Hecatoncheires

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Etching by Tommaso Piroli (1795) after a drawing of John Flaxman
The Hecatoncheir Briareus used as an allegory of the multiple threat of labour unrest to Capital in a political cartoon, 1890

The Hecatoncheires[1] (in English, stress on the fourth syllable;[2][3] singular: Hecatoncheir /ˈhɛkəˌtɒŋkər/; Greek: Ἑκατόγχειρες, translit. Hekatoncheires, lit. 'Hundred-Handed Ones'), also called the Centimanes[4] (/ˈsɛntɪˌmnz/; Latin: Centimani) or Hundred-Handers, were figures in the archaic, pre-Olympian era within Greek mythology, three giants of incredible strength and ferocity that surpassed all of the Titans, whom they helped overthrow. Their name derives from the Greek ἑκατόν (hekaton, "hundred") and χείρ (cheir, "hand"), "each of them having a hundred hands and fifty heads".[5]

Mythology[edit]

The Hundred-Handers, named Cottus, Briareus and Gyges (or Gyes), were three monstrous giants, of enormous size and strength, with fifty heads and one hundred arms.[6] They were among the eighteen offspring of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth), which also included the twelve Titans, and the three one-eyed Cyclopes. According to the Theogony of Hesiod, they were the last of these children of Uranus to be born, while according to the mythographer Apollodorus they were the first.[7] They played a role in the Greek succession myth, which told how the Titan Cronus overthrew his father Uranus, and how in turn Zeus overthrew Cronus and his fellow Titans, and how Zeus was eventually established as the final and permanent ruler of the cosmos.[8]

According to the standard version of the succession myth, given in the accounts of Hesiod and Apollodorus, the Hundred-Handers, along with their brothers the Cyclopes were imprisoned by their father Uranus.[9] Gaia induced Cronus to castrate Uranus, and Cronus took over the supremacy of the cosmos.[10] With his sister the Titaness Rhea, Cronus fathered several offspring, but he swallowed each of them at birth. However, Cronus' last child Zeus was saved by Rhea, and Zeus freed his brothers and sisters, and together they (the Olympians) began a great war, the Titanomachy, against the Titans, for control of the cosmos.[11] Gaia had foretold that, with the help of the Hundred-Handers, the Olympians would be victorious, so Zeus released them from their captivity and the Hundred-Handers fought alongside the Olympians against the Titans and were instrumental in the Titan's defeat. The Titans were then imprisoned in Tartarus with the Hundred-Handers as their guards.[12]

The lost epic poem the Titanomachy perhaps reflected a different tradition, than that reflected in Hesiod and Apollodorus, in which the Hundred-Hander Briareus fought on the side of the Titans, rather than the Olympians.[13] According to a euhemeristic rationalized account, given by Palaephatus, Cottus and Brriareos, rather than being hundred-handed giants, were instead men, who were called the Hundred-Handers because they lived in a city called Hecatoncheiria ("Hundredarm"). They came to the aid of the residents of the city of Olympia (i.e. the Olympians) in driving away the Titans from their city.[14]

Names[edit]

The three Hundred-Handers were named Cottus, Briareus and Gyges. Cottus (Κόττος) is a common Thracian name, and is perhaps related to the name of the Thracian goddess Kotys.[15] The name Briareus (Βριάρεως) was probably formed from the Greek βριαρός meaning 'strong'.[16] Hesiod's Theogony also calls him "Obriareus".[17] "Gyes", rather than Gyges, is found in some texts.[18]

Homer's Iliad gives Briareus a second name, saying that Briareus is the name the gods call him, while Aegaeon (Αἰγαίων᾽) is the name that men call him.[19] The root αἰγ- is found in words associated with the sea: αἰγιαλός 'shore', αἰγες and αἰγάδες 'waves'.[20] Poseidon was sometimes called Aegaeon or Aegaeus (Αἰγαῖος).[21] Aegaeon could mean 'son of Aegaeus'.[22] The name suggests a connection with the Aegean Sea.[23] According to Arrian apparently, the Aegean Sea was said to have been named after Aegaeon.[24]

Although theTheogony describes the three brothers as having one hundred hands (ἑκατὸν μὲν χεῖρες),[25] the collective name Hecatoncheires (Ἑκατόγχειρες) i.e. the Hundred-Handers, is never used.[26] The Theogony once refers to the brothers collectively as 'the gods whom Zeus brought up from the dark',[27] otherwise it simply uses their individual names: Cottus, Briareus (or Obriareus) and Gyges.[28]

The Iliad does not use the name Hecatoncheires either, although it does use the adjective hekatoncheiros (ἑκατόγχειρος) i.e. "hundred-handed", to describe Briareus. It is possible that Acusilaus used the name,[29] however, the first certain useage is found in the works of the mythographers such as Apollodorus.[30]

Sources[edit]

The Theogony[edit]

According to the Theogony of Hesiod, Uranus (Sky) mated with Gaia (Earth) and produced eighteen children.[31] First came the twelve Titans, next the three one-eyed Cyclopes, and finally the three monstrous brothers Cottus, Briareus and Gyges. As the Theogony describes it:

Then from Earth and Sky came forth three more sons, great and strong, unspeakable, Cottus and Briareus and Gyges, presumptuous children. A hundred arms sprang forth from their shoulders, unapproachable, and upon their massive limbs grew fifty heads out of each one’s shoulders; and the mighty strength in their great forms was immense.[32]

Uranus hated his children,[33] including the Hundred-Handers, and as soon as each was born, he imprisoned them underground, somewhere deep inside Gaia.[34] According to Hesiod, Uranus bound the Hundred-Handers

... with a mighty bond, for he was indignant at their defiant manhood and their form and size; and he settled them under the broad-pathed earth. Dwelling there, under the earth, in pain, they sat at the edge, at the limits of the great earth, suffering greatly for a long time, with much grief in their hearts.[35]

Eventually Uranus' son, the Titan Cronus, castrated Uranus, freeing his fellow Titans (but not, apparently, the Hundred-Handers), and Cronus became the new ruler of the cosmos.[36] Cronus married his sister Rhea, and together they produced five children, whom Cronus swallowed as each was born, but the sixth child, Zeus, was saved by Rhea and hidden away to be raised by his grandmother Gaia. When Zeus grew up, he caused Cronus to disgorge his children, and a great war was begun, the Titanomachy, between Zeus and his siblings, and Cronus and the Titans, for control of the cosmos.[37]

Gaia had foretold that Zeus would be victorious with the help of the Hundred-Handers, so Zeus released the Hundred-Handers from their bondage under the earth, and brought them up again into the light.[38] Zeus restored their strength by feeding them nectar and ambrosia, and then asked the Hundred-Handers to "manifest your great strength and your untouchable hands" and join in the war against the Titans.[39]

And Cottus, speaking for the Hundred-Handers, agreed saying:

... It is by your prudent plans that we have once again come back out from under the murky gloom, from implacable bonds—something, Lord, Cronus’ son, that we no longer hoped to experience. For that reason, with ardent thought and eager spirit we in turn shall now rescue your supremacy in the dread battle-strife, fighting against the Titans in mighty combats.[40]

And so the Hundred-Handers "took up their positions against the Titans ... holding enormous boulders in their massive hands",[41] and a final great battle was fought.[42] Striding forth from Olympus, Zeus unleashed the full fury of his thunderbolt, stunning and blinding the Titans,[43] while the Hundred-handers pelted them with enormous boulders:

... among the foremost Cottus and Briareus and Gyges, insatiable of war, roused up bitter battle; and they hurled three hundred boulders from their massive hands one after another and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles. They sent them down under the broad-pathed earth and bound them in distressful bonds after they had gained victory over them with their hands, high-spirited though they were, as far down beneath the earth as the sky is above the earth.[44]

Thus the Titans were finally defeated and cast into Tartarus, where they were imprisoned.[45]

As to the fate of the Hundred-Handers, the Theogony first tells us that they returned to Tartarus, to live nearby the "bronze gates" of the Titans' prison, where presumably, they took up the job of the Titans' warders.[46] However, later in the poem, we are told that Cottus and Gyges "live in mansions upon the foundations of Ocean", while Briareus, "since he was good" became the son-in-law of Poseidon, who gave him "Cymopoliea his daughter to wed".[47]

The Iliad[edit]

In a story that survives nowhere else, the Iliad briefly mentions Briareus (where it is said he was also called Aegaeon), referring to his having been summoned to Zeus's defense when "the other Olympians wished to put [Zeus] in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene."[48] Achilles, while asking his mother the sea goddess Thetis to intercede with Zeus on his behalf, reminds her of a frequent boast of hers, that, at a time when the other Olympians wished to bind Zeus, she saved him by fetching the hundred-handed Briareus to Olympus:

But you came, goddess, and freed [Zeus] from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory, and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus.[49]

The Titanomachy[edit]

The lost epic poem the Titanomachy, based on its title, must have told the story of the war between the Olympians and the Titans.[50] Although probably written after Hesiod's Theogony,[51] it perhaps reflected an older version of the story.[52] Only references to it by ancient sources survive, often attributing the poem to Eumelus a semi-legendary poet from Corinth. One mentions Aegaeon, the name identified with the Hundred-Hander Briareus in the Iliad. According to a scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica:

Eumelus in the Titanomachy says that Aigaion was the son of Earth and Sea, lived in the sea, and fought on the side of the Titans.[53]

Thus the Titanomachy apparently followed a different tradition than the more familiar account in the Theogony. Here Briareus/Aegaeon was the son of Earth (Gaia) and Sea Pontus) rather than Earth and Sky (Uranus), and he fought against the Olympians, rather than for them.[54]

Ion of Chios[edit]

According to the same scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned above, the fifth-century BC poet Ion of Chios said that Aegaeon (who Thetis summoned in the Iliad to aid Zeus),[55] lived in the sea and was the son of Thalassa.[56]

Virgil[edit]

The the first-century BC Latin poet Virgil, in his Aeneid, may have drawn on the same version of the story as that given in the lost Titanomachy. Virgil locates Briareus, as in Hesiod, in the underworld, where the Hundred-Hander dwells among "strange prodigies of bestial kind", which include the Centaurs, Scylla, the Lernaean Hydra, the Chimaera, the Gorgons, the Harpies, and Geryon.[57]

Later Virgil describes the "hundred-handed" Aegaeon (the Iliad's Briareus):

Like old Aegaeon of the hundred arms,
the hundred-handed, from whose mouths and breasts
blazed fifty fiery blasts, as he made war
with fifty sounding shields and fifty swords
against Jove's thunder.[58]

Here Virgil has the Hundred-Hander as having fought on the side of the Titans rather than the Olympians, as in the Titanomachy,[59] with the additional descriptive details of the fifty fire-breathing mouths and breasts, and the fifty sets of sword and shield, perhaps also coming from that lost poem.[60]

Ovid[edit]

The late first-century BC Latin poet Ovid, makes several references to the Hundred-Handers Briareus and Gyges in his poems. Briareus figures in a story that Ovid tells in his Fasti about how "The star of the Kite" (presumably a star or constellation named after the bird) came to reside in the heavens.[61] According to Ovid, there was a monstrous offspring of "mother Earth", part bull, part serpent, about which it had been prophesied that whoever burned its entrails would be able to conquer the gods. Warned by the three Fates, Styx penned up the bull in "gloomy woods" surrounded by three walls. After the Titans were overthrown, Briareus (whom Ovid appears to regard as a Titan, or Titan ally)[62] "sacrificed" the bull with an adamantine axe. But when he was about to burn the entrails, the birds, as commanded by Jupiter (Zeus), snatched them away, and were rewarded with a home among the stars. In his Metamorphoses, Ovid describes Aegaeon (the Iliad's Briareus) as a "dark-hued" sea god "whose strong arms can overpower huge whales".[63] In both of these poems, Ovid appears to be following the same tradition as in the lost Titanomachy, where Aegaeon was the sea god son of Pontus and a Titan ally.[64]

Ovid mentions "Gyas of the hundred hands" in his Amores, when "Earth made her ill attempt at vengeance, and steep Ossa, with shelving Pelion on its back, was piled upon Olympus."[65] In his Fasti, Ovid has Ceres (Demeter), complaing about the abduction of her daughter, say: "What worse wrong could I have suffered if Gyges had been victorious and I his captive."[66] In both of these poems Ovid has apparently confused the hundred-handers with the Giants (a different set of monstrous offspring of Gaia) who tried to storm Olympus in the Gigantomachy.[67] Ovid perhaps also confused the Hundred-Handers with the Giants in his Metamorphoses, where he refers to the Giants having tried to "fix their hundred arms on captive Heaven".[68] Ovid also refers to "a hundred-handed Gyes" in his Tristia.[69]

Apollodorus[edit]

The mythographer Apollodorus, gives an account of the Hundred-Handers similar to that of Hesiod's, but with several significant differences.[70] According to Apollodorus, they were the first offspring of Uranus and Gaia, (unlike Hesiod who makes the Titans the eldest) followed by the Cyclopes, and the Titans.[71]

Apollodorus describes the Hundred-Handers as "unsurpassed in size and might, each of them having a hundred hands and fifty heads."[72]

Uranus bound the Hundred-Handers and the Cyclopes, and cast them all into Tartarus, "a gloomy place in Hades as far distant from earth as earth is distant from the sky." But (unlike in Hesiod) the Titans are, apparently, allowed to remain free.[73] When the Titans overthrew Uranus, (unlike in Hesiod) they freed the Hundred-Handers and Cyclopes, and made Cronus their sovereign.[74] But Cronus once again bound the six brothers, and reimprisoned them in Tartarus.[75]

As in Hesiod's account, Cronus swallowed his children; but Zeus, who was saved by Rhea, freed his siblings, and together they waged war against the Titans. According to Apollodorus, in the tenth year of the war, Zeus learned from Gaia, that to win he needed both the Hundred-Handers and the Cyclopes, so Zeus slew their warder Campe and released them:

They fought for ten years, and Earth prophesied victory to Zeus if he should have as allies those who had been hurled down to Tartarus. So he slew their jailoress Campe, and loosed their bonds. And ... the gods overcame the Titans, shut them up in Tartarus, and appointed the Hundred-handers their guards.[76]

Others[edit]

The third-century BC poet Callimachus, apparently confusing Briareus as one of the Giants, says he was buried under Etna, making his shift from one shoulder to the other, the cause of earthquakes.[77] Like Callimachus, Philostratus also makes Aegaeon the cause of earthquakes.[78]

The first-century Latin poet Horace, twice mentions "centimanus" ('hundred-handed') Gyges. In one poem Gyges and the "fiery Chimaera" are given as examples of fearsome creatures.[79] In another poem, Gyges is used as an example of "power" hated by the gods "that devises every kind of evil in its heart."[80]

According to the second-century AD geographer Pausanias, a Corinthian legend said that Briareus was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios (Sun) over some land. Briareus adjudged that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth (Acrocorinth) to Helios.[81]

Servius, also seems to know of two versions of the Titanomachy, one in which the Hundred-Handers fought on the side of the Olympians, as in Hesiod, and the other in which they fought on the side of the Titans, as in the lost Titanomachy.[82]

In literature[edit]

  • Briareus is mentioned twice in Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy (completed 1320); he is first found as a giant inhabiting the ninth circle of Hell[83] and then again as an example of pride, carved into the pavement of the first terrace of Purgatory.[84]
  • In Rabelais' five-part novel Gargantua and Pantagruel (finished 1564) it is mentioned that a waiter needs as many hands as "Briareus".[85]
  • Briareus is also mentioned in Cervantes' Don Quixote (1615), in the famous episode of the windmills.
  • Briareus is mentioned in Book I of John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667) alongside Typhon as an analog to the fallen Satan.
  • Briareus is mentioned in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749), by Henry Fielding, in a conversation between Tom Jones and Mr. Partridge (Book 8, Chapter IX).
  • Cottus, is mentioned in John Keats' fragment Hyperion (1819) as a brooding deity in the aftermath of the Titanomachy.
  • In Canto VI of his satiric poem Don Juan (completed in 1824), Byron makes a slightly crude joke, musing whether "enviable Briareus […] with thy hands and heads […] hadn't all things multiplied in proportion" (this thought arising from Byron's assertion of his love of all womankind in the previous canto).
  • Briareus, styled as Briares, is a supporting character in the Percy Jackson & the Olympians novel The Battle of the Labyrinth (2008).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Depending on the method of transliteration, the Ancient Greek ἑκατόν (hekaton) may be latinised as hecaton and χείρ (cheir) may be transliterated as kheir, chir or even khir.
  2. ^ Howatson, M.C. (2013). "Hecatoncheiʹres". The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 277.
  3. ^ Bulfinch, Thomas (1902). "Hec-atonchiʹres". The Classic Myths in English Literature. Ginn & Co. p. 508.
  4. ^ George Grote, History of Greece, Volume 12, Harper, 1875, p. 519.
  5. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1.
  6. ^ Hard, pp. 65–66; Hansen, pp. 159, 231; Gantz, p. 10; Tripp, s.v. Hundred-handed pp. 307–308; Grimal, s.v. Hecatoncheires p. 182.
  7. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 126–153; Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3.
  8. ^ Hard, pp. 65–69; Hansen, pp. 66–67, 293–294; West 1966, pp. 18–19.
  9. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 154–158, says that Uranus "put them all away out of sight in a hiding place in Earth and did not let them come up into the light", while according Apollodorus, 1.1.2, Uranus "bound and cast [them] into Tartarus", the two places perhaps being the same (see West 1966, p. 338 on line 618, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160).
  10. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 159–182; Apollodorus, 1.1.4.
  11. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453–500; Apollodorus, 1.1.5–1.2.1.
  12. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 624–735; Apollodorus, 1.2.1. As for the Hundred-Handers as the Titans' warders, this is explicitly stated at Apollodorus, 1.2.1. This is also the usual interpretation of Theogony 734–735 (e.g. Hard, p. 68; Hansen, pp. 25, 159, adding the caveat "presumably"; Gantz, p. 45). However according to West 1966, p. 363 on lines 734–5: "It is usually assumed that the Hundred-Handers are acting as prison guards (so Tz. Th. 277 τοὺς Ἑκατόγχειρας αὺτοῖς φύλακας ἐπιστήσας). The poet does not say this—πιστοὶ φύλακες Διὸς probably refers to their help in battle, cf. 815 κλειτοὶ ἐπίκουροι". Compare with Theogony 817–819.
  13. ^ Bremmer, p. 76; West 2002, pp. 110–111; Tsagalis, pp. 53–56.
  14. ^ Hawes, p. 60; Grimal, s.v. Hecatoncheires p. 182; Palaephatus, 19, see Stern, p. 50.
  15. ^ West 1966, pp. 209–210 on line 149 Κόττος, which says that Cottus was the name "various Thracian princes"; Bremmer, p. 76; Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 147–153. Kerényi, p. 19, translates Cottus as "the striker".
  16. ^ West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως; LSJ, s.v. βριαρός. Kerényi, p. 19, translates Briareus as "the strong".
  17. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 617, 734. According to West 1966, p. 210, the "o'- being an old prepositional prefix".
  18. ^ According to West 1966, on line 149 "Γύγης", p. 210, although some manuscripts of the Theogony contain Gyes (Γύης), Gyges is the "correct form" of the name, "and should be preferred" as well in Apollodorus, 1.1.1, and Ovid, Tristia 4.7.18. Compare with Ovid, Fasti 4.593, which has "Gyges". West notes that the form Gyes perhaps came "from association" with "γυῖον" (limb, hand: LSJ, s.v. γυῖον) and "ἀμφιγύεις" (strong in both arms: Autenrieth, s.v. ἀμφι-γυήεις); see also Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Ancient Greek, s.v. γύης.
  19. ^ Willcock, p.12; Homer, Iliad 1.403–404.
  20. ^ Fowler, p. 69, which also mentions the possibly sea-connected αἰγίς (see LSJ, s.v. αἰγίς).
  21. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 68–69; Leaf, p. 32 1.403.
  22. ^ See Lattimore's translation, of Iliad 1.404, p. 70, with glossary entry, p. 498: "Aigai'os: God of the sea, father of Briareos"; Willcock, p.12. At Hesiod, Theogony 817–819, Briareus is the son-in-law of Poseidon, and Iliad scholia describe him as a son of Poseidon, see West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως.
  23. ^ Willcock, p.12.
  24. ^ Sprawski, p. 107; Fowler 2013, p. 68; Arrian, Bithyn. fr. Roos = FGrHist 156 F 92. Compare with Pliny, Natural History 7.207 [= Archemachus FGrHist 424 F 5 (see Sprawski, p. 118)]. For the various ancient explanations for the name of the Aegean Sea, see Fowler 2013, pp. 68–70.
  25. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 150.
  26. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; Fowler 2013, p. 26; Hard, p. 66.
  27. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; .
  28. ^ Cottus, Briareus, Gyges at Theogony 149, 714, 816; Cottus, Obriareus, and Gyges at Theogony 617–618, 734; Cottus at Theogony 654.
  29. ^ West 1966, p. 209 on line 147; Fowler 2013, p. 26; Acusilaus fr. 8 Fowler pp. 8–9 = FGrHist 2 8.
  30. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1. See also Palaephatus 19 (Stern, p. 50).
  31. ^ Hard, pp. 65–66; Gantz, p. 10; Hesiod, Theogony 126–153. Compare with Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3
  32. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 147–153; compare with 671–673.
  33. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 154–155. Exactly which of these eighteen children Hesiod meant that Uranus hated is not entirely clear, all eighteen, or perhaps just the Cyclopes and the Hundred-Handers. Hard, p. 67, West 1988, p. 7, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160, make it all eighteen, while Gantz, p. 10, says "likely all eighteen", and Most, p. 15 n. 8, says "apparently only the ... Cyclopes and Hundred-Handers are meant" and not the twelve Titans. See also West 1966, p. 206 on lines 139–53, p. 213 line 154 γὰρ. Why Uranus hated his children is also not clear. Gantz, p. 10 says: "The reason for [Uranus'] hatred may be [his children's] horrible appearance, though Hesiod does not quite say this"; while Hard, p. 67 says: "Although Hesiod is vague about the cause of his hatred, it would seem that he took a dislike to them because they were terrible to behold". However, West 1966, p. 213 on line 155, says that Uranus hated his children because of their "fearsome nature". According to Acusilaus fr. 8 Fowler pp. 8–9 [= FGrHist 2 8], Uranus imprisoned the Hundred-Handers because he was afraid that they would rise up against him, see Fowler 2013, p. 26.
  34. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 156–158. The hiding place inside Gaia is presumably her womb, see West 1966, p. 214 on line 158; Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160; Gantz, p. 10. This place seems also to be the same place as Tartarus, see West 1966, p. 338 on line 618, and Caldwell, p. 37 on lines 154–160.
  35. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 617–623.
  36. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 173–182. Although the castration of Uranus results in the release of the Titans, it did not, apparently, also result in the release of the Hundred-Handers or Cyclopes, see Fowler 2013, p. 26; Hard, p. 67; West 1966, p. 214 on line 158.
  37. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 453–500.
  38. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 624–629. When exactly the Hundred-Handers were released from Tartarus and joined the battle is not entirely clear. Theogony 636 says that the Titanomachy raged for "ten full years". And although, for example, Hard, p. 68, Caldwell, p. 65 on line 636, and West 1966, p. 19, understand Hesiod as implying that the Hundred-Handers are released in the tenth year of the war, according to Gantz, p. 45, "Hesiod's account does not quite say whether the Hundred-Handers were freed before the conflict or only in the tenth year. ... Eventually, if not at the beginning, the Hundred-Handers are fighting".
  39. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 639–653.
  40. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 654–663.
  41. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 674–675.
  42. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 676–686.
  43. ^ Gantz, p. 45; Hesiod, Theogony 687–710.
  44. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 711–720.
  45. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 721–733.
  46. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 734–735; Hard, p. 68; Hansen, pp. 25, 159; Gantz, p. 45. According to West 1966, p. 363 on lines 734–5, "It is usually assumed that the Hundred-Handers are acting as prison guards (so Tz. Th. 277 τοὺς Ἑκατόγχειρας αὺτοῖς φύλακας ἐπιστήσας). The poet does not say this—πιστοὶ φύλακες Διὸς probably refers to their help in battle, cf. 815 κλειτοὶ ἐπίκουροι".
  47. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 817–819. Although at 734–735 all three brothers seem to reside just outside the gates of the Titan's prison, the situation appears different here. Cottus and Gyges, although still apparently in the underworld, seem no longer to reside near the Titans, and Briareus seems no longer to be living with them, see West 2002, p. 111; West 1966, p. 358 on lines 720–819, p. 379 on line 816.
  48. ^ Gantz, p. 59; Fowler 1988, pp. 96–97: "very likely Homer's invention"; Willcock, p. 11 on lines 396–406; Homer, Iliad 1.396–400.
  49. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.400–406.
  50. ^ West 2002, p. 110.
  51. ^ West 2002, p. 109 dates the Titanomachy as "late seventh century [BC] at the earliest".
  52. ^ West 2002, p. 111, gives evidence for the Titanomachy preserving an "older version".
  53. ^ Eumelus fr. 3 West [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]. For text and commentary see also Tsagalis, pp. 19–20, pp. 53–56.
  54. ^ Bremmer, p. 76; West 2002, pp. 110–111. For Hundred-Handers fighting against the Olympians, compare with Antimachus fr. 14 Matthews (= 14 Wyss) p. 108; Virgil, Aeneid 10.565–568; Ovid, Fasti 3.793–808, 4.593, Amores 2.1.11–18; Statius, Thebaid 2.595–601; Servius, On Aeneid 6.287, 10.565. As for Aegaeon's association with the sea, West 2002, p. 111, sees a connection already in Hesiod and Homer, since, at Theogony 815–19 "It is implied that he lives somewhere else, presumably in the sea" and "It must have been from the sea" that the sea goddess Thetis fetched Briareus at Iliad 1.400–406; see also West 1966, p. 210 on line 149 Βριάρεως. For later marine connections, compare Ion of Chios fr. 741 Campbell [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; Euphorion fr. 169 Lightfoot; Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.8–10; see also West 2002, p. 111 n. 10; Tsagalis, pp. 53–56. According to Arrian apparently, the Aegean Sea was said to have been named after Aegaeon, see Sprawski, p. 107.
  55. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.396–406.
  56. ^ Ion of Chios fr. 741 Campbell [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; Gantz, p. 59.
  57. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 6.282–294.
  58. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 10.565–568.
  59. ^ O'Hara, p. 99; West 2002, pp. 111–112.
  60. ^ West 2002, p. 112.
  61. ^ Ovid, Fasti 3.793–808.
  62. ^ Heyworth, p. 248 on 8.805-8; Frazer, p. 143 on 3.805.
  63. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.8–10.
  64. ^ Eumelus fr. 3 West [= Schol. on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.1165c]; West 2002, p. 111 with n. 10; Heyworth, p. 248 on 8.805-8. Besides in the Titanomachy, the Hundred-Handers were already fighting against the Olympians in Virgil's Aeneid 6.282–294, and Ovid's Amores 2.1.11–18 (see below).
  65. ^ Ovid, Amores 2.1.11–18.
  66. ^ Ovid, Fasti 4.593.
  67. ^ Artley, p. 20; Frazer's note to Ovid, Fasti 4.593.
  68. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.182–184; Anderson, p. 170, note to line 184 "centum with bracchia".
  69. ^ Ovid, Tristia 4.7.18. According to West 1966, on line 149 "Γύγης", p. 210, "Gyges ... should be preferred" here, as in Fasti 4.593.
  70. ^ Hard, pp. 68–69, which says that Apollodorus' version "derived from the lost Titanomachia, or from the Orphic literature". See also Gantz, p. 45.
  71. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3.
  72. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.1.
  73. ^ Hard, p. 68; Apollodorus, 1.1.2.
  74. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.4.
  75. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.5.
  76. ^ Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
  77. ^ Callimachus, Hymn 4 (to Delos) 141–146; Mineur. p. 153 on line 142 f.
  78. ^ Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.6.
  79. ^ Anderson, p. 170, note to line 184 "centum with bracchia"; Horace, 2.17.13–14.
  80. ^ Horace, 3.4.69.
  81. ^ Pausanias, 2.1.6, 2.4.6.
  82. ^ West 2002, p. 112; Servius, On Aeneid 6.287, 10.565.
  83. ^ Dante, Inferno XXXI.99.
  84. ^ Dante, Purgatorio XII.28.
  85. ^ Rabelais, Francois (1955). "5". Gargantua and Pantagruel. Great Britain: Penguin Classics. p. 50. ISBN 014044047X.

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