Heaven, the heavens or seven heavens, is common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, jinn, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or to live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to earth or incarnate, and earthly beings can ascend to Heaven in the afterlife, or in exceptional cases enter Heaven alive.
Heaven is often described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to Hell or the Underworld or the "low places", and universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or simply the will of God. Some believe in the possibility of a Heaven on Earth in a World to Come.
Another belief is in an axis mundi or world tree which connects the heavens, the terrestrial world, and the underworld. In Indian religions, Heaven is considered as Svarga loka, and the soul is again subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma. This cycle can be broken after a soul achieves Moksha or Nirvana. Any place of existence, either of humans, souls or deities, outside the tangible world (Heaven, Hell, or other) is referred to as otherworld.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Ancient Near East religions
- 3 Bahá'í Faith
- 4 Buddhism
- 5 Chinese faiths
- 6 Christianity
- 7 Hinduism
- 8 Islam
- 9 Jainism
- 10 Judaism
- 11 Mesoamerican religions
- 12 Polynesia
- 13 Theosophy
- 14 Criticism of the belief in heaven
- 15 Neuroscience
- 16 Postmodern views
- 17 Representations in arts
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
The modern English word heaven is derived from the earlier (Middle English) heven (attested 1159); this in turn was developed from the previous Old English form heofon. By about 1000, heofon was being used in reference to the Christianized "place where God dwells", but originally, it had signified "sky, firmament" (e.g. in Beowulf, c. 725). The English term has cognates in the other Germanic languages: Old Saxon heƀan "sky, heaven", Middle Low German heven "sky", Old Icelandic himinn "sky, heaven", Gothic himins; and those with a variant final -l: Old Frisian himel, himul "sky, heaven", Old Saxon/Old High German himil, Old Saxon/Middle Low German hemmel, Dutch hemel, and modern German Himmel. All of these have been derived from a reconstructed Proto-Germanic form *Hemina-.
Ancient Near East religions
In Ancient Egyptian religion, belief in an afterlife is much more stressed than in ancient Judaism. Heaven was a physical place far above the Earth in a "dark area" of space where there were no stars, basically beyond the Universe. According to the Book of the Dead, departed souls would undergo a literal journey to reach Heaven, along the way to which there could exist hazards and other entities attempting to deny the reaching of Heaven. Their heart would finally be weighed with the feather of truth, and if the sins weighed it down their heart was devoured.
Canaanite and Phoenician views of Heaven
Main article: Canaanite religion
Almost nothing is known of Bronze Age (pre-1200 BC) Canaanite views of Heaven, and the archeological findings at Ugarit (destroyed c. 1200 BC) have not provided information. The 1st century Greek author Philo of Byblos may preserve elements of Iron Age Phoenician religion in his Sanchuniathon.
Hurrian and Hittite myths
In the Middle Hittite myths, Heaven is the abode of the gods. In the Song of Kumarbi, Alalu was king in Heaven for nine years before giving birth to his son, Anu. Anu was himself overthrown by his son, Kumarbi. 
Judaism (Iron Age)
The term for Heavens in the Tanakh is shamayim, located above the firmament (a solid, transparent dome which covered the earth and separated it from the "waters" above). Yahweh, the God of Israel, lived in Heaven or in the "Heaven of Heavens" (the exact difference between these two, if any, is unclear) in a heavenly palace. His dwelling on earth was Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, which was a model of the cosmos and included a section which represented Heaven.
The Bahá'í Faith regards the conventional description of Heaven (and hell) as a specific place as symbolic. The Bahá'í writings describe Heaven as a "spiritual condition" where closeness to God is defined as Heaven; conversely Hell is seen as a state of remoteness from God. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, has stated that the nature of the life of the soul in the afterlife is beyond comprehension in the physical plane, but has stated that the soul will retain its consciousness and individuality and remember its physical life; the soul will be able to recognize other souls and communicate with them.
For Bahá'ís, entry into the next life has the potential to bring great joy. Bahá'u'lláh likened death to the process of birth. He explains: "The world beyond is as different from this world as this world is different from that of the child while still in the womb of its mother." The analogy to the womb in many ways summarizes the Bahá'í view of earthly existence: just as the womb constitutes an important place for a person's initial physical development, the physical world provides for the development of the individual soul. Accordingly, Bahá'ís view life as a preparatory stage, where one can develop and perfect those qualities which will be needed in the next life. The key to spiritual progress is to follow the path outlined by the current Manifestation of God, which Bahá'ís believe is currently Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh wrote, "Know thou, of a truth, that if the soul of man hath walked in the ways of God, it will, assuredly return and be gathered to the glory of the Beloved."
The Bahá'í teachings state that there exists a hierarchy of souls in the afterlife, where the merits of each soul determines their place in the hierarchy, and that souls lower in the hierarchy cannot completely understand the station of those above. Each soul can continue to progress in the afterlife, but the soul's development is not entirely dependent on its own conscious efforts, the nature of which we are not aware, but also augmented by the grace of God, the prayers of others, and good deeds performed by others on Earth in the name of that person.
In Buddhism there are several Heavens, all of which are still part of samsara (illusionary reality). Those who accumulate good karma may be reborn in one of them. However, their stay in Heaven is not eternal—eventually they will use up their good karma and will undergo rebirth into another realm, as a human, animal or other being. Because Heaven is temporary and part of samsara, Buddhists focus more on escaping the cycle of rebirth and reaching enlightenment (nirvana). Nirvana is not a heaven but a mental state.
According to Buddhist cosmology the universe is impermanent and beings transmigrate through a number of existential "planes" in which this human world is only one "realm" or "path". These are traditionally envisioned as a vertical continuum with the Heavens existing above the human realm, and the realms of the animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings existing beneath it. According to Jan Chozen Bays in her book, Jizo: Guardian of Children, Travelers, and Other Voyagers, the realm of the asura is a later refinement of the heavenly realm and was inserted between the human realm and the Heavens. One important Buddhist Heaven is the Trāyastriṃśa, which resembles Olympus of Greek mythology.
In the Mahayana world view, there are also pure lands which lie outside this continuum and are created by the Buddhas upon attaining enlightenment. Rebirth in the pure land of Amitabha is seen as an assurance of Buddhahood, for once reborn there, beings do not fall back into cyclical existence unless they choose to do so to save other beings, the goal of Buddhism being the obtainment of enlightenment and freeing oneself and others from the birth–death cycle.
One of the Buddhist sutras states that a hundred years of our existence is equal to one day and one night in the world of the thirty-three gods. Thirty such days add up to their one month. Twelve such months become their one-year, while they live for a thousand such years though existence in the heavens is ultimately finite and the beings who reside there will reappear in other realms based on their karma.
According to Anguttara Nikaya
Here the denizens are Brahmās, and the ruler is Mahābrahmā
After developing the four Brahmavihāras, King Makhādeva rebirths here after death. The monk Tissa and Brāhmana Jānussoni were also reborn here.
For a monk, the next best thing to Nirvana is to be reborn in this Brahmāloka.
The lifespan of a Brahmās is not stated but is not eternal.
The lifespan of a Kāmāvacara is not stated but is not eternal.
Here some denizens are kings that came from human lives as being kings.
The Anguttara Nikaya says that on the 15th day, the Cātummaharaja gods look down to earth and see if the humans are still paying reverence to mother, father, samanas and brahmanas.
Bimbisāra (the king of Magadha), and Pāyāsi (the king of Kosāla) were reborn here.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 9,216,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 2,284,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 9,216,000,000 years.
The ruler of this Heaven is Indra or Shakra, and the realm is also called Trayatrimia.
Each denizen addresses other denizens as the title "mārisa".
The governing hall of this Heaven is called Sudhamma Hall.
This Heaven has a garden Nandanavana with damsels, as its most magnificent sight.
Ajita the Licchavi army general was reborn here. Gopika the Sākyan girl was reborn as a male god in this realm.
Any Buddhist reborn in this realm can outshine any of the previously dwelling denizens because of the extra merit acquired for following the Buddha's teachings.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 36,000,000 years.
Anāthapindika, a Kosālan householder and benefactor to the Buddha's order was reborn here.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 576,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 1,444,000,000 years.
According to Tibetan Buddhism
There are 5 major types of Heavens.
- Akanishtha or Ghanavyiiha
This is the most supreme Heaven wherein beings that have achieved Nirvana live for eternity.
- Heaven of the Jinas
- Heavens of Formless Spirits
These are 4 in number.
These are 16 in number, and are free from sensuality.
These are 6 in number, and contain sensuality.
In the native Chinese Confucian traditions, Heaven (Tian) is an important concept, where the ancestors reside and from which emperors drew their mandate to rule in their dynastic propaganda, for example.
Heaven is a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophies and religions, and is on one end of the spectrum a synonym of Shangdi ("Supreme Deity") and on the other naturalistic end, a synonym for nature and the sky. The Chinese term for "Heaven", Tian (天), derives from the name of the supreme deity of the Zhou Dynasty. After their conquest of the Shang Dynasty in 1122 BC, the Zhou people considered their supreme deity Tian to be identical with the Shang supreme deity Shangdi. The Zhou people attributed Heaven with anthropomorphic attributes, evidenced in the etymology of the Chinese character for Heaven or sky, which originally depicted a person with a large cranium. Heaven is said to see, hear and watch over all men. Heaven is affected by man's doings, and having personality, is happy and angry with them. Heaven blesses those who please it and sends calamities upon those who offend it. Heaven was also believed to transcend all other spirits and gods, with Confucius asserting, "He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray."
Other philosophers born around the time of Confucius such as Mozi took an even more theistic view of Heaven, believing that Heaven is the divine ruler, just as the Son of Heaven (the King of Zhou) is the earthly ruler. Mozi believed that spirits and minor gods exist, but their function is merely to carry out the will of Heaven, watching for evil-doers and punishing them. Thus they function as angels of Heaven and do not detract from its monotheistic government of the world. With such a high monotheism, it is not surprising that Mohism championed a concept called "universal love" (jian'ai, 兼愛), which taught that Heaven loves all people equally and that each person should similarly love all human beings without distinguishing between his own relatives and those of others. In Mozi's Will of Heaven (天志), he writes:
Mozi criticized the Confucians of his own time for not following the teachings of Confucius. By the time of the later Han Dynasty, however, under the influence of Xunzi, the Chinese concept of Heaven and Confucianism itself had become mostly naturalistic, though some Confucians argued that Heaven was where ancestors reside. Worship of Heaven in China continued with the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Heaven, usually by slaughtering two healthy bulls as a sacrifice.
Traditionally, Christianity has taught that Heaven is the location of the throne of God as well as the holy angels, although this is in varying degrees considered metaphorical. In traditional Christianity, it is considered a state or condition of existence (rather than a particular place somewhere in the cosmos) of the supreme fulfillment of theosis in the beatific vision of the Godhead. In most forms of Christianity, heaven is also understood as the abode for the redeemed dead in the afterlife, usually a temporary stage before the resurrection of the dead and the saints' return to the New Earth.
The resurrected Jesus is said to have ascended to heaven where he now sits at the Right Hand of God and will return to earth in the Second Coming. Various people have been said to have entered heaven while still alive, including Enoch, Elijah and Jesus himself, after his resurrection. According to Roman Catholic teaching, Mary, mother of Jesus, is also said to have been assumed into heaven and is titled the Queen of Heaven.
The Gospel of Matthew frequently uses the phrase "Kingdom of Heaven", where the other Synoptic Gospels speak of the "kingdom of God", one of the key elements of the teachings of Jesus in the New Testament. Revelation 12:7-9 speaks of a war in Heaven between Michael the Archangel and his angels against Satan and his angels, after which Satan and his angels are "thrown down to the earth".
In the 2nd century AD, Irenaeus of Lyons recorded a belief that, in accordance with John 14:2, those who in the afterlife see the Saviour are in different mansions, some dwelling in the Heavens, others in paradise and others in "the city".
While the word used in all these writings, in particular the New Testament Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos), applies primarily to the sky, it is also used metaphorically of the dwelling place of God and the blessed. Similarly, though the English word "heaven" still keeps its original physical meaning when used, for instance, in allusions to the stars as "lights shining through from Heaven", and in phrases such as heavenly body to mean an astronomical object, the Heaven or happiness that Christianity looks forward to is, according to Pope John Paul II, "neither an abstraction nor a physical place in the clouds, but a living, personal relationship with the Holy Trinity. It is our meeting with the Father which takes place in the risen Christ through the communion of the Holy Spirit."
Attaining heaven is not the final pursuit in Hinduism as heaven itself is ephemeral and related to physical body. Only being tied by the bhoot-tatvas, heaven cannot be perfect either and is just another name for pleasurable and mundane material life. According to Hindu cosmology, above the earthly plane, are other planes: (1) Bhuva Loka, (2) Swarga Loka, meaning Good Kingdom, is the general name for heaven in Hinduism, a heavenly paradise of pleasure, where most of the Hindu Devatas (Deva) reside along with the king of Devas, Indra, and beatified mortals. Some other planes are Mahar Loka, Jana Loka, Tapa Loka and Satya Loka. Since heavenly abodes are also tied to the cycle of birth and death, any dweller of Heaven or Hell will again be recycled to a different plane and in a different form per the karma and "maya" i.e. the illusion of Samsara. This cycle is broken only by self-realization by the Jivatma. This self-realization is Moksha (Turiya, Kaivalya).
The concept of moksha is unique to Hinduism and is unparalleled. Moksha stands for liberation from the cycle of birth and death and final communion with Brahman. With moksha, a liberated soul attains the stature and oneness with Brahman or Paramatma. Different schools such as Vedanta, Mimansa, Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, and Yoga offer subtle differences in the concept of Brahman, obvious Universe, its genesis and regular destruction, Jivatma, Nature (Prakriti) and also the right way in attaining perfect bliss or moksha.
In the Vaishnava traditions the highest Heaven is Vaikuntha, which exists above the six heavenly lokas and outside of the mahat-tattva or mundane world. It's where eternally liberated souls who have attained moksha reside in eternal sublime beauty with Lakshmi and Narayana (a manifestation of Vishnu).
In the Nasadiya Sukta, the heavens/sky Vyoman is mentioned as a place from which an overseeing entity surveys what has been created. However, the Nasadiya Sukta questions the omniscience of this overseer.
After Kalyug, there will be the heaven(created by Shiv) in Bharat, in which Lakshmi and Narayana are King and Queen.
The Qur'an contains many references to an afterlife in Eden for those who do good deeds. Regarding the concept of Heaven (Jannah) in the Qu'ran, verse 35 of Surah Al-Ra’d says, "The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! Beneath it flow rivers. Perpetual is the fruits thereof and the shade therein. Such is the End of the Righteous; and the end of the unbelievers is the Fire."[Quran 13:35] Islam rejects the concept of original sin, and Muslims believe that all human beings are born pure. Children automatically go to Heaven when they die, regardless of the religion of their parents.
The concept of Heaven in Islam differs in many respects to the concept in Judaism and Christianity. Heaven is described primarily in physical terms as a place where every wish is immediately fulfilled when asked. Islamic texts describe immortal life in Heaven as happy, without negative emotions. Those who dwell in Heaven are said to wear costly apparel, partake in exquisite banquets, and recline on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, spouses, and children. In Islam if one's good deeds outweigh one's sins then one may gain entrance to Heaven. Conversely, if one's sins outweigh their good deeds they are sent to hell. The more good deeds one has performed the higher the level of Heaven one is directed to. It has been said that the lowest level of Heaven, the first one, is already over one-hundred times better than the greatest life on Earth. The highest level is the seventh Heaven. Houses are built by angels for the occupants using solid gold.
According to the Ahmadiyya view, much of the imagery presented in the Qur'an regarding Heaven, but also hell, is in fact metaphorical. They propound the verse which describes, according to them how the life to come after death is very different from the life here on earth. The Quran says: "From bringing in your place others like you, and from developing you into a form which at present you know not."[Quran 56:62] According to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of Ahmadiyya sect in Islam, the soul will give birth to another rarer entity and will resemble the life on this earth in the sense that this entity will bear a similar relationship to the soul, as the soul bears relationship with the human existence on earth. On earth, if a person leads a righteous life and submits to the will of God, his or her tastes become attuned to enjoying spiritual pleasures as opposed to carnal desires. With this, an "embyonic soul" begins to take shape. Different tastes are said to be born which a person given to carnal passions finds no enjoyment. For example, sacrifice of one's own's rights over that of other's becomes enjoyable, or that forgiveness becomes second nature. In such a state a person finds contentment and Peace at heart and at this stage, according to Ahmadiyya beliefs, it can be said that a soul within the soul has begun to take shape.
The shape of the Universe as described in Jainism is shown alongside. Unlike the current convention of using North direction as the top of map, this uses South as the top. The shape is similar to a part of human form standing upright.
The Deva Loka (heavens) are at the symbolic "chest", where all souls enjoying the positive karmic effects reside. The heavenly beings are referred to as devas (masculine form) and devis (feminine form). According to Jainism, there is not one heavenly abode, but several layers to reward appropriately the souls of varying degree of karmic merits. Similarly, beneath the "waist" are the Narka Loka (Hell). Human, animal, insect, plant and microscopic life forms reside on the middle.
The pure souls (who reached Siddha status) reside at the very south end (top) of the Universe. They are referred to in Tamil literature as தென்புலத்தார் (Kural 43).
While the concept of Heaven (malkuth hashamaim מלכות השמים, the Kingdom of Heaven) is much discussed within the Christian and Islamic religions, the Jewish concept of the afterlife, sometimes known as olam haba, the World-to-come, is not discussed so often. The Torah has little to say on the subject of survival after death, but by the time of the rabbis two ideas had made inroads among the Jews: one, which is probably derived from Greek thought, is that of the immortal soul which returns to its creator after death; the other, which is thought to be of Persian origin, is that of resurrection of the dead.
Jewish writings[which?] refer to a "new earth" as the abode of mankind following the resurrection of the dead. Originally, the two ideas of immortality and resurrection were different but in rabbinic thought they are combined: the soul departs from the body at death but is returned to it at the resurrection. This idea is linked to another rabbinic teaching, that men's good and bad actions are rewarded and punished not in this life but after death, whether immediately or at the subsequent resurrection. Around 1 CE, the Pharisees are said to have maintained belief in resurrection but the Sadducees are said to have denied it (Matt. 22:23).
The Mishnah has many sayings about the World to Come, for example, "Rabbi Yaakov said: This world is like a lobby before the World to Come; prepare yourself in the lobby so that you may enter the banquet hall."
According to Nicholas de Lange, Judaism offers no clear teaching about the destiny which lies in wait for the individual after death and its attitude to life after death has been expressed as follows: "For the future is inscrutable, and the accepted sources of knowledge, whether experience, or reason, or revelation, offer no clear guidance about what is to come. The only certainty is that each man must die - beyond that we can only guess."
According to Tracey R. Rich of the website "Judaism 101", Judaism, unlike other world-religions, is not focused on the quest of getting into Heaven but on life and how to live it.
Kabbalah Jewish mysticism
- Vilon (וִילוֹן) or Araphel (עֲרָפֶל) The first Heaven, governed by Archangel Gabriel, is the closest of heavenly realms to the Earth; it is also considered the abode of Adam and Eve.
- Raqia (רָקִיעַ): The second Heaven is dually controlled by Zachariel and Raphael. It was in this Heaven that Moses, during his visit to Paradise, encountered the angel Nuriel who stood "300 parasangs high, with a retinue of 50 myriads of angels all fashioned out of water and fire". Also, Raqia is considered the realm where the fallen angels are imprisoned and the planets fastened.
- Shehaqim (שְׁחָקִים, Shechaqim): The third Heaven, under the leadership of Anahel, serves as the home of the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life; it is also the realm where manna, the holy food of angels, is produced. The Second Book of Enoch, meanwhile, states that both Paradise and Hell are accommodated in Shehaqim with Hell being located simply "on the northern side".
- Maon (מִעוּן): The fourth Heaven is ruled by the Archangel Michael, and according to Talmud Hagiga 12, it contains the heavenly Jerusalem, the Temple, and the Altar.
- Makon (מִכּוּן, Makhon): The fifth Heaven is under the administration of Samael. It is also where the Ishim and the Song-Uttering Choirs reside.
- Zebul (זִבּוּל): The sixth Heaven falls under the jurisdiction of Sachiel.
- Araboth (עֲרֵבוּת, Aravoth): The seventh Heaven, under the leadership of Cassiel, is the holiest of the seven Heavens because it houses the Throne of Glory attended by the Seven Archangels and serves as the realm in which God dwells; underneath the throne itself lies the abode of all unborn human souls. It is also considered the home of the Seraphim, the Cherubim, and the Hayyoth.
The Nahua people such as the Aztecs, Chichimecs and the Toltecs believed that the heavens were constructed and separated into 13 levels. Each level had from one to many Lords living in and ruling these heavens. Most important of these heavens was Omeyocan (Place of Two). The Thirteen Heavens were ruled by Ometeotl, the dual Lord, creator of the Dual-Genesis who, as male, takes the name Ometecuhtli (Two Lord), and as female is named Omecihuatl (Two Lady).
In the creation myths of Polynesian mythology are found various concepts of the heavens and the underworld. These differ from one island to another. What they share is the view of the universe as an egg or coconut that is divided between the world of humans (earth), the upper world of heavenly gods, and the underworld. Each of these is subdivided in a manner reminiscent of Dante's Divine Comedy, but the number of divisions and their names differs from one Polynesian culture to another.
In Māori mythology, the heavens are divided into a number of realms. Different tribes number the heaven differently, with as few as two and as many as fourteen levels. One of the more common versions divides heaven thus:
- Kiko-rangi, presided over by the gods Toumau
- Waka-maru, the heaven of sunshine and rain
- Nga-roto, the heaven of lakes where the god Maru rules
- Hauora, where the spirits of newborn children originate
- Nga-Tauira, home of the servant gods
- Nga-atua, which is ruled over by the hero Tawhaki
- Autoia, where human souls are created
- Aukumea, where spirits live
- Wairua, where spirit gods live while waiting on those in
- Naherangi or Tuwarea, where the great gods live presided over by Rehua
The Polynesian conception of the universe and its division is nicely illustrated by a famous drawing made by a Tuomotuan chief in 1869. Here, the nine heavens are further divided into left and right, and each stage is associated with a stage in the evolution of the earth that is portrayed below. The lowest division represents a period when the heavens hung low over the earth, which was inhabited by animals that were not known to the islanders. In the third division is shown the first murder, the first burials, and the first canoes, built by Rata. In the fourth division, the first coconut tree and other significant plants are born.
It is believed in Theosophy of Helena Blavatsky that each religion (including Theosophy) has its own individual heaven in various regions of the upper astral plane that fits the description of that heaven that is given in each religion, which a soul that has been good in their previous life on Earth will go to. The area of the upper astral plane of Earth in the upper atmosphere where the various heavens are located is called Summerland (Theosophists believe Hell is located in the lower astral plane of Earth which extends downward from the surface of the earth down to its center). However, Theosophists believe that the soul is recalled back to Earth after an average of about 1400 years by the Lords of Karma to incarnate again. The final heaven that souls go to billions of years in the future after they finish their cycle of incarnations is called Devachan.
Criticism of the belief in heaven
Anarchist Emma Goldman expressed this view when she wrote, "Consciously or unconsciously, most theists see in gods and devils, heaven and hell; reward and punishment, a whip to lash the people into obedience, meekness and contentment."
Many people consider George Orwell's use of Sugarcandy Mountain in his novel Animal Farm to be a literary expression of this view. In the book, the animals were told that after their miserable lives were over they would go to a place in which "it was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges".
Some have argued that a belief in a reward after death is poor motivation for moral behavior while alive. Sam Harris wrote, "It is rather more noble to help people purely out of concern for their suffering than it is to help them because you think the Creator of the Universe wants you to do it, or will reward you for doing it, or will punish you for not doing it. The problem with this linkage between religion and morality is that it gives people bad reasons to help other human beings when good reasons are available."
In Inside the Neolithic Mind, Lewis-Williams and Pearce argue that a tiered structure of heaven, along with similarly structured circles of hell, is neurally perceived by members of many cultures around the world and through history. The reports are so similar across time and space that Lewis-Williams and Pearce argue for a neuroscientific explanation, accepting the percepts as real neural activations and subjective percepts during particular altered states of consciousness.
Many people who come close to death and have near death experiences report meeting relatives or entering "the Light" in an otherworldly dimension, which share similarities with the religious concept of heaven. Even though there are also reports of distressing experiences and negative life-reviews, which share some similarities with the concept of Hell, the positive experiences of meeting or entering "the Light" is reported as an immensely intense feeling state of love, peace and joy beyond human comprehension. Together with this intensely positive-feeling state, people who have near death experiences also report that consciousness or a heightened state of awareness seems as if it is at the heart of experiencing a taste of "heaven".
Representations in arts
- Works of fiction have included numerous different conceptions of heaven and hell. The two most famous descriptions of heaven are given in Dante Alighieri's Paradiso (of the Divine Comedy) and John Milton's Paradise Lost.
- The Chronicles of Narnia, a series by C. S. Lewis offers a description of heaven at the end of the sequence in the 'Last Battle', depicted as a lush green land surrounded by mountains under the rule of a lion Aslan.
- Elric and Eternal Champion, two series by Michael Moorcock, are two of many that offer Chaos-Evil(-Hell) and Uniformity-Good(-Heaven) as equally unacceptable extremes that must be held in balance.
- In The Discovery of Heaven, a 1992 novel by Harry Mulisch, heaven is located "at the end of the Big Bang in negative space".
- In the 1941 film Here Comes Mr. Jordan, heaven is shown as an airfield and Mr. Jordan is possibly God in disguise.
- In the 1943 American war film A Guy Named Joe, heaven is shown as an military air base.
- In the 1946 British war film A Matter of Life and Death, heaven is shown in black and white.
- In the 1957 film The Story of Mankind heaven is shown as an courtroom.
- Made in Heaven, a 1987 film concerning two souls who cross paths in heaven and then attempt to reconnect once they are reborn on Earth.
- Field of Dreams, a 1989 film in which heaven is symbolized by a baseball field. Several players ask Ray if they are in heaven, but he assures them that they are just in Iowa. At the end, Ray asks his father if there is a heaven, to which his father replies that it is the place where dreams come true.
- What Dreams May Come, a 1998 movie that won an Academy Award for its depiction of heaven and hell as the subjective creations of the individual, was an essentially mystical interpretation of heaven, hell and reincarnation. It was based on the eponymous novel by Richard Matheson.
- Heaven, a 2002 film that implies heaven can be reached the higher up one goes (in the film's case, in a helicopter).
- In The Twilight Zone episode The Hunt, heaven is shown as a forest.
- In the South Park episodes "Do the Handicapped Go to Hell?" and "Probably", it is revealed that Mormons go to heaven while everyone else lives in hell. Due to a war between heaven and hell in "Best Friends Forever", God allows more people in.
- In the American Dad! episode "The Most Adequate Christmas Ever", heaven is featured. Anyone who has done good in their life is flown from Limbo to the Gates of Heaven by a large griffin (which might be Ziz). There was a reference that Jim Henson tried to sneak into heaven only for him and Kermit the Frog to end up in a flat rectangle prison (similar to General Zod in Superman II) as Jim Henson begs for them to be released Kermit states "you will bow down before me son of God".
- In The Simpsons episode "The Father, the Son, and the Holy Guest Star" when Bart and Homer became Catholic, Marge imagines herself in heaven, which is split into two parts. First there is Catholic heaven, full of Irish, Italian, and Mexican people where everyone is partying, including Bart, Homer and Jesus. Then there is Protestant heaven, where people play croquet or tennis.
- In the Black Mirror episode "San Junipero", the consciousnesses of the dead can be uploaded into a virtual reality system, where they can live in a beautiful resort city (called "San Junipero") as their younger selves forever. Living people can visit San Junipero for trial periods but are limited to five hours a week, until they decide to undergo euthanasia and be permanently uploaded.
- Heaven: Beyond the Grave. A&E Network. (IMDB)
- Mysteries of the Bible: "Heaven and Hell". A&E Network.
- Servant of God
- The Anglo-Saxons knew the concept of Paradise, which they expressed with words such as neorxnawang.
- Barnhart (1995:357).
- Attridge, Harold. W., and R. A. Oden, Jr. (1981), Philo of Byblos: The Phoenician History: Introduction, Critical Text, Translation, Notes, CBQMS 9 (Washington: D. C.: The Catholic Biblical Association of America).
- Harry A. Hoffner, Gary M. Beckman - 1990
- Sabatino Moscati Face of the Ancient Orient 2001 Page 174 "The first, called 'Kingship in Heaven', tells how this kingship passes from Alalu to Anu, ... was king in Heaven, Alalu was seated on the throne and the mighty Anu, first among the gods,"
- Moscatti, Sabatino (1968), "The World of the Phoenicians" (Phoenix Giant)
- "The Phoenicians".
- Masumian, Farnaz (1995). Life After Death: A study of the afterlife in world religions. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-074-8.
- Bahá'u'lláh (1976). Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 157. ISBN 0-87743-187-6. Retrieved 2016-03-28.
- Bahá'u'lláh (1976). Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 162. ISBN 0-87743-187-6. Retrieved 2016-03-28.
- (but no soul actually goes through rebirth; see anatta)
- "The Jivamala - Salvation Versus Liberation, The Limitations of the Paradise or Heavenly Worlds".
- Herrlee Creel "The Origin of the Deity T'ien" (1970:493-506)
- Joseph Shih, "The Notion of God in the Ancient Chinese Religion," Numen, Vol. 16, Fasc. 2, pp 99-138, Brill: 1969
- Homer Dubs, "Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese Philosophy," Philosophy of East and West, Vol 9, No 3/4, pp 163-172, University of Hawaii Press: 1960.
- "21 July 1999 - John Paul II". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- The Gospel of Matthew by R.T. France (21 Aug 2007) ISBN 080282501X pages 101-103
- Irenaeus, Adversus haereses, book V, chapter XXXVI, 1-2
- "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon,οὐρα^νός".
- "G3772 οὐρανός - Strong's Greek Lexicon".
- Mirza Tahir Ahmad. An Elementary Study of Islam. Islam International Publications. p. 50. ISBN 1-85372-562-5.
- Nicholas de Lange, Judaism, Oxford University Press, 1986
- Pirkei Avot, 4:21
- "Judaism 101: Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife".
- "Some people look at these teachings and deduce that Jews try to "earn our way into Heaven" by performing the mitzvot. This is a gross mischaracterization of our religion. It is important to remember that unlike some religions, Judaism is not focused on the question of how to get into Heaven. Judaism is focused on life and how to live it." Olam Ha-Ba: The World to Come Judaism 101; websource 02-11-2010.
- The Seven Heavens in the Talmud.(see Ps. lxviii. 5).
- "ANGELOLOGY - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
- The Legends of the Jews I, 131, and II, 306.
- The Legends of the Jews V, 374.
- Ginzberg, Louis. Henrietta Szold (trans.). The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909–38. ISBN 0-8018-5890-9.
- Craig, Robert D. Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology. Greenwood Press: New York, 1989. ISBN 0-313-25890-2. Page 57.
- Young, J.L. "The Paumotu Conception of the Heavens and of Creation", Journal of the Polynesian Society, 28 (1919), 209–211.
- Leadbeater, C.W. Outline of Theosophy Wheaton, Illinois, USA:1915 Theosophical Publishing House
- Goldman, Emma. "The Philosophy of Atheism". Mother Earth, February 1916.
- Opinions: Essays: Orwell's Political Messages by Rhodri Williams.
- Background information for George Orwell's Animal Farm at Charles' George Orwell Links.
- The Atheist Philosophy Archived January 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Quote by Albert Einstein at Quote DB.
- Sam Harris at the 2006 Beyond Belief conference (watch here Archived May 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.).
- Jorgensen, Rene. Awakening After Life BookSurge, 2007 ISBN 1-4196-6347-X
- Smith, Gary Scott, Heaven in the American Imagination (Oxford University Press; 2011) 339 pages; draws on art, music, folklore, sermons, literature, psychology, and other realms in a study of how Americans since the Puritans have imagined heaven.
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- Heaven on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
- Catechism of the Catholic Church I believe in Life Everlasting Explanation of Catholic teaching about Heaven, Hell & Purgatory
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Heaven
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Heaven
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Heaven and Hell
- In Films, Heaven’s No Paradise New York Times, Wed. July 22, 2009
- Heaven: A fool's paradise, The Independent, April 21, 2010
- Swedenborg, E. Heaven and its Wonders and Hell. From Things Heard and Seen (Swedenborg Foundation, 1946)
- Maps of heaven at the "Hell and Heaven" subject, the Persuasive Cartography, The PJ Mode Collection, Cornell University Library