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Most heated clothing is designed for cold-weather sports and activities, such as motorcycle riding, downhill skiing, diving, winter biking, and snowmobiling, trekking and for outdoor workers such as construction workers and carpenters. Since the London Olympics, heated clothing has also been used by athletes to keep their muscles warm between the warm-up and the race.
Normal insulation works by trapping body heat, so if it gets wet from sweat or rain, or if a person stops exercising, the insulation may not keep them warm. With heated garments, a person can keep warm even if they are resting and not producing heat, or if their coat is damp from sweat.
There are many types of heated clothing. Most notably these use 12, 7.4, and 5-volt powerbanks.
The 5-volt powerbank allows one to use a common powerbank for both heating apparel and charging personal electronics.
The 7.4-volt battery is the most common type of heated clothing battery system, and may be rechargeable. The most popular items sold have traditionally been heated gloves and jackets.
12-volt batteries are designed for use with motorcycles, ATVs, or snowmobiles, and draw their power from the vehicle's battery. As these use a higher voltage than 7.4v systems, they are more powerful and therefore heat a larger area at a higher temperature. Most brands using 12v systems are compatible. For instance, most 12v heated jackets come with built-in power cords that come out at the wrists to power heated gloves/liners and out from the bottom to power heated pants/liners. The pants then have cords coming from the bottom of each leg to power socks/liners/insoles.
Most 7.4v garments will power for around 2-8 hours depending on heat setting and outside conditions. Many jackets and vests can be powered for almost double this time with an extended-life battery, available separately.
The most widely available types of heated clothing are products for the extremities; the hands and feet. These parts are the most likely to suffer frostbite or frostnip in severe cold. As such, many manufacturers make heated gloves, mittens, socks, and boot liners, which can be purchased at workers' supply stores (serving construction workers) and motor sports stores. Heated torso coverings like vests, jackets, or leggings are available from specialty retailers that cater to motorcyclists and downhill skiers.
Related products are heated seat covers, throws, and seating pads. Heated seat covers for snowmobiles, motorcycles, and cars and heated throw blankets typically use electrical 12-volt heating elements. Heated seating pads for hunting, canoeing, and stadium use either have rechargeable batteries or use reheatable gel packs.
In a joint project of adidas, British Cycling and Loughborough University's Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, the use of heated clothing for reducing the muscle temperature drop in athletes between their warm-up period and the actual race was investigated, and the 'adidas hot pants' were used by the track cycling team at the London Olympics with great success. The science behind this has been published in a series of papers by Faulkner et al., Wilkins and Havenith, and Raccuglia et al.
Heated clothing designed for use on vehicles such as motorbikes or snowmobiling typically use a 12-volt electric current, the standard voltage on motorsport and powersport batteries. While a single heated garment, such as heated gloves, will not usually adversely affect the charge on the battery, riders have to be careful about attaching several heated garments because the battery may not be able to handle the load. The heated garments are usually attached directly onto the battery of the bike. Some heated garments have cigarette lighter plugs. While the least expensive models can only be turned on or off, more expensive models sometimes provide a heating level control.
For downhill skiing or winter biking, rechargeable nickel metal or lithium batteries are generally used. If not recharged properly, "battery memory" will shorten the battery's capability to recharge. There are two types of lithium batteries: Li-ion & Li-Polymer, which use several types of heating technologies including copper wire, nichrome wire, metal "mesh" systems, carbon-embedded fabric, carbon fibers and very thin flexible heating technologies that can be printed onto substrate. This has allowed for extra features to be added such as temperature sensors, Bluetooth integration and the ability to control the temperature from a smartphone.The carbon fibre heated clothing uses strips or tubular heating elements spaced across the heating areas of the jacket. These elements are flexible, to allow the user normal movement.
The most reliable systems have technologies that have redundancy in case of a heating element breakage.
The controller and battery in some models can be detached so that the garment can be worn as a regular garment.
Garments that use gel have cloth pouches or pockets where plastic packages of the gel can be inserted in the garment. Prior to going outdoors, the gel is heated in a microwave. Once outdoors, the gel pack retains its heat for 30 minutes to two hours, depending on the size of the gel pack, the thickness of the insulation protecting the gel pack from the outdoor temperatures, and wind conditions.
Chemical reaction-based garments have cloth pouches or pockets, where single-use packages of chemical hand warmers can be inserted. The warmers are about the size of a package of cards, and they contain chemicals which produce heat. One traditional hand warmer is a small metal box containing charcoal which, when lit, burns very slowly and produces a mild heat. Disposable heat packs typically contain cellulose, iron, water, activated carbon, vermiculite, and salt. When these packs are exposed to air, an exothermic chemical reaction occurs, which provides several hours of heat. Another chemical heating pad uses a gel that can be activated by twisting the package, thus triggering a chemical reaction. The pack can be put in a pot of boiling water to convert the chemical reaction back and allow it to be reused. While these products are commonly called "hand warmers", they can be placed in boots or, with special garments such as vests, in cloth pockets on the inside of the garment. The warmth produced by these tends to be lowest among the above heating methods.
- "Electric Warm-Up Pants". Runner's World. 2013-09-04. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
- Faulkner, Steve H.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Hodder, Simon G.; Havenith, George (2013-08-23). "External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 113 (11): 2713–2721. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2708-6. ISSN 1439-6319. PMID 23974847.
- FAULKNER, STEVE H.; FERGUSON, RICHARD A.; GERRETT, NICOLA; HUPPERETS, MAARTEN; HODDER, SIMON G.; HAVENITH, GEORGE (2013). "Reducing Muscle Temperature Drop after Warm-up Improves Sprint Cycling Performance". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 45 (2): 359–365. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31826fba7f. ISSN 0195-9131. PMID 22935735.
- Wilkins, Emma L; Havenith, George (2016-06-10). "External heating garments used post-warm-up improve upper body power and elite sprint swimming performance". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology. 231 (2): 91–101. doi:10.1177/1754337116650322. ISSN 1754-3371.
- Raccuglia, Margherita; Lloyd, Alex; Filingeri, Davide; Faulkner, Steve H.; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George (2015-11-21). "Post-warm-up muscle temperature maintenance: blood flow contribution and external heating optimisation". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 116 (2): 395–404. doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3294-6. ISSN 1439-6319. PMC 4717164. PMID 26590591.
- Beyman, Alex (2019-01-16). "Stay Warm This Winter With Electronic Heated Clothing!". Medium. Retrieved 2020-09-09.