Heat shock protein
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. They were first described in relation to heat shock, but are now known to also be expressed during other stresses including exposure to cold, UV light, and during wound healing or tissue remodeling. Many members of this group perform chaperone function by stabilizing new proteins to ensure correct folding or by helping to refold proteins that were damaged by the cell stress. This increase in expression is transcriptionally regulated. The dramatic upregulation of the heat shock proteins is a key part of the heat shock response and is induced primarily by heat shock factor (HSF). HSPs are found in virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans.
Heat-shock proteins are named according to their molecular weight. For example, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 (the most widely studied HSPs) refer to families of heat shock proteins on the order of 60, 70, and 90 kilodaltons in size, respectively. The small 8-kilodalton protein ubiquitin, which marks proteins for degradation, also has features of a heat shock protein.
It is known that rapid heat hardening can be elicited by a brief exposure of cells to sub-lethal high temperature, which in turn provides protection from subsequent and more severe temperature. In 1962, Italian geneticist Ferruccio Ritossa reported that heat and the metabolic uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol induced a characteristic pattern of puffing in the chromosomes of Drosophila. This discovery eventually led to the identification of the heat-shock proteins (HSP) or stress proteins whose expression these puffs represented. Increased synthesis of selected proteins in Drosophila cells following stresses such as heat shock was first reported in 1974.
Beginning in the mid-1960s, investigators recognized that many HSPs function as molecular chaperones and thus play a critical role in protein folding, intracellular trafficking of proteins, and coping with proteins denatured by heat and other stresses. Therefore, the study of stress proteins has undergone explosive growth.
Upregulation in stress
Production of high levels of heat shock proteins can also be triggered by exposure to different kinds of environmental stress conditions, such as infection, inflammation, exercise, exposure of the cell to toxins (ethanol, arsenic, trace metals, and ultraviolet light, among many others), starvation, hypoxia (oxygen deprivation), nitrogen deficiency (in plants), or water deprivation. As a consequence, the heat shock proteins are also referred to as stress proteins and their upregulation is sometimes described more generally as part of the stress response.
The mechanism by which heat-shock (or other environmental stressors) activates the heat shock factor has been determined in bacteria. During heat stress, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) do not fold and cannot insert correctly into the outer membrane. They accumulate in the periplasmic space. These OMPs are detected by DegS, an inner membrane protease, that passes the signal through the membrane to the sigmaE transcription factor. However, some studies suggest that an increase in damaged or abnormal proteins brings HSPs into action.
Role as chaperone
Several heat shock proteins function as intra-cellular chaperones for other proteins. They play an important role in protein–protein interactions such as folding and assisting in the establishment of proper protein conformation (shape) and prevention of unwanted protein aggregation. By helping to stabilize partially unfolded proteins, HSPs aid in transporting proteins across membranes within the cell.
Some members of the HSP family are expressed at low to moderate levels in all organisms because of their essential role in protein maintenance.
Heat-shock proteins also occur under non-stressful conditions, simply "monitoring" the cell's proteins. Some examples of their role as "monitors" are that they carry old proteins to the cell's "recycling bin" (proteasome) and they help newly synthesised proteins fold properly.
These activities are part of a cell's own repair system, called the "cellular stress response" or the "heat-shock response".
A kinase of the nitric oxide cell signalling pathway, protein kinase G, phosphorylates a small heat shock protein, hsp20. Hsp20 phosphorylation correlates well with smooth muscle relaxation and is one significant phosphoprotein involved in the process. Hsp20 appears significant in development of the smooth muscle phenotype during development. Hsp20 also serves a significant role in preventing platelet aggregation, cardiac myocyte function and prevention of apoptosis after ischemic injury, and skeletal muscle function and muscle insulin response.
Hsp27 is a major phosphoprotein during women's contractions. Hsp27 functions in small muscle migrations and appears to serve an integral role.
Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that is involved in the general maintenance and upregulation of Hsp70 protein expression. Recently it was discovered that HSF1 is a powerful multifaceted modifier of carcinogenesis. HSF1 knockout mice show significantly decreased incidence of skin tumor after topical application of DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene), a mutagen. Moreover, HSF1 inhibition by a potent RNA aptamer attenuates mitogenic (MAPK) signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis.
Cancer vaccine adjuvant
Given their role in antigen presentation, HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants in boosting the response to a vaccine. Furthermore, some researchers speculate that HSPs may be involved in binding protein fragments from dead malignant cells and presenting them to the immune system. Therefore, HSPs may be useful for increasing the effectiveness of cancer vaccines.
Intracellular heat shock proteins are highly expressed in cancerous cells and are essential to the survival of these cell types. Hence small molecule inhibitors of HSPs, especially Hsp90 show promise as anticancer agents. The potent Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancer. HSPgp96 also shows promise as an anticancer treatment and is currently in clinical trials against non-small cell lung cancer.
Researchers are also investigating the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance to hybridized plants, hoping to address drought and poor soil conditions for farming. Various HSPs were shown to be differentially expressed in the leaf and root of drought tolerant and sensitive sorghum plants in response to drought.
|Approximate molecular weight
|Prokaryotic proteins||Eukaryotic proteins||Function|
|20-30 kDa||GrpE||The HspB group of Hsp. Eleven members in mammals including Hsp27, HSPB6 or HspB1|
|40 kDa||DnaJ||Hsp40||Co-factor of Hsp70|
|60 kDa||GroEL, 60kDa antigen||Hsp60||Involved in protein folding after its post-translational import to the mitochondrion/chloroplast|
|70 kDa||DnaK||The HspA group of Hsp including Hsp71, Hsp70, Hsp72, Grp78 (BiP), Hsx70 found only in primates||Protein folding and unfolding, provides thermotolerance to cell on exposure to heat stress. Also prevents protein folding during post-translational import into the mitochondria/chloroplast.|
|90 kDa||HtpG, C62.5||The HspC group of Hsp including Hsp90, Grp94||Maintenance of steroid receptors and transcription factors|
|100 kDa||ClpB, ClpA, ClpX||Hsp104, Hsp110||Tolerance of extreme temperature|
Although the most important members of each family are tabulated here, it should be noted that some species may express additional chaperones, co-chaperones, and heat shock proteins not listed. In addition, many of these proteins may have multiple splice variants (Hsp90α and Hsp90β, for instance) or conflicts of nomenclature (Hsp72 is sometimes called Hsp70).
- Cellular stress response
- FourU thermometer
- Hsp90 cis-regulatory element
- ROSE element
- Ritossa F (1962). "A new puffing pattern induced by temperature shock and DNP in drosophila". Experientia. 18 (12): 571–573. doi:10.1007/BF02172188. ISSN 0014-4754. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Matz JM, Blake MJ, Tatelman HM, Lavoi KP, Holbrook NJ (July 1995). "Characterization and regulation of cold-induced heat shock protein expression in mouse brown adipose tissue". The American Journal of Physiology. 269 (1 Pt 2): R38–47. PMID 7631901.
- Cao Y, Ohwatari N, Matsumoto T, Kosaka M, Ohtsuru A, Yamashita S (August 1999). "TGF-beta1 mediates 70-kDa heat shock protein induction due to ultraviolet irradiation in human skin fibroblasts". Pflügers Archiv. 438 (3): 239–44. doi:10.1007/s004240050905. PMID 10398851.
- Laplante AF, Moulin V, Auger FA, Landry J, Li H, Morrow G, Tanguay RM, Germain L (November 1998). "Expression of heat shock proteins in mouse skin during wound healing". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 46 (11): 1291–301. doi:10.1177/002215549804601109. PMID 9774628..
- De Maio A (January 1999). "Heat shock proteins: facts, thoughts, and dreams". Shock. 11 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1097/00024382-199901000-00001. PMID 9921710.
- Wu C (1995). "Heat shock transcription factors: structure and regulation". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 11: 441–69. doi:10.1146/annurev.cb.11.110195.002301. PMID 8689565.
- Li Z, Srivastava P (February 2004). "Heat-shock proteins". Current Protocols in Immunology / Edited by John E. Coligan ... [Et Al.] Appendix 1: Appendix 1T. doi:10.1002/0471142735.ima01ts58. PMID 18432918.
- Raboy B, Sharon G, Parag HA, Shochat Y, Kulka RG (1991). "Effect of stress on protein degradation: role of the ubiquitin system". Acta Biologica Hungarica. 42 (1-3): 3–20. PMID 1668897.
- Ritossa F (1962). "A new puffing pattern induced by temperature shock and DNP in drosophila". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS). 18 (12): 571–573. doi:10.1007/BF02172188.
- Ritossa F (June 1996). "Discovery of the heat shock response". Cell Stress & Chaperones. 1 (2): 97–8. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001<0097:DOTHSR>2.3.CO;2. PMC . PMID 9222594.
- Schlesinger MJ (July 1990). "Heat shock proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (21): 12111–4. PMID 2197269.
- Santoro MG (January 2000). "Heat shock factors and the control of the stress response". Biochemical Pharmacology. 59 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00299-3. PMID 10605935.
- Walsh NP, Alba BM, Bose B, Gross CA, Sauer RT (April 2003). "OMP peptide signals initiate the envelope-stress response by activating DegS protease via relief of inhibition mediated by its PDZ domain". Cell. 113 (1): 61–71. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00203-4. PMID 12679035.
- Narberhaus F (2010). "Translational control of bacterial heat shock and virulence genes by temperature-sensing mRNAs". RNA Biology. 7 (1): 84–9. doi:10.4161/rna.7.1.10501. PMID 20009504.
- Walter S, Buchner J (April 2002). "Molecular chaperones--cellular machines for protein folding". Angewandte Chemie. 41 (7): 1098–113. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20020402)41:7<1098::AID-ANIE1098>3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 12491239.
- Borges JC, Ramos CH (April 2005). "Protein folding assisted by chaperones". Protein and Peptide Letters. 12 (3): 257–61. doi:10.2174/0929866053587165. PMID 15777275.
- Benjamin IJ, McMillan DR (July 1998). "Stress (heat shock) proteins: molecular chaperones in cardiovascular biology and disease". Circulation Research. 83 (2): 117–32. doi:10.1161/01.res.83.2.117. PMID 9686751.
- Antonova G, Lichtenbeld H, Xia T, Chatterjee A, Dimitropoulou C, Catravas JD (2007). "Functional significance of hsp90 complexes with NOS and sGC in endothelial cells". Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 37 (1-2): 19–35. PMID 17641392.
- McLemore EC, Tessier DJ, Thresher J, Komalavilas P, Brophy CM (July 2005). "Role of the small heat shock proteins in regulating vascular smooth muscle tone". Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 201 (1): 30–6. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.03.017. PMID 15978441.
- Fan GC, Ren X, Qian J, Yuan Q, Nicolaou P, Wang Y, Jones WK, Chu G, Kranias EG (April 2005). "Novel cardioprotective role of a small heat-shock protein, Hsp20, against ischemia/reperfusion injury". Circulation. 111 (14): 1792–9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000160851.41872.C6. PMID 15809372.
- Salinthone S, Tyagi M, Gerthoffer WT (July 2008). "Small heat shock proteins in smooth muscle". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 119 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.04.005. PMC . PMID 18579210.
- Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 354 (1-2): 23–7. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.09.030. PMID 17980980.
- Xu D, Zalmas LP, La Thangue NB (July 2008). "A transcription cofactor required for the heat-shock response". EMBO Reports. 9 (7): 662–9. doi:10.1038/embor.2008.70. PMC . PMID 18451878.
- Salamanca HH, Fuda N, Shi H, Lis JT (August 2011). "An RNA aptamer perturbs heat shock transcription factor activity in Drosophila melanogaster". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (15): 6729–40. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr206. PMID 21576228.
- Dai C, Whitesell L, Rogers AB, Lindquist S (September 2007). "Heat shock factor 1 is a powerful multifaceted modifier of carcinogenesis". Cell. 130 (6): 1005–18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.020. PMC . PMID 17889646.
- Salamanca HH, Antonyak MA, Cerione RA, Shi H, Lis JT (2014). "Inhibiting heat shock factor 1 in human cancer cells with a potent RNA aptamer". PloS One. 9 (5): e96330. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096330. PMC . PMID 24800749.
- Bendz H, Ruhland SC, Pandya MJ, Hainzl O, Riegelsberger S, Braüchle C, Mayer MP, Buchner J, Issels RD, Noessner E (October 2007). "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery without innate immune signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (43): 31688–702. doi:10.1074/jbc.M704129200. PMID 17684010.
- Wall Street Journal article on company and FDA
- Binder RJ (April 2008). "Heat-shock protein-based vaccines for cancer and infectious disease". Expert Review of Vaccines. 7 (3): 383–93. doi:10.1586/14760522.214.171.1243. PMID 18393608.
- Didelot C, Lanneau D, Brunet M, Joly AL, De Thonel A, Chiosis G, Garrido C (2007). "Anti-cancer therapeutic approaches based on intracellular and extracellular heat shock proteins". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (27): 2839–47. doi:10.2174/092986707782360079. PMID 18045130.
- Solit DB, Rosen N (2006). "Hsp90: a novel target for cancer therapy". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (11): 1205–14. doi:10.2174/156802606777812068. PMID 16842157.
- Vinocur B, Altman A (April 2005). "Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 16 (2): 123–32. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.02.001. PMID 15831376.
- Ogbaga CC, Stepien P, Dyson BC, Rattray NJ, Ellis DI, Goodacre R, Johnson GN (2016). "Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought". PloS One. 11 (5): e0154423. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154423. PMC . PMID 27153323.
- Kampinga HH, Hageman J, Vos MJ, Kubota H, Tanguay RM, Bruford EA, Cheetham ME, Chen B, Hightower LE (January 2009). "Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins". Cell Stress & Chaperones. 14 (1): 105–11. doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0068-7. PMC . PMID 18663603.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heat-shock proteins.|