that shingled magnetic recording was used rather than HAMR.[22]
  • At the Intermag 2015 Conference in Beijing, China, from May 11 to May 15 Seagate reported HAMR recording using a plasmonic near field transducer and high anisotropy granular FePt media at an areal density of 1.402 Tb/in².[23]
  • In October 2014, TDK, who supply hard drive components to the major hard drive manufacturers, stated that HAMR drives up to around 15 TB would probably start to become available by 2016,[24] and that the results from a prototype 10,000 rpm Seagate hard drive with a TDK HAMR head suggested that the standard 5 year durability required by enterprise customers was also achievable.
  • 12 May 2016 Seagate is targeting 2018 for HAMR drive deliveries, with a 16TB 3.5-inch drive planned, featuring 8 platters and 16 heads. It is assumed the drive will be helium-filled.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sumei, Wang; Ali, Ghoreyshi; R. H., Victoria (March 2015). "Feasibility of bit patterned media for HAMR at 5 Tb/in2". Journal of Applied Physics. 117 (17): 1. doi:10.1063/1.4915908. 
  2. ^ a b c d Stephen Lawson (1 October 2013). "Seagate, TDK show off HAMR to jam more data into hard drives". Computerworld. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  3. ^ "TDK: HAMR technology could enable 15TB HDDs already in 2015". kitguru.net. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b https://www.kitguru.net/components/hard-drives/anton-shilov/seagate-demos-hamr-hdds-vows-to-start-commercial-shipments-in-late-2017/
  5. ^ a b Shilov, Anton (3 May 2017). "Seagate Ships 35th Millionth SMR HDD, Confirms HAMR-Based Drives in Late 2018". anandtech.com. AnandTech. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  6. ^ http://blog.seagate.com/business/seagate-continues-to-lead-as-hamr-technology-advances/
  7. ^ https://www.eteknix.com/seagate-35-million-smr-hamr
  8. ^ US patent 2915594, BURNS JR., LESLIE L. & KEIZER, EUGENE O., "Magnetic Recording System", published 1959-12-01, assigned to RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 
  9. ^ "ST-41200N". seagate.com. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  10. ^ Jan Maes, Marc Vercammen. Digital Audio Technology: A Guide to CD, MiniDisc, SACD, DVD(A), MP3 and DAT. pp. 238–251. ISBN 9781136118623. 
  11. ^ "Seagate hits 1 terabit per square inch, 60TB hard drives on their way". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  12. ^ "Inside Seagate's R&D Labs". WIRED. 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  13. ^ "300 teraBITS is not 300TB! And 3TB isn't 300TB!". dvhardware.net. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  14. ^ "Laser-Heated Hard Drives Could Break Data Density Barrier". ieee.org. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  15. ^ "Seagate Is The First Manufacturer To Break The Capacity Ceiling With A New 4TB GoFlex Desk Drive". seagate.com. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  16. ^ Kryder, M.H., "Magnetic recording beyond the superparamagnetic limit," Magnetics Conference, 2000. INTERMAG 2000 Digest of Technical Papers. 2000 IEEE International , vol., no., pp. 575, 4–8 April 2005 doi:10.1109/INTMAG.2000.872350
  17. ^ Seagate Reaches 1 Terabit Per Square Inch Milestone In Hard Drive Storage With New Technology Demonstration
  18. ^ "[CEATEC] TDK Claims HDD Areal Density Record". Nikkei Technology Online. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "Western Digital Demos World’s First Hard Drive with HAMR Technology - X-bit labs". xbitlabs.com. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Bill Oliver. "WD Demos Future HDD Storage Tech: 60TB Hard Drives". Tom's IT Pro. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  21. ^ "Seagate hints at 8TB, 10TB hard drive launch plans". bit-tech. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  22. ^ "Seagate starts shipping 8TB hard drives, with 10TB and HAMR on the horizon". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  23. ^ High Density Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording Media and Advanced Characterization – Progress and Challenges
  24. ^ Alexander. "TDK promises 15 TB hard drives next year". hitechreview.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 

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