Hecatoncheires

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The Hundred-Hander Briareus used as an allegory of the multiple threat of labour unrest to Capital in a political cartoon, 1890

In Greek mythology, the Hecatoncheires (/ˈhɛkəˌtɒŋkər/; Greek: Ἑκατόγχειρες, translit. Hekatoncheires, lit. 'Hundred-Handed Ones'), or Hundred-Handers, also called the Centimanes,[1] (/ˈsɛntɪˌmnz/; Latin: Centimani), named Cottus, Briareus (or Aegaeon) and Gyges (or Gyes), were three monstrous giants, of enormous size and strength, with fifty heads and one hundred arms. In the standard tradition they were the offspring of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth), who helped Zeus and the Olympians overthrow the Titans.

Names[edit]

The three Hundred-Handers were named Cottus, Briareus and Gyges. Cottus (Κόττος) is a common Thracian name, and is perhaps related to the name of the Thracian goddess Kotys.[2] The name Briareus (Βριάρεως) was probably formed from the Greek βριαρός meaning 'strong'.[3] Hesiod's Theogony also calls him "Obriareus".[4] "Gyes", rather than Gyges, is found in some texts.[5]

Homer's Iliad gives Briareus a second name, saying that Briareus is the name the gods call him, while Aegaeon (Αἰγαίων᾽) is the name that men call him.[6] The root αἰγ- is found in words associated with the sea: αἰγιαλός "shore", αἰγες and αἰγάδες "waves".[7] The name suggests a connection with the Aegean Sea.[8] Poseidon was sometimes called Aegaeon or Aegaeus (Αἰγαῖος).[9] Aegaeon could be a patronymic, i.e. "son of Aegaeus",[10] or it could instead mean "the man from Aegae".[11]

The name Hecatoncheires derives from the Greek ἑκατόν (hekaton, "hundred") and χείρ (cheir, "hand” or "arm"). Although theTheogony describes the three brothers as having one hundred hands (ἑκατὸν μὲν χεῖρες),[12] the collective name Hecatoncheires (Ἑκατόγχειρες), i.e. the Hundred-Handers, is never used.[13] The Theogony once refers to the brothers collectively as 'the gods whom Zeus brought up from the dark',[14] otherwise it simply uses their individual names: Cottus, Briareus (or Obriareus) and Gyges.[15]

The Iliad does not use the name Hecatoncheires either, although it does use the adjective hekatoncheiros (ἑκατόγχειρος), i.e. "hundred-handed", to describe Briareus. It is possible that Acusilaus used the name,[16] however, the first certain usage is found in the works of the mythographers such as Apollodorus.[17]

Mythology[edit]

The Hundred-Handers[edit]

The Hundred-Handers, Cottus, Briareus and Gyges, were three monstrous giants, of enormous size and strength, with fifty heads and one hundred arms.[18] They were among the eighteen offspring of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth), which also included the twelve Titans, and the three one-eyed Cyclopes. According to the Theogony of Hesiod, they were the last of these children of Uranus to be born, while according to the mythographer Apollodorus they were the first.[19] In the Hesiodic tradition, they played a key role in the Greek succession myth, which told how the Titan Cronus overthrew his father Uranus, and how in turn Zeus overthrew Cronus and his fellow Titans, and how Zeus was eventually established as the final and permanent ruler of the cosmos.[20]

According to the standard version of the succession myth, given in the accounts of Hesiod and Apollodorus, the Hundred-Handers, along with their brothers the Cyclopes were imprisoned by their father Uranus.[21] Gaia induced Cronus to castrate Uranus, and Cronus took over the supremacy of the cosmos.[22] With his sister the Titaness Rhea, Cronus fathered several offspring, but he swallowed each of them at birth. However, Cronus' last child Zeus was saved by Rhea, and Zeus freed his brothers and sisters, and together they (the Olympians) began a great war, the Titanomachy, against the Titans, for control of the cosmos.[23] Gaia had foretold that, with the help of the Hundred-Handers, the Olympians would be victorious, so Zeus released them from their captivity and the Hundred-Handers fought alongside the Olympians against the Titans and were instrumental in the Titan's defeat. The Titans were then imprisoned in Tartarus with the Hundred-Handers as their guards.[24]

The lost epic poem the Titanomachy (see below), although probably written after Hesiod's Theogony,[25] perhaps preseved an older tradition in which the Hundred-Handers fought on the side of the Titans, rather than the Olympians.[26] According to a euhemeristic rationalized account, given by Palaephatus, Cottus and Brriareos, rather than being hundred-handed giants, were instead men, who were called the Hundred-Handers because they lived in a city called Hecatoncheiria ("Hundredarm"). They came to the aid of the residents of the city of Olympia (i.e. the Olympians) in driving away the Titans from their city.[27]

Briareus/Aegaeon[edit]

Briareus, summoned to Olympus by Thetis to quell a revolt against Zeus by Poseidon, Athena and Hera. Etching by Tommaso Piroli (1795) after a drawing of John Flaxman.

Briareus was the most prominent of the three Hundred-Handers.[28] In Hesiod's Theogony he is singled out as being "good", and is rewarded by Poseidon, who gives Briareus his daughter Cymopolea (otherwise unknown) for his wife.[29]

In Homer's Iliad, Briareus is given a second name, Aegaeon, saying that Briareus is the name the gods call him, while mortals call him Aegaeon. It is told in the Iliad how, during a palace revolt by the Olympians Hera, Poseidon and Athena, who wished to chain Zeus, the sea goddess Thetis brought to Olympus:

him of the hundred hands [ἑκατόγχειρον], whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of [Zeus], exulting in his glory, and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus.[30]

The name Aegaeon for the Hundred-Hander, does not seem to be a Homeric invention.[31] According to the scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes, the legendary seventh-century BC poet Cinaethon, apparently knew both names for the Hundred-Hander. The name also appears in the lost epic poem the Titanomachy.

Titan ally[edit]

While in Hesiod and Homer, the powerful Hundred-Hander Briareus was a faithful and rewarded ally of Zeus, the Titanomachy seems to have reflected a different tradition.[32] Apparently, according to the Titanomachy, Aegaeon was the son of Gaia and Pontus (Sea), rather than Gaia and Uranus, and fought on the side of the Titans, rather than the Olympians.[33] The scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes, tells us that according to Cinaethon, Aegeaon was defeated by Poseidon.[34] Apollonius of Rhodes mentions the "great tomb of Aegaeon", seen by the Argonauts when "they were passing within sight of the mouth of the Rhyndacus ... a short distance beyond Phrygia".[35] The scholiast on Apollonius, says that the tomb marked the spot where Agaeon's defeat occurred.[36]

As in the lost Titanomachy, for the Latin poets Virgil and Ovid, Briareus was also an enemy of the gods, rather than an ally. In his Aeneid, Virgil has Aegaeon make war against the gods, "with fifty sounding shields and fifty swords".[37] Ovid, in his poem Fasti, has Briareus on the side of the Titans. As Ovid tells us, after the Titans had been overthrown, apparently in order to restore the Titans to power, Briareus sacrificed a bull, about which it had been prophesied that whoever burned its entrails would be able to conquer the gods. However just when Briareus was about to burn the entrails, birds snatched them away, and were rewarded with a home among the stars.[38]

Association with the sea[edit]

In the lost epic Titanomachy, Aegaeon was the son of Pontus (Sea), and lived in the sea. Briareus/Aegaeon's association with the sea can perhaps already be seen in Hesiod and Homer. In the Theogony, Briareus ends up living, apart from his brothers, with Cymopolea the (sea-nymph?)[39] daughter of Poseidon the god of the sea, where it might be supposed the couple dwells, while in the Iliad one might also suppose that Briareus dwells in the sea, since it was the sea goddess Thetis that fetched him to Olympus.[40] Apparently, this was made explicit by the fifth-century BC poet Ion of Chios, who referring to the Homeric story of the Olympians' revolt against Zeus, said that Aegaeon was the son of Thalassa (Sea) and that Thetis "summoned him from the Ocean".[41] A connection to the sea can also be seen in the name Aegaeon (Αἰγαίων᾽) itself. The root αἰγ- is found in words associated with the sea: αἰγιαλός 'shore', αἰγες and αἰγάδες 'waves'.[42] while Poseidon himself was sometimes called Aegaeon.[43]

Later writers also make Briareus/Aegaeon's association with the sea explicit. According to Aelian, Aristotle said that the Pillars of Heracles (i.e. the Strait of Gibraltar) had been previously named the Pillars of Briareus.[44] Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, describes Aegaeon as a "dark-hued" sea god "whose strong arms can overpower huge whales",[45] while according to Arrian apparently, the Aegean Sea was said to have been named after Aegaeon.[46] As reported by Pliny, according to the Euboean Archemachus, the first man to sail in a "long ship” was Aegaeon.[47]

Euboea[edit]

Briareus/Aegaeon had a particular connection with the Greek island of Euboea.[48] According to the third-century Latin grammarian Solinus, Briareus was worshipped at Carystus, and Aegaeon at Chalcis.[49] Aegaeon was said to be the name of a ruler of Carystus, which had also been named Aigaie (Αίγαίη) after him, while Briareus was said to be the father of Euboea, after whom the island took its name.[50] Aegeaon was perhaps associated with the place name Aegae mentioned by Homer (Il. 13.21, Od. 5.381) as Poseidon's home, and located by Strabo (8.7.4, 9.2.13) in Euboea north of Chalcis, as a place where Poseidon had a temple.[51]

Poseidon[edit]

Briareus/Aegaeon seems also closely connected with Poseidon.[52] The name Aegaeon has associations with Poseidon. As noted above, Homer locates Posidon's palace in Aegae.[53] Poseidon was sometimes himself called Aegaeon, or Aegaeus (Αἰγαῖος),[54] and Aegaeon could mean 'son of Aegaeus'.[55]

Homer says that Briareus/Aegaeon "is mightier than his father", but who Homer is referring to as the father is unclear.[56] It has been sometimes supposed that, contrary to Hesiod, who makes Uranus the father of Briareus, Cottus and Gyges, the father being referred to here is Poseidon,[57] although this interpretation of Homer is uncertain at best.[58]

In the Theogony Briareus becomes the son-in-law of Poseidon, while Poseidon, whether regarded as the father of Brieareus/Aegaeon, or not, is a central figure in the story told about the Hundred-Hander in the ‘’Iliad’’. Both are sea-gods with a special connection to Euboea.[59] As noted above Poseidon was sometimes called Aegaeon, and it is possible that Aegaeon was an older cult-title for Poseidon, however according to Lewis Richard Farnell, it is more likely that Poseidon inherited the title of an "older Euboean sea-giant".[60]

As mentioned above, the scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes, tells us that according to Cinaethon, Aegeaon was defeated by Poseidon.[61] Possibly then, Briareus/Aegaeon was an older (pre-Greek?) sea-god eventually displaced by Poseidon.[62]

According to a Corinthian legend, Briareus was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios (Sun) over some land, deciding that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth (Acrocorinth) to Helios.[63]

Buried under Etna, inventor of armour[edit]

The third-century BC poet Callimachus, apparently confusing Briareus as one of the Giants, says he was buried under Mount Etna in Sicily, making his shift from one shoulder to the other, the cause of earthquakes.[64] Like Callimachus, Philostratus also makes Aegaeon the cause of earthquakes.[65] According to an Oxyrhynchus papyrus, “the first to use metal armour was Briareos, whilst previously men protected their bodies with animal skins.”[66] These stories are perhaps connected to a myth which may have made Briareus, like the Olympian god Hephaestus, a subterranian smith, who used the fires of Mount Etna as a forge for metalworking.[67]

Possible origins[edit]

Briareus and Aegean, were perhaps originally, separate entities.[68] Briareus/Aegaeon may have once been a many-armed sea monster, personifying the uncontrolled power of the sea itself.[69] As noted above, Briareus/Aegaeon may have been an older god of the sea, replaced by Poseidon. He was perhaps a Greek reflection of Near-Eastern traditions in which the Sea challenged the storm-god, such as in the Ugaritic tradition of the battle between Yammu (Sea) and the storm-god Baal.[70]

Principal sources[edit]

The Theogony[edit]

According to the Theogony of Hesiod, Uranus (Sky) mated with Gaia (Earth) and produced eighteen children.[71] First came the twelve Titans, next the three one-eyed Cyclopes, and finally the three monstrous brothers Cottus, Briareus and Gyges. As the Theogony describes it:

Then from Earth and Sky came forth three more sons, great and strong, unspeakable, Cottus and Briareus and Gyges, presumptuous children. A hundred arms sprang forth from their shoulders, unapproachable, and upon their massive limbs grew fifty heads out of each one’s shoulders; and the mighty strength in their great forms was immense.[72]

Uranus hated his children,[73] including the Hundred-Handers, and as soon as each was born, he imprisoned them underground, somewhere deep inside Gaia.[74] According to Hesiod, Uranus bound the Hundred-Handers

... with a mighty bond, for he was indignant at their defiant manhood and their form and size; and he settled them under the broad-pathed earth. Dwelling there, under the earth, in pain, they sat at the edge, at the limits of the great earth, suffering greatly for a long time, with much grief in their hearts.[75]

Eventually Uranus' son, the Titan Cronus, castrated Uranus, freeing his fellow Titans (but not, apparently, the Hundred-Handers), and Cronus became the new ruler of the cosmos.[76] Cronus married his sister Rhea, and together they produced five children, whom Cronus swallowed as each was born, but the sixth child, Zeus, was saved by Rhea and hidden away to be raised by his grandmother Gaia. When Zeus grew up, he caused Cronus to disgorge his children, and a great war was begun, the Titanomachy, between Zeus and his siblings, and Cronus and the Titans, for control of the cosmos.[77]

Gaia had foretold that Zeus would be victorious with the help of the Hundred-Handers, so Zeus released the Hundred-Handers from their bondage under the earth, and brought them up again into the light.[78] Zeus restored their strength by feeding them nectar and ambrosia, and then asked the Hundred-Handers to "manifest your great strength and your untouchable hands" and join in the war against the Titans.[79]

And Cottus, speaking for the Hundred-Handers, agreed saying:

... It is by your prudent plans that we have once again come back out from under the murky gloom, from implacable bonds—something, Lord, Cronus’ son, that we no longer hoped to experience. For that reason, with ardent thought and eager spirit we in turn shall now rescue your supremacy in the dread battle-strife, fighting against the Titans in mighty combats.[80]

And so the Hundred-Handers "took up their positions against the Titans ... holding enormous boulders in their massive hands",[81] and a final great battle was fought.[82] Striding forth from Olympus, Zeus unleashed the full fury of his thunderbolt, stunning and blinding the Titans,[83] while the Hundred-handers pelted them with enormous boulders:

... among the foremost Cottus and Briareus and Gyges, insatiable of war, roused up bitter battle; and they hurled three hundred boulders from their massive hands one after another and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles. They sent them down under the broad-pathed earth and bound them in distressful bonds after they had gained victory over them with their hands, high-spirited though they were, as far down beneath the earth as the sky is above the earth.[84]

Thus the Titans were finally defeated and cast into Tartarus, where they were imprisoned.[85]

As to the fate of the Hundred-Handers, the Theogony first tells us that they returned to Tartarus, to live nearby the "bronze gates" of the Titans' prison, where presumably, they took up the job of the Titans' warders.[86] However, later in the poem, we are told that Cottus and Gyges "live in mansions upon the foundations of Ocean", while Briareus, "since he was good" became the son-in-law of Poseidon, who gave him "Cymopoliea his daughter to wed".[87]

The Iliad[edit]

In a story that survives nowhere else, the Iliad briefly mentions Briareus (where it is said he was also called Aegaeon), referring to his having been summoned to Zeus's defense when "the other Olympians wished to put [Zeus] in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene."[88] Achilles, while asking his mother the sea goddess Thetis to intercede with Zeus on his behalf, reminds her of a frequent boast of hers, that, at a time when the other Olympians wished to bind Zeus, she saved him by fetching the hundred-handed Briareus to Olympus:

But you came, goddess, and freed [Zeus] from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory, and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus.[89]

Who Homer means here as the father of Briareus/Aegaeon is unclear.[90]

The Titanomachy[edit]

The lost epic poem the Titanomachy, based on its title, must have told the story of the war between the Olympians and the Titans.[91] Although probably written after Hesiod's Theogony,[92] it perhaps reflected an older version of the story.[93] Only references to it by ancient sources survive, often attributing the poem to Eumelus a semi-legendary poet from Corinth. One mentions Aegaeon, the name identified with the Hundred-Hander Briareus in the Iliad. According to a scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica:

Eumelus in the Titanomachy says that Aigaion was the son of Earth and Sea, lived in the sea, and fought on the side of the Titans.[94]

Thus the Titanomachy apparently followed a different tradition than the more familiar account in the Theogony. Here Briareus/Aegaeon was the son of Earth (Gaia) and Sea Pontus) rather than Earth and Sky (Uranus), and he fought against the Olympians, rather than for them.[95]

Ion of Chios[edit]

According to the same scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned above, the fifth-century BC poet Ion of Chios said that Aegaeon (who Thetis summoned in the Iliad to aid Zeus),[96] lived in the sea and was the son of Thalassa.[97]

Virgil[edit]

The first-century BC Latin poet Virgil, in his Aeneid, may have drawn on the same version of the story as that given in the lost Titanomachy. Virgil locates Briareus, as in Hesiod, in the underworld, where the Hundred-Hander dwells among "strange prodigies of bestial kind", which include the Centaurs, Scylla, the Lernaean Hydra, the Chimaera, the Gorgons, the Harpies, and Geryon.[98]

Later Virgil describes the "hundred-handed" Aegaeon (the Iliad's Briareus):

Like old Aegaeon of the hundred arms,
the hundred-handed, from whose mouths and breasts
blazed fifty fiery blasts, as he made war
with fifty sounding shields and fifty swords
against Jove's thunder.[99]

Here Virgil has the Hundred-Hander as having fought on the side of the Titans rather than the Olympians, as in the Titanomachy,[100] with the additional descriptive details of the fifty fire-breathing mouths and breasts, and the fifty sets of sword and shield, perhaps also coming from that lost poem.[101]

Ovid[edit]

The late first-century BC Latin poet Ovid, makes several references to the Hundred-Handers Briareus and Gyges in his poems. Briareus figures in a story that Ovid tells in his Fasti about how "The star of the Kite" (presumably a star or constellation named after the bird) came to reside in the heavens.[102] According to Ovid, there was a monstrous offspring of "mother Earth", part bull, part serpent, about which it had been prophesied that whoever burned its entrails would be able to conquer the gods. Warned by the three Fates, Styx penned up the bull in "gloomy woods" surrounded by three walls. After the Titans were overthrown, Briareus (whom Ovid appears to regard as a Titan, or Titan ally)[103] "sacrificed" the bull with an adamantine axe. But when he was about to burn the entrails, the birds, as commanded by Jupiter (Zeus), snatched them away, and were rewarded with a home among the stars. In his Metamorphoses, Ovid describes Aegaeon (the Iliad's Briareus) as a "dark-hued" sea god "whose strong arms can overpower huge whales".[104] In both of these poems, Ovid appears to be following the same tradition as in the lost Titanomachy, where Aegaeon was the sea god son of Pontus and a Titan ally.[105]

Ovid mentions "Gyas of the hundred hands" in his Amores, when "Earth made her ill attempt at vengeance, and steep Ossa, with shelving Pelion on its back, was piled upon Olympus."[106] In his Fasti, Ovid has Ceres (Demeter), complaing about the abduction of her daughter, say: "What worse wrong could I have suffered if Gyges had been victorious and I his captive."[107] In both of these poems Ovid has apparently confused the hundred-handers with the Giants (a different set of monstrous offspring of Gaia) who tried to storm Olympus in the Gigantomachy.[108] Ovid perhaps also confused the Hundred-Handers with the Giants in his Metamorphoses, where he refers to the Giants having tried to "fix their hundred arms on captive Heaven".[109] Ovid also refers to "a hundred-handed Gyes" in his Tristia.[110]

Apollodorus[edit]

The mythographer Apollodorus, gives an account of the Hundred-Handers similar to that of Hesiod's, but with several significant differences.[111] According to Apollodorus, they were the first offspring of Uranus and Gaia, (unlike Hesiod who makes the Titans the eldest) followed by the Cyclopes, and the Titans.[112]

Apollodorus describes the Hundred-Handers as "unsurpassed in size and might, each of them having a hundred hands and fifty heads."[113]

Uranus bound the Hundred-Handers and the Cyclopes, and cast them all into Tartarus, "a gloomy place in Hades as far distant from earth as earth is distant from the sky." But the Titans are, apparently, allowed to remain free (unlike in Hesiod).[114] When the Titans overthrew Uranus, they freed the Hundred-Handers and Cyclopes (unlike in Hesiod where they remain imprisoned), and made Cronus their sovereign.[115] But Cronus once again bound the six brothers, and reimprisoned them in Tartarus.[116]

As in Hesiod's account, Cronus swallowed his children; but Zeus, who was saved by Rhea, freed his siblings, and together they waged war against the Titans.[117] According to Apollodorus, in the tenth year of the war, Zeus learned from Gaia, that to win he needed both the Hundred-Handers and the Cyclopes, so Zeus slew their warder Campe and released them:

They fought for ten years, and Earth prophesied victory to Zeus if he should have as allies those who had been hurled down to Tartarus. So he slew their jailoress Campe, and loosed their bonds. And ... the gods overcame the Titans, shut them up in Tartarus, and appointed the Hundred-handers their guards.[118]

Others[edit]

The fifth-century BC philosopher Plato, in his dialogue Laws, mentions, in passing, "Briareus, with his hundred hands".[119]

The first-century AD Latin poet Horace, twice mentions "centimanus" ('hundred-handed') Gyges. In one poem Gyges and the "fiery Chimaera" are given as examples of fearsome creatures.[120] In another poem, Gyges is used as an example of "power" hated by the gods "that devises every kind of evil in its heart."[121]

According to the second-century AD geographer Pausanias, a Corinthian legend said that Briareus was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios (Sun) over some land. Briareus adjudged that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth (Acrocorinth) to Helios.[122]

Servius, the late fourth-century, early fifth-century AD commentator on Virgil, also seems to know of two versions of the Titanomachy, one in which the Hundred-Handers fought on the side of the Olympians, as in Hesiod, and the other in which they fought on the side of the Titans, as in the lost Titanomachy.[123]

The fith-century AD Greek poet Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, mentions Briareus with his "ready hands" and Aegaeon as the "protector of [Zeus'] laws."[124]

In literature[edit]

  • Briareus is mentioned twice in Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy (completed 1320); he is first found as a giant inhabiting the ninth circle of Hell[125] and then again as an example of pride, carved into the pavement of the first terrace of Purgatory.[126]
  • In Rabelais' five-part novel Gargantua and Pantagruel (finished 1564) it is mentioned that a waiter needs as many hands as "Briareus".[127]
  • Briareus is also mentioned in Cervantes' Don Quixote (1615), in the famous episode of the windmills.
  • Briareus is mentioned in Book I of John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667) alongside Typhon as an analog to the fallen Satan.
  • Briareus is mentioned in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749), by Henry Fielding, in a conversation between Tom Jones and Mr. Partridge (Book 8, Chapter IX).
  • Cottus, is mentioned in John Keats' fragment Hyperion (1819) as a brooding deity in the aftermath of the Titanomachy.
  • In Canto VI of his satiric poem Don Juan (completed in 1824), Byron makes a slightly crude joke, musing whether "enviable Briareus […] with thy hands and heads […] hadn't all things multiplied in proportion" (this thought arising from Byron's assertion of his love of all womankind in the previous canto).
  • Briareus, styled as Briares, is a supporting character in the Percy Jackson & the Olympians novel The Battle of the Labyrinth (2008).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ George Grote, History of Greece, Volume 12, Harper, 1875, p. 519.
  2. ^ West 1966, pp. 209–210 on line 149 Κόττος, which says that Cottus was the name of "various Thracian princes"; Bremmer, p. 76; Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 147–153. Kerényi, p. 19, translates Cottus as "the striker".
  3. ^ West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως; Kirk, p. 94; LSJ, s.v. βριαρός. Kerényi, p. 19, translates Briareus as "the strong".
  4. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 617, 734. According to West 1966, p. 210, the "o'- being an old prepositional prefix".
  5. ^ According to West 1966, on line 149 "Γύγης", p. 210, although some manuscripts of the Theogony contain Gyes (Γύης), Gyges is the "correct form" of the name, "and should be preferred" as well in Apollodorus, 1.1.1, and Ovid, Tristia 4.7.18. Compare with Ovid, Fasti 4.593, which has "Gyges". West notes that the form Gyes perhaps came "from association" with "γυῖον" (limb, hand: LSJ, s.v. γυῖον) and "ἀμφιγύεις" (strong in both arms: Autenrieth, s.v. ἀμφι-γυήεις); see also Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Ancient Greek, s.v. γύης.
  6. ^ Willcock, p. 12; Homer, Iliad 1.403–404.
  7. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 69, which also mentions the possibly sea-connected αἰγίς (see LSJ, s.v. αἰγίς); Fowler 1988, p. 100.
  8. ^ Willcock, p. 12. According to Arrian apparently, the Aegean Sea was said to have been named after an Aegaeon, see Sprawski, p. 107; Fowler 2013, p. 68; Arrian, Bithyn. fr. Roos = FGrHist 156 F 92.
  9. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 68–69; Fowler 1988, p. 101; Kirk, p. 95; Leaf, p. 32 1.403. For "Aegaeon" see Callimachus fr. 59.6 Trypanis, pp. 44, 45 = fr. 59.6 Pfeiffer = Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, SH 265.6; Lycophron, Alexandra 135; for Aegaeus, see Aristas (TrGF 9 F 1); Strabo, 9.2.13; Virgil, Aeneid 3.74.
  10. ^ See Lattimore's translation, of Iliad 1.404, p. 70, which considers "Aegaeon" to be a patronymic by formation, translating it as "Aigaios' son", with glossary entry, p. 498: "Aigai'os: God of the sea, father of Briareos"; Willcock, p. 12; Fowler 1988, p. 99 n. 11. At Hesiod, Theogony 817–819, Briareus is the son-in-law of Poseidon, and Iliad scholia describe him as a son of Poseidon, see West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως.
  11. ^ Fowler 1988, p. 101.
  12. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 150.
  13. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; Fowler 2013, p. 26; Hard, p. 66.
  14. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; .
  15. ^ Cottus, Briareus, Gyges at Theogony 149, 714, 816; Cottus, Obriareus, and Gyges at Theogony 617–618, 734; Cottus at Theogony 654.
  16. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; Fowler 2013, p. 26; Acusilaus fr. 8 Fowler pp. 8–9 = FGrHist 2 8.
  17. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1. See also Palaephatus 19 (Stern, p. 50).
  18. ^ Hard, pp. 65–66; Hansen, pp. 159, 231; Gantz, p. 10; Brill's New Pauly, s.v. Hekatoncheires; Tripp, s.v. Hundred-handed pp. 307–308; Grimal, s.v. Hecatoncheires p. 182.
  19. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 126–153; Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3.
  20. ^ Hard, pp. 65–69; Hansen, pp. 66–67, 293–294; West 1966, pp. 18–19; Dowden, pp. 35–36.
  21. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 154–158, says that Uranus "put them all away out of sight in a hiding place in Earth and did not let them come up into the light", while according to Apollodorus, 1.1.2, Uranus "bound and cast [them] into Tartarus", the two places perhaps being the same (see West 1966, p. 338 on line 618, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160).
  22. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 159–182; Apollodorus, 1.1.4.
  23. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453–500; Apollodorus, 1.1.5–1.2.1.
  24. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 624–735; Apollodorus, 1.2.1. As for the Hundred-Handers as the Titans' warders, this is explicitly stated at Apollodorus, 1.2.1. This is also the usual interpretation of Theogony 734–735 (e.g. Hard, p. 68; Hansen, pp. 25, 159, adding the caveat "presumably"; Gantz, p. 45). However according to West 1966, p. 363 on lines 734–5: "It is usually assumed that the Hundred-Handers are acting as prison guards (so Tz. Th. 277 τοὺς Ἑκατόγχειρας αὺτοῖς φύλακας ἐπιστήσας). The poet does not say this—πιστοὶ φύλακες Διὸς probably refers to their help in battle, cf. 815 κλειτοὶ ἐπίκουροι". Compare with Theogony 817–819.
  25. ^ West 2002, p. 109 dates the Titanomachy as "late seventh century [BC] at the earliest".
  26. ^ Bremmer, p. 76; West 2002, pp. 110–111; Tsagalis, p. 53.
  27. ^ Hawes, p. 60; Grimal, s.v. Hecatoncheires p. 182; Palaephatus, 19, see Stern, p. 50.
  28. ^ West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως; Grimal, s.v. Aegaeon p. 16.
  29. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 817–819; West 1966, p. 379 on line 819 Κυμοπόλειαν.
  30. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.404–406.
  31. ^ Fowler 1988, p. 98 with n. 5; Sprawski, p. 107; Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c.
  32. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 69; Bremmer, p. 76; West 2002, p. 111.
  33. ^ Eumelus fr. 3 West [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]. See also Tsagalis, pp. 19–20.
  34. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 69; Cinaethon, Herakleia (fr. dub. 7 Bernabé = Heraclea fr. A Davies p. 142) = schol. Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c.
  35. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1164–1166.
  36. ^ Hasluck, p. 54.
  37. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 10.565–568. Compare with Antimachus fr. 14 Matthews (= 14 Wyss) p. 108, which perhaps here Virgil followed, see Matthews, p. 109.
  38. ^ Heyworth, p. 248 on 8.805-8; Frazer, p. 143 on 3.805; Ovid, Fasti 3.793–808. Compare with Ovid, Fasti 4.593, Amores 2.1.11–18, where the Hundred-Hander Gyges is also mentioned as having fought against the gods.
  39. ^ As her name suggests, see Kirk, p. 95.
  40. ^ So West 2002, p. 111, which says that in the Theogony, "It is implied that [Briareus] lives somewhere else, presumably in the sea", and in the Iliad, "It must have been from the sea" that the sea goddess Thetis fetched Briareus. See also West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως; Tsagalis, p. 54; Fowler 1988, p. 97.
  41. ^ Ion of Chios fr. 741 Campbell [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c].
  42. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 69, which also mentions the possibly sea-connected αἰγίς (see LSJ, s.v. αἰγίς); Fowler 1988, p. 100.
  43. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 68–69; Kirk, p. 95; Leaf, p. 32 1.403.
  44. ^ Sprawski, p. 107; Bos, p. 73; Boffa and Leone, p. 386; Aelian, Varia Historia (Historical Miscellany) 5.3 [= Aristotle fr. 678 Rose]. Compare Euphorion fr. 169 Lightfoot; Parthenius fr. 34 Lightfoot.
  45. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.8–10.
  46. ^ Sprawski, p. 107; Fowler 2013, p. 68; Fowler 1988, p. 100 n. 15; Arrian, Bithyn. fr. Roos = FGrHist 156 F 92. For the various ancient explanations for the name of the Aegean Sea, see Fowler 2013, pp. 68–70. For other marine connections see West 2002, p. 111 n. 10.
  47. ^ Sprawski, p. 106; Boffa and Leone, p. 385; Pliny, Natural History 7.207 = Archemachus FGrHist 424 F 5 (see Sprawski, p. 118).
  48. ^ Bakhuizen, p. 126: "In an early epoch the whole of Euboea ... was the world of Aigaion." For a detailed discussion of the Euboean connection see Boffa and Leone.
  49. ^ Boffa and Leone, p. 385–386; West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως; Fowler 1988, p. 101 n. 20; Solinus 11.16 (quoted in Latin by Farnell, p. 26 note c).
  50. ^ Bremmer, p. 76; Sprawski, p. 107; Fowler 1988, p. 100; West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως. See Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165 (Wellauer, p. 61); Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Κάρυστος; Eustathius, 281.3; Hesychius s.v. Τιτανίδα.
  51. ^ Fowler 1988, pp. 100, 101 with n. 20; Boffa and Leone, p. 383; Strabo, 8.7.4, 9.2.13; Homer, Iliad 13.20–22, Odyssey 5.380–381. Bakhuizen, pp.126–127, argues that Euboean Aegae, rather than being the name of a town, was the name of a mountain.
  52. ^ Fowler 1988, pp. 101–102; Boffa and Leone, p. 385.
  53. ^ Fowler 1988, pp. 100, 101 with n. 20; Homer, Iliad 13.20–22, Odyssey 5.380–381.
  54. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 68–69; Fowler 1988, p. 101; Kirk, p. 95; Leaf, p. 32 1.403. For "Aegaeon" see Callimachus fr. 59.6 Trypanis, pp. 44, 45 = fr. 59.6 Pfeiffer = Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, SH 265.6; Lycophron, Alexandra 135; for Aegaeus, see Aristas (TrGF 9 F 1); Strabo, 9.2.13; Virgil, Aeneid 3.74.
  55. ^ See Lattimore's translation, of Iliad 1.404, p. 70, which considers "Aegaeon" to be a patronymic by formation, translating it as "Aigaios' son", with glossary entry, p. 498: "Aigai'os: God of the sea, father of Briareos"; Willcock, p. 12; Fowler 1988, p. 99 n. 11.
  56. ^ See Boffa and Leone, p. 385; Fowler 1988; Kirk, p. 95.
  57. ^ So for example, Leaf, p. 32 1.403.
  58. ^ Fowler 1988, argues extensively against Homer meaning Poseidon as the father. See also Boffa and Leone, p. 385, which says "there is no solid evidence to support this idea [of Poseidon as the father]", and Kirk, p. 95, which calls this interpretation "rather uncertain". While Iliad scholia say that Briareus was a son of Poseidon (see: Fowler 1988, p. 96 n. 1; West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως) Fowler 1988 discounts these scholia as based solely on an uncertain inference.
  59. ^ For both of their connections to Euboea, see Boffa and Leone.
  60. ^ Farnell, p. 26 note c.
  61. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 69; Cinaethon, Herakleia (fr. dub. 7 Bernabé = Heraclea fr. A Davies p. 142) = schol. Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c.
  62. ^ According to Fowler 2013, p. 69,"the guess is easy that [Aegaeon] was a pre-Greek sea-god, perhaps the pre-Greek sea-god, ousted by Poseidon upon arrival." See also Fowler 1988, pp. 101–102.
  63. ^ Fowler 1988, p. 98 n. 5; Pausanias, 2.1.6, 2.4.6.
  64. ^ Tripp, s.v. Hundred-handed or Hecatoncheires, pp. 307–308; Callimachus, Hymn 4 (to Delos) 141–146; Mineur. p. 153 on line 142 f.
  65. ^ Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.6.
  66. ^ Boffa and Leone, p. 385, citing P.Oxy. X 1241 col. IV.
  67. ^ Boffa and Leone, p. 385.
  68. ^ See West 2002, p. 111 n. 9, which says that Briareus and Aegean are “presumably separate in origin". Boffa and Leone, p. 385, further suggest that they were “a fusion of two entities: ‘the strong one’, Briareos, referring to the strength due to his 100 arms, and the sea-god, Aigaion, perhaps belonging to pre-Greek tradition.”
  69. ^ West 2002, p. 111 says: "it seems likely that this many-armed figure was a marine monster in origin, a demonized giant polyp, an embodiment of the sea itself in its unruly strength".
  70. ^ West 2002, p. 111; Dowden, p. 36; Bachvarova, p. 257; Tsagalis, p. 54.
  71. ^ Hard, pp. 65–66; Gantz, p. 10; Hesiod, Theogony 126–153. Compare with Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3
  72. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 147–153; compare with 671–673.
  73. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 154–155. Exactly which of these eighteen children Hesiod meant that Uranus hated is not entirely clear, all eighteen, or perhaps just the Cyclopes and the Hundred-Handers. Hard, p. 67, West 1988, p. 7, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160, make it all eighteen, while Gantz, p. 10, says "likely all eighteen", and Most, p. 15 n. 8, says "apparently only the ... Cyclopes and Hundred-Handers are meant" and not the twelve Titans. See also West 1966, p. 206 on lines 139–53, p. 213 line 154 γὰρ. Why Uranus hated his children is also not clear. Gantz, p. 10 says: "The reason for [Uranus'] hatred may be [his children's] horrible appearance, though Hesiod does not quite say this"; while Hard, p. 67 says: "Although Hesiod is vague about the cause of his hatred, it would seem that he took a dislike to them because they were terrible to behold". However, West 1966, p. 213 on line 155, says that Uranus hated his children because of their "fearsome nature". According to Acusilaus fr. 8 Fowler pp. 8–9 [= FGrHist 2 8], Uranus imprisoned the Hundred-Handers because he was afraid that they would rise up against him, see Fowler 2013, p. 26.
  74. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 156–158. The hiding place inside Gaia is presumably her womb, see West 1966, p. 214 on line 158; Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160; Gantz, p. 10. This place seems also to be the same place as Tartarus, see West 1966, p. 338 on line 618, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160.
  75. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 617–623.
  76. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 173–182. Although the castration of Uranus results in the release of the Titans, it did not, apparently, also result in the release of the Hundred-Handers or Cyclopes, see Fowler 2013, p. 26; Hard, p. 67; West 1966, p. 206 on lines on lines 139–53.
  77. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453–500.
  78. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 624–629. When exactly the Hundred-Handers were released from Tartarus and joined the battle is not entirely clear. Theogony 636 says that the Titanomachy raged for "ten full years". And although, for example, Hard, p. 68, Caldwell, p. 65 on line 636, and West 1966, p. 19, understand Hesiod as implying that the Hundred-Handers are released in the tenth year of the war, according to Gantz, p. 45, "Hesiod's account does not quite say whether the Hundred-Handers were freed before the conflict or only in the tenth year. ... Eventually, if not at the beginning, the Hundred-Handers are fighting".
  79. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 639–653.
  80. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 654–663.
  81. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 674–675.
  82. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 676–686.
  83. ^ Gantz, p. 45; Hesiod, Theogony 687–710.
  84. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 711–720.
  85. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 721–733.
  86. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 734–735; Hard, p. 68; Hansen, pp. 25, 159; Gantz, p. 45. According to West 1966, p. 363 on lines 734–5, "It is usually assumed that the Hundred-Handers are acting as prison guards (so Tz. Th. 277 τοὺς Ἑκατόγχειρας αὺτοῖς φύλακας ἐπιστήσας). The poet does not say this—πιστοὶ φύλακες Διὸς probably refers to their help in battle, cf. 815 κλειτοὶ ἐπίκουροι".
  87. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 817–819. Although at 734–735 all three brothers seem to reside just outside the gates of the Titan's prison, the situation appears different here. Cottus and Gyges, although still apparently in the underworld, seem no longer to reside near the Titans, and Briareus seems no longer to be living with them, see West 2002, p. 111; West 1966, p. 358 on lines 720–819, p. 379 on line 816.
  88. ^ Gantz, p. 59; Fowler 1988, pp. 96–97: "very likely Homer's invention"; Willcock, p. 11 on lines 396–406; Homer, Iliad 1.396–400.
  89. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.400–406.
  90. ^ See Boffa and Leone, p. 385; Fowler 1988; Kirk, p. 95. Iliad scholia say that Briareus was a son of Poseidon, see Fowler 1988, p. 96 n. 1; West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως, but according to Fowler: "It is easy to infer that Poseidon is Aigaion's father because he is the only male god among opponents of Zeus here mentioned ... But the inference is uncertain. The ease of inference is I believe responsible for the information about Poseidon in Homeric scholia, ...".
  91. ^ West 2002, p. 110.
  92. ^ West 2002, p. 109 dates the Titanomachy as "late seventh century [BC] at the earliest".
  93. ^ West 2002, p. 111, gives evidence for the Titanomachy preserving an "older version".
  94. ^ Eumelus fr. 3 West [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]. For text and commentary see also Tsagalis, pp. 19–20, pp. 53–56.
  95. ^ Bremmer, p. 76; West 2002, pp. 110–111; Tsagalis, p. 53. For Hundred-Handers fighting against the Olympians, compare with Antimachus fr. 14 Matthews (= 14 Wyss) p. 108; Virgil, Aeneid 10.565–568; Ovid, Fasti 3.793–808, 4.593, Amores 2.1.11–18; Statius, Thebaid 2.595–601; Servius, On Aeneid 6.287, 10.565. As for Aegaeon's association with the sea, West 2002, p. 111, sees a connection already in Hesiod and Homer, since, at Theogony 815–19 "It is implied that he lives somewhere else, presumably in the sea" and "It must have been from the sea" that the sea goddess Thetis fetched Briareus at Iliad 1.400–406; see also West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως. For later marine connections, compare Ion of Chios fr. 741 Campbell [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; Euphorion fr. 169 Lightfoot; Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.8–10; see also West 2002, p. 111 n. 10; Tsagalis, pp. 54–56. According to Arrian apparently, the Aegean Sea was said to have been named after Aegaeon, see Sprawski, p. 107.
  96. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.396–406.
  97. ^ Ion of Chios fr. 741 Campbell [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; Gantz, p. 59.
  98. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 6.282–294.
  99. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 10.565–568.
  100. ^ O'Hara, p. 99; West 2002, pp. 111–112.
  101. ^ West 2002, p. 112.
  102. ^ Ovid, Fasti 3.793–808.
  103. ^ Heyworth, p. 248 on 8.805-8; Frazer, p. 143 on 3.805.
  104. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.8–10.
  105. ^ Eumelus fr. 3 West [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; West 2002, p. 111 with n. 10; Heyworth, p. 248 on 8.805-8. Besides in the Titanomachy, the Hundred-Handers were already fighting against the Olympians in Virgil's Aeneid 6.282–294, and Ovid's Amores 2.1.11–18 (see below).
  106. ^ Ovid, Amores 2.1.11–18.
  107. ^ Ovid, Fasti 4.593.
  108. ^ Artley, p. 20; Frazer's note to Ovid, Fasti 4.593.
  109. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.182–184; Anderson, p. 170, note to line 184 "centum with bracchia".
  110. ^ Ovid, Tristia 4.7.18. According to West 1966, on line 149 "Γύγης", p. 210, "Gyges ... should be preferred" here, as in Fasti 4.593.
  111. ^ Hard, pp. 68–69, which says that Apollodorus' version "perhaps derived from the lost Titanomachia, or from the Orphic literature". See also Gantz, p. 45.
  112. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3.
  113. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1.
  114. ^ Hard, p. 68; Apollodorus, 1.1.2.
  115. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.4.
  116. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.5. The release and reimprisonment of the Hundred-Handers and Cyclopes, was perhaps a way to solve the problem in Hesiod's account of why the castration of Uranus, which released the Titans, did not also apparently release the six brothers, see Fowler 2013, p. 26; West 1966, p. 206 on lines on lines 139–53.
  117. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.5–1.2.1.
  118. ^ Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
  119. ^ Plato, Laws 795.c.
  120. ^ Anderson, p. 170, note to line 184 "centum with bracchia"; Horace, 2.17.13–14.
  121. ^ Horace, 3.4.69.
  122. ^ Pausanias, 2.1.6, 2.4.6.
  123. ^ West 2002, p. 112; Servius, On Aeneid 6.287, 10.565.
  124. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 43. 361–362.
  125. ^ Dante, Inferno XXXI.99.
  126. ^ Dante, Purgatorio XII.28.
  127. ^ Rabelais, Francois (1955). "5". Gargantua and Pantagruel. Great Britain: Penguin Classics. p. 50. ISBN 014044047X.

References[edit]