Heaven's Gate (religious group)
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Heaven's Gate was an American UFO religious Millenarian group based in San Diego, California, founded in the early 1970s and led by Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1927–1985). On March 26, 1997, police discovered the bodies of 39 members of the group who had committed mass suicide in order to reach what they believed was an alien space craft following Comet Hale–Bopp.
In 1972, Marshall Applewhite met Bonnie Nettles, a nurse with an interest in theosophy and biblical prophecy. The two quickly became close friends; he later recalled that he felt like he had known her for a long time and concluded that they had met in a past life. She told him their meeting had been foretold to her by extraterrestrials, persuading him that he had a divine assignment.
Applewhite and Nettles pondered the life of St. Francis of Assisi and read works by authors including Helena Blavatsky, R. D. Laing, and Richard Bach. They kept a King James Version of the Bible with them and studied several passages from the New Testament, focusing on teachings about Christology, asceticism, and eschatology. Applewhite also read science fiction, including works by Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke. By June 1974, Applewhite and Nettles' beliefs had solidified into a basic outline. They concluded that they had been chosen to fulfill biblical prophecies, and that they had been given higher-level minds than other people. They wrote a pamphlet that described Jesus' reincarnation as a Texan, a thinly veiled reference to Applewhite. Furthermore, they concluded that they were the two witnesses described in the Book of Revelation and occasionally visited churches or other spiritual groups to speak of their identities, often referring to themselves as "The Two", or "The UFO Two". They believed that they would be killed and then restored to life and, in view of others, transported onto a spaceship. This event, which they referred to as "the Demonstration", was to prove their claims. To their dismay, these ideas received a poor reception.
Eventually, Applewhite and Nettles resolved to contact extraterrestrials, and they sought like-minded followers. They published advertisements for meetings, where they recruited disciples, whom they called "crew". At the events, they purported to represent beings from another planet, the Next Level, who sought participants for an experiment. They stated that those who agreed to take part in the experiment would be brought to a higher evolutionary level.
Applewhite and Nettles used a variety of aliases over the years, notably "Bo and Peep" and "Do and Ti" (pronounced doe and tea). The group also had a variety of names—prior to the adoption of the name Heaven's Gate (and at the time Vallée studied the group), it was known as Human Individual Metamorphosis (HIM). The group re-invented and renamed itself several times and had a variety of recruitment methods. Applewhite believed that he was directly related to Jesus, meaning he was an "Evolutionary Kingdom Level Above Human".
Heaven's Gate members believed the planet Earth was about to be "recycled" (wiped clean, renewed, refurbished, and rejuvenated), and the only chance to survive was to leave it immediately. While the group was formally against suicide, they defined "suicide" in their own context to mean "to turn against the Next Level when it is being offered" and believed their "human" bodies were only vessels meant to help them on their journey. In conversation, when referring to a person or a person's body, they routinely used the word "vehicle".
The members of the group added to the first names they adopted in lieu of their original given names, which defines "children of the Next Level". This is mentioned in Applewhite's final video, Do's Final Exit, filmed March 19–20, 1997, just days prior to the suicides.
They believed "to be eligible for membership in the Next Level, humans would have to shed every attachment to the planet". This meant all members had to give up all human-like characteristics, such as their family, friends, sexuality, individuality, jobs, money, and possessions.
These basic beliefs of the group stayed generally consistent over the years; however, "the details of their ideology were flexible enough to undergo modification over time." There are examples of the group's adding or slightly changing their beliefs over time, such as: modifying the way one can enter the Next Level, changing the way they described themselves, placing more importance on the idea of Satan, and adding several other New Age concepts. One of these concepts was the belief of extraterrestrial walk-ins; when the group began, "Applewhite and Nettles taught their followers that they were extraterrestrial beings. However, after the notion of walk-ins became popular within the New Age subculture, the Two changed their tune and began describing themselves as extraterrestrial walk-ins." The idea of walk-ins is very similar to the concept of being possessed by spirits. A walk-in can be defined as "an entity who occupies a body that has been vacated by its original soul". Heaven's Gate came to believe an extraterrestrial walk-in is "a walk-in that is supposedly from another planet."
The concept of walk-ins aided Applewhite and Nettles in personally starting from clean slates. They were no longer the people they had been prior to the start of the group, but had taken on a new life; this concept gave them a way to "erase their human personal histories as the histories of souls who formerly occupied the bodies of Applewhite and Nettles."
Another New Age belief Applewhite and Nettles adopted was the ancient astronaut hypothesis. The term "ancient astronauts" is used to refer to various forms of the concept that ufonauts visited our planet in the distant past. Applewhite and Nettles took part of this concept and taught it as the belief that "aliens planted the seeds of current humanity millions of years ago, and have to come to reap the harvest of their work in the form of spiritual evolved individuals who will join the ranks of flying saucer crews. Only a select few members of humanity will be chosen to advance to this transhuman state. The rest will be left to wallow in the spiritually poisoned atmosphere of a corrupt world." Only the individuals who chose to join Heaven's Gate, follow Applewhite and Nettle's belief, and make the sacrifices required by membership would be allowed to escape human suffering.
Group members gave up their material possessions and lived a highly ascetic life devoid of many indulgences. The group was tightly knit and everything was shared communally. Eight of the male members of the group, including Applewhite, voluntarily underwent castration in Mexico as an extreme means of maintaining the ascetic lifestyle.
The group earned revenues by offering professional website development for paying clients under the name Higher Source.
The cultural theorist Paul Virilio has described the group as a cybersect, due to its heavy reliance on computer mediated communication as a mode of communication prior to the group's collective suicide.
Mass suicide and aftermath
On March 19–20, 1997, Marshall Applewhite taped himself speaking of mass suicide and asserted "it was the only way to evacuate this Earth". After claiming that a spacecraft was trailing Comet Hale–Bopp, Applewhite convinced 38 followers to commit suicide so that their souls could board the supposed craft. Applewhite believed that after their deaths, an unidentified flying object (UFO) would take their souls to another "level of existence above human", which he described as being both physical and spiritual. This and other UFO-related beliefs held by the group have led some observers to characterize the group as a type of UFO religion. In October 1996, the group purchased alien abduction insurance to cover up to 50 members at a cost of $10,000.
The group rented a 9,200-square-foot (850 m2) mansion, located at 18241 Colina Norte (later changed to Paseo Victoria) in a gated community of upscale homes in the San Diego–area community of Rancho Santa Fe, from Sam Koutchesfahani, paying $7,000 per month in cash. Thirty-eight Heaven's Gate members, plus group leader Applewhite, were found dead in the home on March 26, 1997. In the heat of the California spring, many of the bodies had begun to decompose by the time they were discovered. The bodies were later cremated.
The members took phenobarbital mixed with apple sauce, washed down with vodka. Additionally, they secured plastic bags around their heads after ingesting the mix to induce asphyxiation. Authorities found the dead lying neatly in their own bunk beds, faces and torsos covered by a square, purple cloth. Each member carried a five-dollar bill and three quarters in their pockets—said to be for interplanetary toll. All 39 were dressed in identical black shirts and sweat pants, brand new black-and-white Nike Decades athletic shoes, and armband patches reading "Heaven's Gate Away Team" (one of many instances of the group's use of the Star Trek fictional universe's nomenclature). The adherents, between the ages of 26 and 72, are believed to have died in three groups over three successive days, with remaining participants cleaning up after each prior group's deaths. Fifteen members died on March 24, fifteen more on March 25, and nine on March 26. Leader Applewhite was the third to last member to die; two women remained after him and were the only ones found without bags over their heads. Among the dead was Thomas Nichols, brother of the actress Nichelle Nichols, who is best known for her role as Uhura in the original Star Trek television series.
Only one of the group's members, Rio DiAngelo/Richard Ford, did not kill himself. He videotaped the mansion in Rancho Santa Fe; however, the tape was not shown to police until 2002, five years after the event.
Two former members of Heaven's Gate, Wayne Cooke and Charlie Humphreys, later committed suicide in a similar manner. Humphreys survived a suicide pact with Cooke in May 1997, but ultimately killed himself in February 1998.
Media coverage prior to suicide
Heaven's Gate received coverage in Jacques Vallée's book Messengers of Deception (1979), in which Vallée described an unusual public meeting organized by the group. Vallée frequently expressed concerns within the book about contactee groups' authoritarian political and religious outlooks, and Heaven's Gate did not escape criticism.
Louis Theroux contacted the Heaven's Gate group while making a program for his BBC Two documentary series, Louis Theroux's Weird Weekends, in early March 1997. In response to his e-mail, Theroux was told that Heaven's Gate could not take part in the documentary as "at the present time a project like this would be an interference with what we must focus on."
In popular culture
- The 2012 hip-hop mixtape Duality by Captain Murphy contains audio segments of Marshall Applewhite.
- The 2015 short sci-fi film Help Me Have No Human Ways (produced by Filmiracle Productions and directed by Luciano Imperoli) is based on the Next Level teachings of Ti & Do. The film also features writing collaboration and a musical score by ex-Heaven's Gate member Sawyer.
- In 2015, a residential road in Missoula, Montana was named "Heaven's Gate" in memory of the cult.
- Hexham, Irving; Poewe, Karla (7 May 1997). "UFO Religion – Making Sense of the Heaven's Gate Suicides". Christian Century. pp. 439–440. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- "Mass suicide involved sedatives, vodka and careful planning". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. (March 29, 1997). "Families Learning of 39 Cultists Who Died Willingly". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
According to material the group posted on its Internet site, the timing of the suicides were probably related to the arrival of the Hale–Bopp comet, which members seemed to regard as a cosmic emissary beckoning them to another world.
- Lewis 2003, p. 111; Raine 2005, p. 103.
- Lewis 2003, p. 111.
- Lalich, Bounded Choice 2004, pp. 44 & 48.
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- Zeller 2006, p. 78; Bearak 1997.
- Zeller, Prophets and Protons 2010, p. 123.
- Zeller, "Extraterrestrial Biblical Hermeneutics" 2010, pp. 42–3.
- Lifton 2000, p. 306.
- Zeller, "Extraterrestrial Biblical Hermeneutics" 2010, p. 40.
- Chryssides 2005, p. 355.
- Balch & Taylor 2002, p. 211.
- Chryssides 2005, p. 356; Zeller, "Extraterrestrial Biblical Hermeneutics" 2010, p. 40.
- Urban 2000, p. 276.
- Bearak 1997.
- Chryssides 2005, p. 356.
- Goerman 2011, p. 60; Chryssides 2005, p. 357.
- Ryan J. Cook, Heaven's Gate, webpage retrieved 2008-10-10.
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- "Our Position Against Suicide". Heaven's Gate Web Site. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
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- Balch, Robert (2002). "Making Sense of the Heaven's Gate Suicides". In Bromley, David G.; Melton, J. Gordon. Cults, Religion, and Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 211.
- Lewis 2001, p. 16
- Lewis 2001, p. 368
- Lewis 2001, p. 17
- Ross, Rick (October 1999). "'Heaven's Gate' Suicides". The Rick A. Ross Institute. Archived from the original on 2002-01-14.
- Weise, Elizabeth (1997-03-28). "Internet Provided Way To Pay Bills, Spread Message Before Suicide". Associated Press. Seattle Times. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
- Paul Virilio, The Information Bomb (Verso, 2005), p. 41.
- Edith Lederer, "Alien Abduction Insurance Cancelled!", Associated Press, 2 April 1997, Retrieved March 12, 2008
- "The Marker We've Been... Waiting For", by Elizabeth Gleick, Cathy Booth and James Willwerth (Rancho Santa Fe); Nancy Harbert (Albuquerque); Rachele Kanigal (Oakland) and Richard N. Ostling and Noah Robischon (New York). Time. Monday, April 7, 1997.
- Ramsland, Katherine. "Death Mansion". All about Heaven's Gate cult (CourtTV Crime Library). Retrieved 2006-09-20.
- "Some members of suicide cult castrated". CNN.
- Cornwell, Tim (7 May 1997). "Heaven's Gate member found dead". Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "First autopsies completed in cult suicide". CNN. 28 March 1997. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- "Heaven's Gate: A timeline". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- Purdum, Todd S. (May 7, 1997). "Ex-Cultist Dies In Suicide Pact; 2d Is 'Critical'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
A former member of the Heaven's Gate cult was found dead today in a copycat suicide in a motel room near the scene of the group's mass suicide in San Diego County, and another former member was found unconscious in the same room, the authorities said.
- Vallee, Jacques (1979). Messengers of Deception: UFO Contacts and Cults. Ronin.
- Gardetta, Dave (21 January 1994). "They Walk Among Us". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- Bearman, Joshuah (21 March 2007). "Heaven's Gate: The Sequel". LA Weekly.
- Louis Theroux. Louis Theroux's Weird Weekends: UFO. Veoh.
- "Video: Captain Murphy – Duality (NSFW)". Acclaim. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Help Me Have No Human Ways". Filmiracle Productions. 20 July 2015.
- Balch, Robert W. (1982). Roy Wallis, ed. "Bo and Peep: A Case Study of the Origins of Messianic Leadership". Millennialism and charisma (Belfast: Queen's University).
- Balch, Robert W. (1985). Rodney Stark, ed. "When the Light Goes Out, Darkness Comes: A Study of Defection from a Totalistic Cult". Religious Movements: Genesis, Exodus and Numbers (Paragon House Publishers). pp. 11–63.
- Balch, Robert W. (1995). James R. Lewis, ed. "Waiting for the ships: disillusionment and revitalization of faith in Bo and Peep's UFO cult". The Gods have Landed: New Religions from Other Worlds (Albany: SUNY).
- DiAngelo, Rio (2007). Beyond Human Mind: The Soul Evolution of Heaven's Gate. Rio DiAngelo Press.
- Lalich, Janja (2004). Bounded Choice: True Believers and Charismatic Cults. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23194-5.
- Lewis, James R., ed. (2001). Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-842-9.
- Theroux, Louis (2005). The Call of the Weird. Pan Macmillan. pp. 207–221.
- Lewis, James R. (2003). "Legitimating Suicide: Heaven's Gate and New Age Ideology". In Christopher Partridge. UFO Religions. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-26324-5.
- Raine, Susan (2005). "Reconceptualising the Human Body: Heaven's Gate and the Quest for Divine Transformation". Religion (Elsevier) 35 (2): 98–117. doi:10.1016/j.religion.2005.06.003.
- Zeller, Benjamin E. (2010). Prophets and Protons: New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9720-4.
- Zeller, Benjamin E. (2010). "Extraterrestrial Biblical Hermeneutics and the Making of Heaven's Gate". Nova Religio (University of California Press) 14 (2): 34–60. doi:10.1525/nr.2010.14.2.34.
- Lifton, Robert Jay (2000). Destroying the World to Save it: Aum Shinrikyō, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8050-6511-4.
- Chryssides, George D. (2005). "'Come On Up and I Will Show Thee': Heaven's Gate as a Postmodern Group". In James R. Lewis and Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515682-9.
- Balch, Robert; Taylor, David (2002). "Making Sense of the Heaven's Gate Suicides". In David G. Bromley and J. Gordon Melton. Cults, Religion, and Violence. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66898-9.
- Urban, Hugh (2000). "The Devil at Heaven's Gate: Rethinking the Study of Religion in the Age of Cyber-Space". Nova Religio (University of California Press) 3 (2): 268–302. doi:10.1525/nr.2000.3.2.268.
- Bearak, Barry (April 28, 1997). "Eyes on Glory: Pied Pipers of Heaven's Gate". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Goerman, Patricia (2011). "Heaven's Gate: The Dawning of a New Religious Movement". In George D. Chryssides. Heaven's Gate: Postmodernity and Popular Culture in a Suicide Group. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-6374-4.
- Chryssides, George D., ed. (2011). Heaven's Gate: Postmodernity and Popular Culture In A Suicide Group. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-6374-4.
- Official website
- "Profiles: Heaven's Gate Timeline".
- Ramsland, Katherine. "All about Heaven's Gate cult". The Crime Library.