Jump to content

Heat wave

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Heatwave)

A high pressure system in the upper atmosphere traps heat near the ground, forming a heat wave (for North America in this example.)

A heat wave[1] (or heatwave[2]), sometimes described as extreme heat, is a period of abnormally hot weather.[3]: 2911  Definitions vary but are similar.[4] A heat wave is usually measured relative to the usual climate in the area and to normal temperatures for the season.[3]: 2911  Temperatures that humans from a hotter climate consider normal, can be regarded as a heat wave in a cooler area. This would be the case if the warm temperatures are outside the normal climate pattern for that area.[5] High humidity often occurs during heat waves as well. This is especially the case in oceanic climate countries. Heat waves have become more frequent, and more intense over land, across almost every area on Earth since the 1950s, the increase in frequency and duration being caused by climate change.[6][7]

Heat waves form when a high-pressure area in the upper atmosphere strengthens and remains over a region for several days up to several weeks.[8] This traps heat near the earth's surface. It is usually possible to forecast heat waves, thus allowing the authorities to issue a warning in advance.

Heat waves have an impact on the economy. They can reduce labour productivity, disrupt agricultural and industrial processes and damage infrastructure.[9][10] Severe heat waves have caused catastrophic crop failures and thousands of deaths from hyperthermia. They have increased the risk of wildfires in areas with drought. They can lead to widespread electricity outages because more air conditioning is used. A heat wave counts as extreme weather. It poses danger to human health, because heat and sunlight overwhelm the thermoregulation in humans.


There are several definitions of heat waves:

  • The IPCC defines heatwave as "a period of abnormally hot weather, often defined with reference to a relative temperature threshold, lasting from two days to months."[11][3]: 2911 
  • A definition based on the Heat Wave Duration Index is that a heat wave occurs when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C (9 °F), the normal period being 1961–1990.[12] The same definition is used by the World Meteorological Organization.[13]
  • A definition from the Glossary of Meteorology is:[14] "A period of abnormally and uncomfortably hot and usually humid weather."

Definitions by country[edit]


Denmark defines a national heat wave (hedebølge) as a period of at least 3 consecutive days in which the average maximum temperature across more than half the country exceeds 28 °C (82.4 °F). The Danish Meteorological Institute also has a definition for a "warmth wave" (varmebølge). It defines this using the same criteria for a 25 °C (77.0 °F) temperature.[15] Sweden defines a heat wave as at least five days in a row with a daily high exceeding 25 °C (77.0 °F).[16]

In Greece, the Hellenic National Meteorological Service defines a heat wave as occurring over three consecutive days with temperatures at 39 °C (102 °F) or higher. In the same period the minimum temperature is 26 °C (79 °F) or more. During this period, there are either no winds or only weak winds. These conditions occur in a broad area.

The Netherlands defines a heat wave as a period of at least five consecutive days in which the maximum temperature in De Bilt exceeds 25 °C (77 °F). During this period the maximum temperature in De Bilt must exceed 30 °C (86 °F) for at least three days. Belgium also uses this definition of a heat wave with Ukkel as a reference point. So does Luxembourg.

In the United Kingdom, the Met Office operates a Heat Health Watch system. This places each Local Authority region into one of four levels. Heat wave conditions occur when the maximum daytime temperature and minimum nighttime temperature rise above the threshold for a particular region. The length of time above that threshold determines the level. Level 1 represents normal summer conditions. Level 2 occurs when there is a 60% or higher risk that the temperature will be above the threshold levels for two days and the intervening night. Level 3 arises when the temperature has been above the threshold for the preceding day and night, and there is a 90% or higher chance that it will stay above the threshold in the following day. Level 4 is triggered if conditions are more severe than those of the preceding three levels. Each of the first three levels gives rise to a particular state of readiness and response by the social and health services. Level 4 involves a more widespread response.[17] The threshold for a heat wave occurs when there are at least three days above 25 °C (77 °F) across much of the country. Greater London has a threshold of 28 °C (82 °F).[18]

Other regions[edit]

In the United States, definitions also vary by region. They usually involve a period of at least two or more days of excessively hot weather.[19] In the Northeast, a heat wave typically when the temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32.2 °C) for three consecutive days. This is not always the case. This is because the high temperature ties in with humidity levels to determine a heat index threshold.[20] The same does not apply to drier climates. A heat storm is a Californian term for an extended heat wave. Heat storms occur when the temperature reaches 100 °F (37.8 °C) for three or more consecutive days over a wide area (tens of thousands of square miles).[21] The National Weather Service issues heat advisories and excessive heat warnings when it expects unusual periods of hot weather.

In Adelaide, South Australia, a heat wave is five consecutive days at or above 35 °C (95 °F), or three consecutive days at or over 40 °C (104 °F).[22] The Australian Bureau of Meteorology defines a heat wave as three or more days of unusual maximum and minimum temperatures.[23] Before this new Pilot Heatwave Forecast there was no national definition for heat waves or measures of heat wave severity.[23]


New high temperature records have outpaced new low temperature records on a growing portion of Earth's surface.[24]
Large increases in both the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (for increasing degrees of global warming) are expected.[25]: 18 
Map of increasing heat wave trends (frequency and cumulative intensity) over the midlatitudes and Europe, July–August 1979–2020[26]

It is possible to compare heat waves in different regions of the world with different climates thanks to a general indicator that appeared in 2015.[27] With these indicators, experts estimated heat waves at the global scale from 1901 to 2010. They found a substantial and sharp increase in the number of affected areas in the last two decades.[28]

One study in 2021 investigated 13,115 cities. It found that extreme heat exposure of a wet bulb globe temperature above 30 Celsius tripled between 1983 and 2016, and if the effect of population growth (increasing the urban heat island effect) during those years is excluded, the exposure increased a further 50%. The researchers compiled a comprehensive list of past urban extreme heat events.[29][30]


Heat waves form when a high pressure area at an altitude of 10,000–25,000 feet (3,000–7,600 metres) strengthens and remains over a region for several days and up to several weeks.[8] This is common in summer in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This is because the jet stream 'follows the sun'. The high pressure area is on the equator side of the jet stream in the upper layers of the atmosphere.

Weather patterns are generally slower to change in summer than in winter. So, this upper level high pressure also moves slowly. Under high pressure, the air sinks toward the surface. It warms and dries adiabatically. This inhibits convection and prevents the formation of clouds. A reduction of clouds increases the shortwave radiation reaching the surface. A low pressure area at the surface leads to surface wind from lower latitudes that brings warm air, enhancing the warming. The surface winds could also blow from the hot continental interior towards the coastal zone. This would lead to heat waves on the coast. They could also blow from high towards low elevations. This enhances the subsidence or sinking of the air and therefore the adiabatic warming.[31][32]

In the eastern regions of the United States a heat wave can occur when a high pressure system originating in the Gulf of Mexico becomes stationary just off the Atlantic Seaboard. Hot humid air masses form over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. At the same time hot dry air masses form over the desert Southwest and northern Mexico. The southwest winds on the back side of the high continue to pump hot, humid Gulf air northeastwards. This results in a spell of hot and humid weather for much of the eastern United States and into southeastern Canada.[33]

In the Western Cape Province of South Africa, a heat wave can occur when the low-pressure area offshore and the high-pressure area inland combine to form a bergwind. The air warms as it descends from the Karoo interior. The temperature will rise about 10 Celsius from the interior to the coast. Humidity is usually very low. The temperature can be over 40 Celsius in summer. The highest temperature recorded in South Africa (51.5 Celsius) occurred one summer during a berg wind along the Eastern Cape coastline.[34][35]

The level of soil moisture can intensify heat waves in Europe.[36][37] Low soil moisture leads to a number of complex feedback mechanisms. These in turn can result in increased surface temperatures. One of the main mechanisms is reduced evaporative cooling of the atmosphere.[36] When water evaporates, it consumes energy. So, it will lower the surrounding temperature. If the soil is very dry, then incoming radiation from the sun will warm the air. But there will be little or no cooling effect from moisture evaporating from the soil.

Climate change[edit]

Heatwaves over land have become more frequent and more intense in almost all world regions since the 1950s, due to climate change. Heat waves are more likely to occur simultaneously with droughts. Marine heatwaves are twice as likely as they were in 1980.[38] Climate change will lead to more very hot days and fewer very cold days.[39]: 7  There are fewer cold waves.[40]: 8 

Experts can often attribute the intensity of individual heat waves to global warming. Some extreme events would have been nearly impossible without human influence on the climate system. A heatwave that would occur once every ten years before global warming started now occurs 2.8 times as often. Under further warming, heatwaves are set to become more frequent. An event that would occur every ten years would occur every other year if global warming reaches 2 °C (3.6 °F).[41]

Impacts on human health[edit]

Heat stroke treatment at Baton Rouge during the 2016 Louisiana floods

Heat-related health effects for vulnerable humans[edit]

Heat illness is a spectrum of disorders due to increased body temperature. It can be caused by either environmental conditions or by exertion. It includes minor conditions such as heat cramps, heat syncope, and heat exhaustion as well as the more severe condition known as heat stroke.[42] It can affect any or all anatomical systems.[43] Heat illnesses include:[44][45] heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat edema, heat cramps, heat rash, heat tetany.

Prevention includes avoiding medications that can increase the risk of heat illness, gradual adjustment to heat, and sufficient fluids and electrolytes.[46][47]

Vulnerable people with regard to heat illnesses include people with low incomes, minority groups, women (in particular pregnant women), children, older adults (over 65 years old), people with chronic diseases, disabilities and co-morbidities.[48]: 13  Other people at risk include those in urban environments (due to the urban heat island effect), outdoor workers and people who take certain prescription drugs.[48] Exposure to extreme heat poses an acute health hazard for many of the people deemed as vulnerable.[48][49]

Climate change increases the frequency and severity of heatwaves and thus heat stress for people. Human responses to heat stress can include heat stroke and hyperthermia. Extreme heat is also linked to low quality sleep, acute kidney injury and complications with pregnancy. Furthermore, it may cause the deterioration of pre-existing cardiovascular and respiratory disease.[50]: 1624  Adverse pregnancy outcomes due to high ambient temperatures include for example low birth weight and pre-term birth.[50]: 1051 Heat waves have also resulted in epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD).[51][52] Prolonged heat exposure, physical exertion, and dehydration are sufficient factors for the development of CKD.[51][52]


The National Weather Service risk categories for NWS HeatRisk

Health experts warn that "exposure to extreme heat increases the risk of death from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory conditions and all-cause mortality. Heat-related deaths in people older than 65 years reached a record high of an estimated 345 000 deaths in 2019".[48]: 9  More than 70,000 Europeans died as a result of the 2003 European heat wave.[53] Also more than 2,000 people died in Karachi, Pakistan in June 2015 due to a severe heat wave with temperatures as high as 49 °C (120 °F).[54][55]

Due to climate change temperatures rose in Europe and heat mortality increased. From 2003–12 to 2013–22 alone, it increased by 17 deaths per 100,000 people, while women are more vulnerable than men.[56]

Underreporting of fatalities[edit]

The number of heat fatalities is probably highly underreported. This is due to a lack of reports and to misreporting.[57] When considering heat-related illnesses as well, actual death tolls from extreme heat may be six times higher than official figures. This is based on studies of California[58] and Japan.[59]

Part of the mortality during a heat wave may be due to short-term forward mortality displacement. In some heat waves there is a decrease in overall mortality in the weeks after a heat wave. These compensatory reductions in mortality suggest that heat affects people who would have died anyway, and brings their deaths forward.[60]

Social institutions and structures influence the effects of risks. This factor can also help explain the underreporting of heat waves as a health risk. The deadly French heat wave in 2003 showed that heat wave dangers result from a combination of natural and social factors.[61] Social invisibility is one such factor. Heat-related deaths can occur indoors, for instance among elderly people living alone. In these cases it can be challenging to assign heat as a contributing factor.[62]

Heat index for temperature and relative humidity[edit]

NOAA national weather service: heat index
Relative humidity
80 °F (27 °C) 82 °F (28 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 90 °F (32 °C) 92 °F (33 °C) 94 °F (34 °C) 96 °F (36 °C) 98 °F (37 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 102 °F (39 °C) 104 °F (40 °C) 106 °F (41 °C) 108 °F (42 °C) 110 °F (43 °C)
40% 80 °F (27 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 91 °F (33 °C) 94 °F (34 °C) 97 °F (36 °C) 101 °F (38 °C) 105 °F (41 °C) 109 °F (43 °C) 114 °F (46 °C) 119 °F (48 °C) 124 °F (51 °C) 130 °F (54 °C) 136 °F (58 °C)
45% 80 °F (27 °C) 82 °F (28 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 93 °F (34 °C) 96 °F (36 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 104 °F (40 °C) 109 °F (43 °C) 114 °F (46 °C) 119 °F (48 °C) 124 °F (51 °C) 130 °F (54 °C) 137 °F (58 °C)
50% 81 °F (27 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 91 °F (33 °C) 95 °F (35 °C) 99 °F (37 °C) 103 °F (39 °C) 108 °F (42 °C) 113 °F (45 °C) 118 °F (48 °C) 124 °F (51 °C) 131 °F (55 °C) 137 °F (58 °C)
55% 81 °F (27 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 93 °F (34 °C) 97 °F (36 °C) 101 °F (38 °C) 106 °F (41 °C) 112 °F (44 °C) 117 °F (47 °C) 124 °F (51 °C) 130 °F (54 °C) 137 °F (58 °C)
60% 82 °F (28 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 91 °F (33 °C) 95 °F (35 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 105 °F (41 °C) 110 °F (43 °C) 116 °F (47 °C) 123 °F (51 °C) 129 °F (54 °C) 137 °F (58 °C)
65% 82 °F (28 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 93 °F (34 °C) 98 °F (37 °C) 103 °F (39 °C) 108 °F (42 °C) 114 °F (46 °C) 121 °F (49 °C) 128 °F (53 °C) 136 °F (58 °C)
70% 83 °F (28 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 90 °F (32 °C) 95 °F (35 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 105 °F (41 °C) 112 °F (44 °C) 119 °F (48 °C) 126 °F (52 °C) 134 °F (57 °C)
75% 84 °F (29 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 92 °F (33 °C) 97 °F (36 °C) 103 °F (39 °C) 109 °F (43 °C) 116 °F (47 °C) 124 °F (51 °C) 132 °F (56 °C)
80% 84 °F (29 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 94 °F (34 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 106 °F (41 °C) 113 °F (45 °C) 121 °F (49 °C) 129 °F (54 °C)
85% 85 °F (29 °C) 90 °F (32 °C) 96 °F (36 °C) 102 °F (39 °C) 110 °F (43 °C) 117 °F (47 °C) 126 °F (52 °C) 135 °F (57 °C)
90% 86 °F (30 °C) 91 °F (33 °C) 98 °F (37 °C) 105 °F (41 °C) 113 °F (45 °C) 122 °F (50 °C) 131 °F (55 °C)
95% 86 °F (30 °C) 93 °F (34 °C) 100 °F (38 °C) 108 °F (42 °C) 117 °F (47 °C) 127 °F (53 °C)
100% 87 °F (31 °C) 95 °F (35 °C) 103 °F (39 °C) 112 °F (44 °C) 121 °F (49 °C) 132 °F (56 °C)
Key to colors:   Caution   Extreme caution   Danger   Extreme danger

The heat index in the table above is a measure of how hot it feels when relative humidity is factored with the actual air temperature.

Psychological and sociological effects[edit]

Excessive heat causes psychological stress as well as physical stress. This can affect performance. It may also lead to an increase in violent crime.[63] High temperatures are associated with increased conflict between individuals and at the social level. In every society, crime rates go up when temperatures go up. This is particularly the case with violent crimes such as assault, murder and rape. In politically unstable countries, high temperatures can exacerbate factors that lead to civil war.[64]

High temperatures also have a significant effect on income. A study of countries in the United States found that the economic productivity of individual days declines by about 1.7 percent for each degree Celsius above 15 °C (59 °F).[65]

Surface ozone (air pollution)[edit]

High temperatures also make the effects of ozone pollution in urban areas worse. This raises heat-related mortality during heat waves.[66] During heat waves in urban areas, ground level ozone pollution can be 20 percent higher than usual.[67]

One study looked at fine particle concentrations and ozone concentrations from 1860 to 2000. It found that the global population-weighted fine particle concentrations increased by 5 percent due to climate change. Near-surface ozone concentrations rose by 2 percent.[68]

An investigation to assess the joint mortality effects of ozone and heat during the European heat waves in 2003 concluded that these appear to be reinforce each other and increase mortality when combined.[69]

Impacts on societies[edit]

Reduced economic outputs[edit]

2009 southeastern Australia heat wave, thermal map approximate affected area shown in red

Calculations from 2022 suggest that heat waves will shrink the global economy by about 1 percent decrease by the middle of the 21st century.[70][71][72]

Heat waves often have complex effects on economies. They reduce labour productivity, disrupt agricultural and industrial processes and damage infrastructure that is not suitable for extreme heat.[9][10] In 2016, a marine heatwave in Chile and its subsequent harmful algal bloom caused $800 million (USD) in export losses for the aquaculture industry as salmon and shellfish died off.[73]

Reduced agricultural outputs[edit]

Heat waves are a big threat to agricultural production. In 2019 heat waves in the Mulanje region of Malawi involved temperatures as high as 40 °C (104 °F). This and a late rain season scorched tea leaves and reduced yields.[74]

Farmed animals[edit]

Impacts of heat stress on livestock animals.[75]

Once the body temperature of livestock animals is 3–4 °C (5.4–7.2 °F) above normal, this soon leads to "heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps, and ultimately organ dysfunction". Livestock mortality rates are already known to be higher during the hottest months of the year, as well as during heatwaves. During the 2003 European heat wave, for instance, thousands of pigs, poultry, and rabbits died in the French regions of Brittany and Pays-de-la-Loire alone.[75]

Livestock can also suffer multiple sublethal impacts from heat stress, such as reduced milk production. Once the temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F), cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens all begin to consume 3–5% less feed for each subsequent degree of temperature increase.[76] At the same time, they increase respiratory and sweating rates, and the combination of these responses can lead to metabolic disorders. One examples is ketosis, or the rapid accumulation of ketone bodies, caused by the animal's body rapidly catabolizing its fat stores to sustain itself.[75] Heat stress also causes an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, which can result in an imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, otherwise known as oxidative stress. Feed supplementation with antioxidants like chromium can help address oxidative stress and prevent it from leading to other pathological conditions, but only in a limited way.[77]

The immune system is also known to be impaired in heat-stressed animals, rendering them more susceptible to various infections.[75] Similarly, vaccination of livestock is less effective when they suffer from heat stress.[78] So far, heat stress had been estimated by researchers using inconsistent definitions, and current livestock models have limited correlation with experimental data.[79] Notably, since livestock like cows spend much of their day laying down, comprehensive heat stress estimation needs to take account of ground temperature as well,[80] but the first model to do so was only published in 2021, and it still tends to systematically overestimate body temperature while underestimating breathing rate.[81]

Infrastructural damage[edit]

The new California Academy of Sciences building in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park has a green roof that covers 2.5 acres (10,000 m2). According to the Academy's fact sheet on the building, the building consumes 30–35 percent less energy than required by code.[82]

Heat waves cause roads and highways to buckle and melt,[83] water lines to burst, and power transformers to detonate, causing fires. A heat wave can also damage railways, by buckling and kinking rails. This can slow down or delay traffic. It can even lead to cancellations of service when rails are too dangerous to traverse by trains.

Power outages[edit]

Heat waves often lead to spikes in electricity demand because there is more use of air conditioning. This can create power outages, making the problem worse. During the 2006 North American heat wave, thousands of homes and businesses went without power, especially in California. In Los Angeles, electrical transformers failed, leaving thousands without power for as long as five days.[84] The early 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave caused major power disruptions in the city of Melbourne. They left over half a million people without power as the heat wave blew transformers and overloaded a power grid.

Impacts on the environment[edit]


A heat wave occurring during a drought can contribute to bushfires and wildfires. This is because a drought dries out vegetation, so it is more likely to catch fire. During the disastrous heat wave that struck Europe in 2003, fires raged through Portugal. They destroyed over 3,010 square kilometres (1,160 sq mi) of forest and 440 square kilometres (170 sq mi) of agricultural land. They caused about €1 billion worth of damage.[85] High end farmlands have irrigation systems to back up crops.


Heat waves can also contribute to flooding. Because hot air is able to carry more moisture, heatwaves may be followed by extreme rainfall especially in mid-latitude regions.[86] For example, the record-breaking heat wave that afflicted Pakistan beginning in May 2022 led to glacier melt and moisture flow. These were factors in the devastating floods that began in June and claimed over 1,100 lives.[87]

Wild animals on land[edit]

Researchers have predicted that roughly 10-40% of all land vertebrate species will be affected by heat waves by 2099, depending on the amount of future greenhouse gas emissions.[88] Heatwaves present an additional form of stress and evolutionary pressure for species that already deal with habitat loss and climate change.

Species have a thermal range of tolerance that describes the temperatures where they perform best. Temperature conditions that are outside of this range may experience decreased fitness and the inability to reproduce.[89][90] The species with sufficient genetic variation will be able to ensure some individuals can survive frequent days of high temperatures in the future.[91]


Marine heatwaves may cause mass mortality in fish populations, especially for species that are better adapted to cooler temperatures.[92] Species that have adapted to warmer temperatures may expand their range during a heatwave. These invasive species may outcompete the native species that experience higher mortality during a heatwave, which disrupts ecosystem functioning.[92] Marine heatwaves have also been correlated with negative impacts on foundation species such as coral and kelp.[93]

Options for reducing impacts of heat waves on humans[edit]

A possible public health measure during heat waves is to set up air-conditioned public cooling centres. There are novel designs for cooling systems that are relatively low-cost. They do not use electrical components, are off-the-grid electrical power sources and the storage of solar energy chemically for use on demand.[94][95]

Adding air conditioning in schools[96] provides a cooler work place. But it can result in additional greenhouse gas emissions unless solar energy is used.

Recent examples[edit]

United States[edit]

The 1936 North American heat wave.
Perceptions differ along political lines, on whether climate change was a "major factor" contributing to various extreme weather events.[97]
Record temperatures were based on 112-year records

In July 2019, there were over 50 million people in the United States in jurisdictions with heat advisories. Scientists predicted that many records for highest low temperatures would be broken in the days following these warnings. This means the lowest temperature in a 24-hour period will be higher than any low temperature measured before.[98]

According to a 2022 study, 107 million people in the US will experience extremely dangerous heat in the year 2053.[99]

Heat waves are the most lethal type of weather phenomenon in the United States. Between 1992 and 2001, deaths from excessive heat in the United States numbered 2,190, compared with 880 deaths from floods and 150 from tropical cyclones.[100] About 400 deaths a year on average are directly due to heat in the United States.[57] The 1995 Chicago heat wave, one of the worst in US history, led to approximately 739 heat-related deaths over 5 days.[101] In the United States, the loss of human life in hot spells in summer exceeds that caused by all other weather events. These include lightning, rain, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes.[102][103]

About 6,200 Americans need hospital treatment each summer, according to data from 2008. This is due to excessive heat, and those at highest risk are poor, uninsured or elderly.[104]

The relationship between extreme temperature and mortality in the United States varies by location. Heat is more likely to increase the risk of death in cities in the northern part of the country than in southern regions. Unusually hot summertime temperatures in Chicago, Denver, or New York City lead to predictions of higher levels of illness and death. Parts of the country that are mild to hot all year have a lower public health risk from excessive heat. Residents of southern cities such as Miami, Tampa, Los Angeles, and Phoenix tend to be acclimatized to hot weather conditions. They are therefore less vulnerable to heat-related deaths. As a whole, people in the United States appear to be adapting to hotter temperatures further north each decade. This might be due to better infrastructure, more modern building design and better public awareness.[105]

Society and culture[edit]

Policymakers, funders and researchers have created the Extreme Heat Resilience Alliance coalition under the Atlantic Council. This advocates for naming heat waves, measuring them, and ranking them to build better awareness of their impacts.[106][107]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Heatwave – noun – Definition". Merriam-Webster.
  2. ^ "Heatwave – noun – Definition". gcunoxfohoarnersdictionaries.com.
  3. ^ a b c IPCC, 2022: Annex II: Glossary [Möller, V., R. van Diemen, J.B.R. Matthews, C. Méndez, S. Semenov, J.S. Fuglestvedt, A. Reisinger (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, pp. 2897–2930, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.029.
  4. ^ Meehl, G. A (2004). "More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century". Science. 305 (5686): 994–997. Bibcode:2004Sci...305..994M. doi:10.1126/science.1098704. PMID 15310900.
  5. ^ Robinson, Peter J (2001). "On the Definition of a Heat Wave". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 40 (4): 762–775. Bibcode:2001JApMe..40..762R. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0762:OTDOAH>2.0.CO;2.
  6. ^ Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2021. pp. 8–10.
  7. ^ Thompson, Andrea, "This Summer’s Record-Breaking Heat Waves Would Not Have Happened without Climate Change", Scientific American 25 July 2023
  8. ^ a b "NWS JetStream - Heat Index". US Department of Commerce NOAA weather.gov. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  9. ^ a b Bottollier-Depois, Amélie. "Deadly heatwaves threaten economies too". phys.org. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  10. ^ a b García-León, David; Casanueva, Ana; Standardi, Gabriele; Burgstall, Annkatrin; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nybo, Lars (4 October 2021). "Current and projected regional economic impacts of heatwaves in Europe". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 5807. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.5807G. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26050-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 8490455. PMID 34608159.
  11. ^ "Heat Waves Explained".
  12. ^ Frich, A.; L.V. Alexander; P. Della-Marta; B. Gleason; M. Haylock; A.M.G. Klein Tank; T. Peterson (January 2002). "Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century" (PDF). Climate Research. 19: 193–212. Bibcode:2002ClRes..19..193F. doi:10.3354/cr019193.
  13. ^ "Heat wave meteorology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  14. ^ Glickman, Todd S. (2000). Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. ISBN 9781878220493.
  15. ^ "Danmark får varme- og hedebølge" (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. 22 July 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  16. ^ "Värmebölja Klimat: Kunskapsbanken SMHI" (in Swedish). Smhi.se. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  17. ^ "Heat-health watch". Met Office. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  18. ^ "What is a heatwave?". Met Office. 26 May 2023. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  19. ^ "Glossary". NOAA's National Weather Service. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  20. ^ Singer, Stephen. "Half the country wilts under unrelenting heat". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012.
  21. ^ "Staying Cool and Safe" (PDF). Oakland, California: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  22. ^ "Extreme Heat Services for South Australia". Bureau of Meteorology. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Australia Weather and Warnings". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  24. ^ "Mean Monthly Temperature Records Across the Globe / Timeseries of Global Land and Ocean Areas at Record Levels for October from 1951-2023". National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) NCEI.NOAA.gov of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). November 2023. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. (change "202310" in URL to see years other than 2023, and months other than 10=October)
  25. ^ IPCC, 2021: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3−32, doi:10.1017/9781009157896.001
  26. ^ Rousi, Efi; Kornhuber, Kai; Beobide-Arsuaga, Goratz; Luo, Fei; Coumou, Dim (4 July 2022). "Accelerated western European heatwave trends linked to more-persistent double jets over Eurasia". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 3851. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13.3851R. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-31432-y. PMC 9253148. PMID 35788585.
  27. ^ Russo, Simone; Sillmann, Jana; Fischer, Erich M (2015). "Top ten European heatwaves since 1950 and their occurrence in the coming decades" (PDF). Environmental Research Letters. 10 (12): 124003. Bibcode:2015ERL....10l4003R. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124003.
  28. ^ Zampieri, Matteo; Russo, Simone; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Michetti, Melania; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio (2016). "Global assessment of heatwave magnitudes from 1901 to 2010 and implications for the river discharge of the Alps". Science of the Total Environment. 571: 1330–9. Bibcode:2016ScTEn.571.1330Z. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.008. PMID 27418520.
  29. ^ Henson, Bob. "Exposure to extreme urban heat has tripled worldwide since the 1980s, study finds". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  30. ^ Tuholske, Cascade; Caylor, Kelly; Funk, Chris; Verdin, Andrew; Sweeney, Stuart; Grace, Kathryn; Peterson, Pete; Evans, Tom (12 October 2021). "Global urban population exposure to extreme heat". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (41): e2024792118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11824792T. doi:10.1073/pnas.2024792118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8521713. PMID 34607944.
  31. ^ Lau, N; Nath, Mary Jo (2012). "A Model Study of Heat Waves over North America: Meteorological Aspects and Projections for the Twenty-First Century". Journal of Climate. 25 (14): 4761–4784. Bibcode:2012JCli...25.4761L. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00575.1.
  32. ^ "Heat Index". US National Weather Service.
  33. ^ "Heat Index". Pasquotank County, NC, U. S. Website. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012.
  34. ^ "Bergwind Info". 1stweather.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012.
  35. ^ "Natural Hazards - Heat Wave". City of Cape Town, South Africa Website. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012.
  36. ^ a b Miralles, D. G.; van den Berg, M. J.; Teuling, A. J.; de Jeu, R. A. M. (November 2012). "Soil moisture-temperature coupling: A multiscale observational analysis". Geophysical Research Letters. 39 (21): n/a. Bibcode:2012GeoRL..3921707M. doi:10.1029/2012gl053703. ISSN 0094-8276. S2CID 53668167.
  37. ^ Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Corti, Thierry; Davin, Edouard L.; Hirschi, Martin; Jaeger, Eric B.; Lehner, Irene; Orlowsky, Boris; Teuling, Adriaan J. (1 May 2010). "Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review". Earth-Science Reviews. 99 (3): 125–161. Bibcode:2010ESRv...99..125S. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004. ISSN 0012-8252.
  38. ^ "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2021. pp. 8–10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2021.
  39. ^ IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, US.
  40. ^ IPCC, 2021: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, US, pp. 3−32, doi:10.1017/9781009157896.001
  41. ^ Clarke, Ben; Otto, Friederike; Stuart-Smith, Rupert; Harrington, Luke (28 June 2022). "Extreme weather impacts of climate change: an attribution perspective". Environmental Research: Climate. 1 (1): 012001. doi:10.1088/2752-5295/ac6e7d. hdl:10044/1/97290. ISSN 2752-5295. S2CID 250134589.
  42. ^ Lugo-Amador, Nannette M; Rothenhaus, Todd; Moyer, Peter (2004). "Heat-related illness". Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 22 (2): 315–27, viii. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2004.01.004. PMID 15163570.
  43. ^ Mora, Camilo; Counsell, Chelsie W. W.; Bielecki, Coral R.; Louis, Leo V. (November 2017), "Twenty-Seven Ways a Heat Wave Can Kill You: Deadly Heat in the Era of Climate Change", Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 10 (11), doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.117.004233, PMID 29122837
  44. ^ Tintinalli, Judith (2004). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1186. ISBN 0-07-138875-3.
  45. ^ "Heat Illness: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  46. ^ Lipman, GS; Eifling, KP; Ellis, MA; Gaudio, FG; Otten, EM; Grissom, CK; Wilderness Medical Society (December 2013). "Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 24 (4): 351–61. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2013.07.004. PMID 24140191.
  47. ^ Jacklitsch, Brenda L. (29 June 2011). "Summer Heat Can Be Deadly for Outdoor Workers". NIOSH: Workplace Safety and Health. Medscape and NIOSH. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012.
  48. ^ a b c d Romanello, Marina; McGushin, Alice; Di Napoli, Claudia; Drummond, Paul; Hughes, Nick; Jamart, Louis; et al. (October 2021). "The 2021 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: code red for a healthy future" (PDF). The Lancet. 398 (10311): 1619–1662. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01787-6. hdl:10278/3746207. PMID 34687662. S2CID 239046862.
  49. ^ Demain, Jeffrey G. (24 March 2018). "Climate Change and the Impact on Respiratory and Allergic Disease: 2018". Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 18 (4): 22. doi:10.1007/s11882-018-0777-7. PMID 29574605. S2CID 4440737.
  50. ^ a b Romanello, Marina; Di Napoli, Claudia; Drummond, Paul; Green, Carole; Kennard, Harry; Lampard, Pete; et al. (5 November 2022). The 2022 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: health at the mercy of fossil fuels. The Lancet (Report). Vol. 400. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01540-9.
  51. ^ a b Glaser; et al. (2016). "Climate Change and the Emergent Epidemic of CKD from Heat Stress in Rural Communities: the Case for Heat Stress Nephropathy". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 11 (8): 1472–83. doi:10.2215/CJN.13841215. PMC 4974898. PMID 27151892.
  52. ^ a b Shih, Gerry (6 January 2023). "The world's torrid future is etched in the crippled kidneys of Nepali workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  53. ^ Robine, Jean-Marie; Cheung, Siu Lan K; Le Roy, Sophie; Van Oyen, Herman; Griffiths, Clare; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Herrmann, François Richard (2008). "Death toll exceeded 70,000 in Europe during the summer of 2003". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331 (2): 171–8. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2007.12.001. PMID 18241810.
  54. ^ Haider, Kamran; Anis, Khurrum (24 June 2015). "Heat Wave Death Toll Rises to 2,000 in Pakistan's Financial Hub". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  55. ^ Mansoor, Hasan (30 June 2015). "Heatstroke leaves another 26 dead in Sindh". Dawn. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  56. ^ Wong, Carissa. "How climate change is hitting Europe: three graphics reveal health impacts". Nature. Lancet Public Health. Retrieved 27 June 2024.
  57. ^ a b Basu, Rupa; Jonathan M. Samet (2002). "Relation between Elevated Ambient Temperature and Mortality: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence". Epidemiologic Reviews. 24 (2): 190–202. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxf007. PMID 12762092.
  58. ^ "Heat waves are far deadlier than we think. How California neglects this climate threat". Los Angeles Times. 7 October 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  59. ^ Fujibe, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Jun (2021). "Estimation of Excess Deaths during Hot Summers in Japan". Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere. 17: 220–223. Bibcode:2021SOLA...17..220F. doi:10.2151/sola.2021-038. S2CID 241577645.
  60. ^ Huynen, Maud M. T. E; Martens, Pim; Schram, Dieneke; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kunst, Anton E (2001). "The Impact of Heat Waves and Cold Spells on Mortality Rates in the Dutch Population". Environmental Health Perspectives. 109 (5): 463–70. doi:10.2307/3454704. JSTOR 3454704. PMC 1240305. PMID 11401757.
  61. ^ Poumadère, M.; Mays, C.; Le Mer, S.; Blong, R. (2005). "The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now" (PDF). Risk Analysis. 25 (6): 1483–1494. Bibcode:2005RiskA..25.1483P. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00694.x. PMID 16506977. S2CID 25784074.
  62. ^ Ro, Christine (1 September 2022). "Can Japan really reach "zero deaths" from heat stroke?". BMJ. 378: o2107. doi:10.1136/bmj.o2107. ISSN 1756-1833. S2CID 251954370.
  63. ^ Simister, John; Cary Cooper (October 2004). "Thermal stress in the U.S.A.: effects on violence and on employee behaviour". Stress and Health. 21 (1): 3–15. doi:10.1002/smi.1029.
  64. ^ Hsiang, Solomon; Burke, Marshall; Miguel, Edward (2015). "Climate and Conflict". Annual Review of Economics. 7 (1): 577–617. doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-080614-115430. S2CID 17657019.
  65. ^ Solomon, Hsiang; Tatyana, Deryugina (December 2014). "Does the Environment Still Matter? Daily Temperature and Income in the United States". NBER Working Paper No. 20750. doi:10.3386/w20750.
  66. ^ Diem, Jeremy E.; Stauber, Christine E.; Rothenberg, Richard (16 May 2017). Añel, Juan A. (ed.). "Heat in the southeastern United States: Characteristics, trends, and potential health impact". PLOS ONE. 12 (5): e0177937. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1277937D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0177937. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5433771. PMID 28520817.
  67. ^ Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang (July 2016). "Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 23792. Bibcode:2016NatSR...623792H. doi:10.1038/srep23792. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4815017. PMID 27029386.
  68. ^ Orru, H.; Ebi, K. L.; Forsberg, B. (2017). "The Interplay of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Health". Current Environmental Health Reports. 4 (4): 504–513. doi:10.1007/s40572-017-0168-6. ISSN 2196-5412. PMC 5676805. PMID 29080073.
  69. ^ Kosatsky T. (July 2005). "The 2003 European heat waves". Eurosurveillance. 10 (7): 3–4. doi:10.2807/esm.10.07.00552-en. PMID 29208081. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  70. ^ Benedek, Réfi (12 July 2022). "The cost of heatwaves". HYPEANDHYPER. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  71. ^ "Rising Heat is Making it Harder to Work in the U.S. — the Costs for the Economy Will Soar with Climate Change". Time. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  72. ^ García-León, David; Casanueva, Ana; Standardi, Gabriele; Burgstall, Annkatrin; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nybo, Lars (4 October 2021). "Current and projected regional economic impacts of heatwaves in Europe". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 5807. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.5807G. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26050-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 8490455. PMID 34608159.
  73. ^ Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Stephanie K.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Kudela, Raphael M.; Clement, Alejandro; Mardones, Jorge I.; Cochlan, William P. (1 January 2020). "Pelagic harmful algal blooms and climate change: Lessons from nature's experiments with extremes". Harmful Algae. Climate change and harmful algal blooms. 91: 101591. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2019.03.009. ISSN 1568-9883.
  74. ^ "Malawi heatwaves threaten tea yields and livelihoods". Future Climate Africa. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  75. ^ a b c d Lacetera, Nicola (3 January 2019). "Impact of climate change on animal health and welfare". Animal Frontiers. 9 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1093/af/vfy030. ISSN 2160-6056. PMC 6951873. PMID 32002236.
  76. ^ Bett, B.; Kiunga, P.; Gachohi, J.; Sindato, C.; Mbotha, D.; Robinson, T.; Lindahl, J.; Grace, D. (23 January 2017). "Effects of climate change on the occurrence and distribution of livestock diseases". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 137 (Pt B): 119–129. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.11.019. PMID 28040271.
  77. ^ Bin-Jumah, May; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E.; Abdelnour, Sameh A.; Hendy, Yasmeen A.; Ghanem, Hager A.; Alsafy, Sara A.; Khafaga, Asmaa F.; Noreldin, Ahmed E.; Shaheen, Hazem; Samak, Dalia; Momenah, Maha A.; Allam, Ahmed A.; AlKahtane, Abdullah A.; Alkahtani, Saad; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Aleya, Lotfi (19 December 2019). "Potential use of chromium to combat thermal stress in animals: A review". Science of the Total Environment. 707: 135996. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135996. PMID 31865090. S2CID 209447429.
  78. ^ Bagath, M.; Krishnan, G.; Deravaj, C.; Rashamol, V. P.; Pragna, P.; Lees, A. M.; Sejian, V. (21 August 2019). "The impact of heat stress on the immune system in dairy cattle: A review". Research in Veterinary Science. 126: 94–102. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.08.011. PMID 31445399. S2CID 201204108.
  79. ^ Foroushani, Sepehr; Amon, Thomas (11 July 2022). "Thermodynamic assessment of heat stress in dairy cattle: lessons from human biometeorology". International Journal of Biometeorology. 66 (9): 1811–1827. Bibcode:2022IJBm...66.1811F. doi:10.1007/s00484-022-02321-2. PMC 9418108. PMID 35821443.
  80. ^ Herbut, Piotr; Angrecka, Sabina; Walczak, Jacek (27 October 2018). "Environmental parameters to assessing of heat stress in dairy cattle—a review". International Journal of Biometeorology. 62 (12): 2089–2097. Bibcode:2018IJBm...62.2089H. doi:10.1007/s00484-018-1629-9. PMC 6244856. PMID 30368680.
  81. ^ Li, Jinghui; Narayanan, Vinod; Kebreab, Ermias; Dikmen, Sedal; Fadel, James G. (23 July 2021). "A mechanistic thermal balance model of dairy cattle". Biosystems Engineering. 209: 256–270. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.06.009.
  82. ^ "California Academy of Sciences – Newsroom". Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  83. ^ "When does tarmac melt?". BBC News. 15 July 2013.
  84. ^ Doan, Lynn; Covarrubias, Amanda (27 July 2006). "Heat Eases, but Thousands of Southern Californians Still Lack Power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  85. ^ Bell, M.; A. Giannini; E. Grover; M. Hopp; B. Lyon; A. Seth (September 2003). "Climate Impacts". IRI Climate Digest. The Earth Institute. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
  86. ^ Sauter, Christoph; Fowler, Hayley J.; Westra, Seth; Ali, Haider; Peleg, Nadav; White, Christopher J. (1 June 2023). "Compound extreme hourly rainfall preconditioned by heatwaves most likely in the mid-latitudes". Weather and Climate Extremes. 40: 100563. doi:10.1016/j.wace.2023.100563. ISSN 2212-0947.
  87. ^ Clarke, Ben; Otto, Friederike; Harrington, Luke (2 September 2022). "Pakistan floods: what role did climate change play?". The Conversation. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  88. ^ Murali, Gopal; Iwamura, Takuya; Meiri, Shai; Roll, Uri (March 2023). "Future temperature extremes threaten land vertebrates". Nature. 615 (7952): 461–467. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05606-z. ISSN 1476-4687.
  89. ^ "Physiological Optima and Critical Limits | Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 19 April 2024.
  90. ^ Cullum, A. J. (1 January 2008), Fath, Brian (ed.), "Tolerance Range", Encyclopedia of Ecology (Second Edition), Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 640–646, ISBN 978-0-444-64130-4, retrieved 26 April 2024
  91. ^ "Extreme heat triggers mass die-offs and stress for wildlife in the West". Animals. 19 April 2024. Retrieved 19 April 2024.
  92. ^ a b Smith, Kathryn E.; Burrows, Michael T.; Hobday, Alistair J.; King, Nathan G.; Moore, Pippa J.; Sen Gupta, Alex; Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Smale, Dan A. (16 January 2023). "Biological Impacts of Marine Heatwaves". Annual Review of Marine Science. 15 (1): 119–145. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-032122-121437. hdl:11250/3095845. ISSN 1941-1405.
  93. ^ Smale, Dan A.; Wernberg, Thomas; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Thomsen, Mads; Harvey, Ben P.; Straub, Sandra C.; Burrows, Michael T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Donat, Markus G.; Feng, Ming; Hobday, Alistair J.; Holbrook, Neil J.; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Scannell, Hillary A. (April 2019). "Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services". Nature Climate Change. 9 (4): 306–312. doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1. hdl:2160/3a9b534b-03ab-4619-9637-2ab06054fe70. ISSN 1758-6798.
  94. ^ "Sunlight and salt water join forces in electricity-free cooling system". New Atlas. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  95. ^ Wang, Wenbin; Shi, Yusuf; Zhang, Chenlin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Mengchun; Zhuo, Sifei; Aleid, Sara; Wang, Peng (1 September 2021). "Conversion and storage of solar energy for cooling". Energy & Environmental Science. 15: 136–145. doi:10.1039/D1EE01688A. hdl:10754/670903. ISSN 1754-5706. S2CID 239698764.
  96. ^ Kaufman, Leslie (23 May 2011). "A City Prepares for a Warm Long-Term Forecast". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  97. ^ Ajasa, Amudalat; Clement, Scott; Guskin, Emily (23 August 2023). "Partisans remain split on climate change contributing to more disasters, and on their weather becoming more extreme". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023.
  98. ^ Rosane, Olivia. "50 Million Americans Are Currently Living Under Some Type of Heat Warning". Ecowatch. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  99. ^ Miller, Brandon; Waldrop, Theresa (16 August 2022). "An 'extreme heat belt' will impact over 100 million Americans in the next 30 years, study finds". CNN. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  100. ^ "Hot Weather Tips and the Chicago Heat Plan". About.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
  101. ^ Near-Fatal Heat Stroke during the 1995 Heat Wave in Chicago. Annals of Internal Medicine Vol. 129 Issue 3
  102. ^ Klinenberg, Eric (2002). Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago University Press. ISBN 9780226443218.
  103. ^ Dead Heat: Why don't Americans sweat over heat-wave deaths? By Eric Klinenberg. Slate.com. Posted Tuesday, 30 July 2002
  104. ^ Most People Struck Down by Summer Heat Are Poor Newswise, Retrieved on 9 July 2008.
  105. ^ Robert E. Davis; Paul C. Knappenberger; Patrick J. Michaels; Wendy M. Novicoff (November 2003). "Changing heat-related mortality in the United States". Environmental Health Perspectives. 111 (14): 1712–1718. doi:10.1289/ehp.6336. PMC 1241712. PMID 14594620.
  106. ^ "Extreme Heat Resilience Alliance: Reducing Extreme Heat Risk for Vulnerable People". wcr.ethz.ch. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  107. ^ "The world's getting hotter. Can naming heat waves raise awareness of the risks?". The World from PRX. Retrieved 2 September 2020.