Hedda Hopper in 1930
May 2, 1885
Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.
February 1, 1966 (aged 80)|
Hollywood, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Rose Hill Cemetery in Altoona, Pennsylvania|
|Occupation||Actress, gossip columnist|
|Known for||Writing "Hedda Hopper's Hollywood"|
(m. 1913; divorce 1922)
Hedda Hopper (born Elda Furry; May 2, 1885 – February 1, 1966) was an American actress and gossip columnist, notorious for feuding with her arch-rival Louella Parsons. She had been a moderately successful actress of stage and screen for years before being offered the chance to write the column Hedda Hopper's Hollywood for the Los Angeles Times in 1938. At the height of her power in the 1940s she commanded a 35 million strong readership. She was well known for her political conservatism, and during the McCarthy era she named suspected communists. Hopper continued to write gossip until the end, her work appearing in many magazines and later on radio.
Hopper was born Elda Furry in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Margaret (née Miller; 1856–1941) and David Furry, a butcher, both members of the German Baptist Brethren. Her family was of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) descent. The family moved to Altoona when Elda was three.
She eventually ran away to New York City and began her career in the chorus on the Broadway stage. Hopper was not successful in this venture, even getting the axe by the renowned Shubert Brothers. Florenz Ziegfeld called the aspiring starlet a "clumsy cow" and brushed off her pleas for a slot in his lavish Follies. After a few years, she joined the theater company of matinee idol DeWolf Hopper, whom she called "Wolfie" and would later marry.
She remained in the chorus and they toured the country. While in the Hopper company, she realized that chorus and understudy jobs were not acting. She wanted to act, and she knew she would have to prove herself before she could hope to get anywhere in the theater. Hearing that Edgar Selwyn was casting his play The Country Boy for a road tour, she went to his office and talked him into letting her audition for the lead. She was given the role and that show toured for thirty-five weeks through forty-eight states. She studied singing during the summer and, in the fall, toured with The Quaker Girl in the second lead, the prima donna role. The show closed in Albany.
In 1913, she became the fifth wife of DeWolf Hopper, whose previous wives were named Ella, Ida, Edna and Nella. The similarity in names caused some friction, as he would sometimes call Elda by the name of one of his former wives. Consequently, Elda Hopper paid a numerologist $10 to tell her what name she should use, and the answer was "Hedda". She began acting in silent movies in 1915. Her motion picture debut was in The Battle of Hearts (1916) with William Farnum, but she made a major splash in 1918's Virtuous Wives, in which she established her pattern for playing society women. Hopper decided to upstage the film's headline starlet, Anita Stewart, by spending all of her $5,000 salary on a lavish wardrobe from the upscale boutique Lucile, which she wore in the film. By 1920 she was commanding $1,000 per week as a free agent in New York; in 1923 she moved to Hollywood and became a contract player for Louis B. Mayer Pictures. She appeared in more than 120 movies over her twenty-three year acting career.
As Hopper's movie career waned in the mid-1930s, she looked for other sources of income. In 1935, she agreed to write a weekly Hollywood gossip column for the Washington Herald at $50 a week (equivalent to $892 in 2017), which was cancelled after four months when she refused to take a $15 pay cut.
In 1937, Hopper was offered another gossip column opportunity, this time with the Los Angeles Times. Her column, entitled "Hedda Hopper's Hollywood", debuted on February 14 (St. Valentine's Day), 1938. Hopper could not type, or spell very well, so she dictated her column to a typist over the phone. Initially facing stiff competition against Louella Parsons, who had a monopoly on Hollywood gossip, Hopper used her extensive contacts forged during her acting days to gather material for her column. Her first major scoop had national implications: in 1939 Hopper printed that President Franklin Roosevelt's son James Roosevelt was divorcing his wife Betsey after being caught in an affair with a nurse at the Mayo Clinic.
During the Second World War, the Nazis used photographs of Hopper in her extravagant hats for propaganda, as a symbol of "American decadence". She made a $250,000 annual salary, which enabled her to live an extravagant lifestyle and maintain a mansion in Beverly Hills, which she described as "the house that fear built".
After Hopper printed a story about an extramarital affair between Joseph Cotten and Deanna Durbin, Cotten ran into Hopper at a social event and pulled out her chair, only to continue pulling it out from under her when she sat down. The next day, he received dozens of flower bouquet deliveries and congratulatory telegrams from others in the industry, thanking him for having the courage to do what everyone else dreamed of doing.
Hopper was an advocate of actress Joan Crawford, whose career suffered in the early 1940s after she was labelled "Box-Office Poison" and forced to resign from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1945, Hopper reprinted a press release for Mildred Pierce in her column, which described Crawford as a leading contender for the Best Actress Oscar. Such was Hopper's influence that she was credited with swinging the decision in Crawford's favor when she won the award. Hopper's support has been described as the first instance of lobbying the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to favor a certain winner.
Joan Bennett sent Hopper a "$435 valentine. The $35 went for a skunk which carried a note: 'Won't you be my valentine? Nobody else will. I stink and so do you.'" Hopper reportedly commented that the skunk was beautifully behaved. She called it Joan and passed it on to actor James Mason and his wife as a present, as they had made the first bid after the story about the unusual gift made the news.
During World War II, Hopper's only child, actor William "Bill" Hopper, served in the Navy in Underwater Demolitions. She chastised Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., the son of her old friend the late Douglas Fairbanks, because she thought the younger Fairbanks was shirking his duty to his country.[clarification needed] Fairbanks Jr. recalled in his memoirs Salad Days that he was already in uniform serving in the British Royal Navy, and despised Hopper for her insinuations.
Actor Kirk Douglas recounted an interaction between Hopper and Elizabeth Taylor. At the 1965 premiere of Taylor and husband Richard Burton's film The Sandpiper, Hopper began to complain when she saw screenwriter Dalton Trumbo's screen credit (she had led the charge in blacklisting Trumbo for his Communist party membership). This led Taylor to turn around and say "Hedda, why don't you just shut the f*** up?"
In 1958, Hopper made racist remarks to African American actor Sidney Poitier. While interviewing him, she asked if he could sing, because "so many of your people do". When he replied that he could not, she said:
You're the first one I've ever met who says he can't sing. I've never known any of your people who couldn't sing.
In 1963, Hopper complained in her column that three out of five Best Actor Oscar nominees were British and only two were American:
The weather's so foul on that tight little isle that, to get in out of the rain, they all gather in theatres and practise Hamlet on each other.
Hopper was a fervent Republican. In 1944, for instance, she spoke before the massive rally organized by David O. Selznick in the Los Angeles Coliseum in support of the Dewey-Bricker ticket as well as Governor Earl Warren of California, who later became Dewey's running mate in 1948 and later the Chief Justice of the United States. The gathering drew 93,000, with Cecil B. DeMille as the master of ceremonies and Walt Disney as one of the speakers. Others in attendance included Ronald Reagan, Barbara Stanwyck, Ann Sothern, Ginger Rogers, Randolph Scott, Adolphe Menjou, Dick Powell, Gary Cooper, Edward Arnold, and William Bendix. Despite the good turnout at the rally, most Hollywood celebrities who took a public position sided with the Roosevelt-Truman ticket.
Hopper strongly supported the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) hearings and was a guest and speaker of the Women's Division at the 1956 Republican National Convention held in San Francisco to renominate the Eisenhower-Nixon ticket.
She was so well known for her Conservatism that a rumor became widespread in 1950 that she planned to stand up, unfurl an American flag, and walk out of the Academy Awards ceremony if Jose Ferrer, a well known Socialist, should win Best Actor. The rumor was untrue, but Hopper joked that she wished she had thought of it. Screenwriter Jay Bernstein related that when he told Hedda that because of her extreme conservatism many people in Hollywood privately called her a Nazi, the gossip columnist began to cry and replied: "Jay, all I've ever tried to be is a good American."
Hopper was one of the driving forces behind the creation of the Hollywood blacklist, using her 35 million strong readership to destroy the careers of those in the entertainment industry whom she suspected of being Communists, having Communist sympathies, being homosexual, or leading dissolute lives. She was a leading member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, founded in 1944 and devoted to rooting out suspected Communists in Hollywood. She considered herself to be a guardian of moral standards in Hollywood and bragged that she need only wag her finger at a producer and he would break off an adulterous affair instantly.
One of Hopper's most famous victims was screenwriter Dalton Trumbo, who was blacklisted throughout the late 1940s and 1950s partially through Hopper's consistently negative coverage of his Communist Party membership. When actor Kirk Douglas hired Trumbo to write the script for Spartacus (1960), Hopper denounced the film in her column, stating that "[the script is based on] a book written by a Commie and the screen script was written by a Commie, so don't go see it." Nonetheless the film was a critical and financial success.
Charlie Chaplin was another target of Hedda Hopper's vitriol because of his alleged Communist sympathies and his penchant for much younger women, which she considered immoral. She also loathed him for remaining a British citizen and not becoming an American, which she considered an act of ingratitude towards a country which had given him so much. When in 1943 he denied that he was the father of 22-year old actress Joan Barry's child, Hopper assisted Barry in filing a paternity suit against Chaplin, launching a campaign of attrition against him through her column and calling for him to be deported for his "moral turpitude". She defended her behavior by stating that she wished to make an example of Chaplin as "a warning to others involved in dubious relationships." Her grudge deepened when, later in the year, Chaplin married 23-year old Oona O'Neill and gave the scoop to Louella Parsons out of spite to Hedda. For years after the paternity trial, Hopper cooperated with the FBI to destabilize Chaplin's career. This involved her printing damaging information leaked by the FBI concerning Chaplin's past Communist affiliations, while Hopper in turn provided the agency with unsavory gossip about Chaplin's personal life gleaned from her informants. Her sustained criticism of Chaplin was one of the factors which contributed to his being denied re-entry to the United States in 1952.
Actress Ingrid Bergman was also blacklisted as a result of Hedda Hopper's sustained negative coverage in her columns. Hopper had supported Bergman in her column throughout the 1940s, advocating for her to land starring roles in The Bells of St. Mary's (1945) and Joan of Arc (1948). She was enraged when Bergman lied to her about being pregnant with married director Roberto Rossellini's baby. Hopper had believed Bergman, printing a fervent denial of the rumor in 1949. However, Bergman was indeed pregnant, and the news was leaked to Hopper's arch-rival Louella Parsons, who got the scoop. Seeking revenge, Hopper launched a PR campaign decrying Bergman for being pregnant out of wedlock and carrying a married man's child.
Radio and television
Hopper had an acting role in a radio soap opera, playing Portia Brent on the Blue Network's Brenthouse beginning in February 1939. She debuted as host of her own radio program, The Hedda Hopper Show, November 6, 1939. Sponsored by Sunkist, she was heard on CBS three times a week for 15 minutes until October 30, 1942. From October 2, 1944, to September 3, 1945, Armour Treet sponsored a once-a-week program. On September 10, 1945, she moved to ABC, still sponsored by Armour, for a weekly program that continued until June 3, 1946. Hopper moved back to CBS October 5, 1946, with a weekly 15-minute program, This Is Hollywood, sponsored by Procter & Gamble. It ran until June 28, 1947.
Expanding to 30 minutes on NBC, she was host of a variety series, The Hedda Hopper Show, broadcast from October 14, 1950, to November 11, 1950 on Saturdays, then from November 19, 1950, to May 20, 1951 on Sundays. This program featured music, talk and dramatized excerpts from movies with well-known guests, such as Broderick Crawford doing a scene from All the King's Men.
On January 10, 1960, a television special, Hedda Hopper's Hollywood, aired on NBC. Hosted by Hopper, guest interviews included a remarkably eclectic mix of past, current and future stars: Lucille Ball (a longtime friend of Hopper), Francis X. Bushman, Liza Minnelli, John Cassavetes, Robert Cummings, Marion Davies (her last public appearance), Walt Disney, Janet Gaynor, Bob Hope, Hope Lange, Anthony Perkins, Debbie Reynolds, James Stewart, and Gloria Swanson.
Hopper had several acting roles during the latter part of her career, including brief cameo appearances as herself in the movie Sunset Boulevard (1950) and The Patsy (1964), as well as episodes of The Martha Raye Show, I Love Lucy, The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford, and The Beverly Hillbillies, starring Buddy Ebsen. Her autobiography, From Under My Hat (Doubleday, 1952) was followed by The Whole Truth and Nothing But (1962), also published by Doubleday. She remained active as a writer until her death, producing six daily columns and a Sunday column for the Chicago Tribune syndicate, as well as writing articles for celebrity magazines such as Photoplay.
|1916||The Battle of Hearts||Maida Rhodes||Lost film|
Credited as Elda Furry
|1917||Her Excellency, the Governor||Sylvia Marlowe||Lost film|
Credited as Elda Milar
|1917||The Food Gamblers||June Justice||Lost film|
|1917||Seven Keys to Baldpate||Myra Thornhill||Credited as Elda Furry|
|1917||Nearly Married||Hattie King||abridged version extant|
|1918||By Right of Purchase||Society Woman||Incomplete print|
|1918||Virtuous Wives||Irma Delabarre||Lost film|
Credited as Mrs. DeWolf Hopper
|1919||The Third Degree||Mrs. Howard Jeffries, Sr||Lost film|
|1919||Sadie Love||Mrs. James Wakeley||Lost film|
|1919||The Isle of Conquest||Mrs. Harmon||Lost film|
|1920||The Man Who Lost Himself||Countess of Rochester||Lost film|
|1920||The New York Idea||Vida Phillimore|
|1921||Heedless Moths||His Wife||Lost film|
|1921||The Inner Chamber||Mrs. Candor||Lost film|
Credited as Mrs. DeWolf Hopper
|1921||Conceit||Mrs. Agnes Crombie||Credited as Mrs. DeWolf Hopper|
|1922||Sherlock Holmes||Madge Larrabee|
|1922||What's Wrong with the Women?||Mrs. Neer||Lost film;.. Credited as Mrs. DeWolf Hopper|
|1922||Women Men Marry||Eleanor Carter|
|1923||Has the World Gone Mad!||Mrs. Adams||Lost film|
|1923||Reno||Mrs. Kate Norton Tappan|
|1924||Gambling Wives||Madame Zoe||Lost film|
|1924||Why Men Leave Home||Nina Neilson|
|1924||Happiness||Mrs. Chrystal Pole|
|1924||Miami||Mary Tate||Lost film|
|1924||Another Scandal||Cousin Elizabeth MacKenzie||Lost film|
|1924||Sinners in Silk||Mrs. Stevens||Lost film|
|1924||The Snob||Mrs. Leiter||Lost film|
|1925||Her Market Value||Mrs. Bernice Hamilton|
|1925||Dangerous Innocence||Muriel Church||Lost film|
|1925||Zander the Great||Mrs. Caldwell|
|1925||Raffles, the Amateur Cracksman||Mrs. Clarice Vidal|
|1925||The Teaser||Margaret Wyndham||Lost film|
|1925||Borrowed Finery||Mrs. Bordon||Lost film|
|1926||Dance Madness||Lost film|
|1926||The Caveman||Mrs. Van Dream|
|1926||Pleasures of the Rich||Mona Vincent||Lost film|
|1926||Skinner's Dress Suit||Mrs. Colby|
|1926||The Silver Treasure||Mrs. Gould||Lost film|
|1926||Lew Tyler's Wives||Virginia Philips||Lost film|
|1926||Don Juan||Marchesia Rinaldo|
|1926||Fools of Fashion||Countess de Fragni|
|1926||Obey The Law||Society Woman|
|1927||Orchids and Ermine||The Modiste|
|1927||Venus of Venice||Jean's Mother|
|1927||Matinee Ladies||Mrs. Aldrich||Lost film|
|1927||Children of Divorce||Katherine Flanders|
|1927||Black Tears||Lost film|
|1927||The Cruel Truth||Grace Sturdevant|
|1927||Adam and Evil||Eleanor Leighton||Lost film|
|1927||One Woman to Another||Olive Gresham||Lost film|
|1927||The Drop Kick||Mrs. Hamill|
|1927||A Reno Divorce||Hedda Frane||Lost film|
|1927||French Dressing||Lost film|
|1928||Love and Learn||Mrs. Ann Blair||Lost film|
|1928||The Whip Woman||Countess Ferenzi||Lost film|
|1928||The Port of Missing Girls||Mrs. C. King|
|1928||The Chorus Kid||Mrs. Garrett||Lost film|
|1928||Green Grass Widows||Mrs. Worthing||Extant BFI London|
|1928||Undressed||Mrs. Stanley||Lost film|
|1928||Runaway Girls||Mrs. Hartley||Lost film|
|1928||Companionate Marriage||Mrs. Moore||Lost film|
|1929||Girls Gone Wild||Mrs. Holworthy||Lost film|
|1929||The Last of Mrs. Cheyney||Lady Maria|
|1929||His Glorious Night||Mrs. Collingswood Stratton|
|1929||Half Marriage||Mrs. Page|
|1929||The Racketeer||Mrs. Karen Lee|
|1929||A Song of Kentucky||Mrs. Coleman||Lost film|
|1930||Such Men Are Dangerous||Muriel Wyndham|
|1930||High Society Blues||Mrs. Divine|
|1930||Murder Will Out||Aunt Pat|
|1930||Let Us Be Gay||Madge Livingston|
|1930||Our Blushing Brides||Mrs. Weaver|
|1931||The Easiest Way||Mrs. Clara Williams||Uncredited|
|1931||A Tailor Made Man||Mrs. Stanlaw|
|1931||The Common Law||Mrs. Clare Collis|
|1931||The Mystery Train||Mrs. Marian Radcliffe|
|1931||Flying High||Mrs. Smith|
|1931||"Men Call It Love"||Callie|
|1932||The Man Who Played God||Mrs. Alice Chittendon|
|1932||Night World||Mrs. Rand|
|1932||As You Desire Me||Ines Montari|
|1932||Skyscraper Souls||Ella Dwight|
|1932||Downstairs||Countess De Marnac|
|1932||Speak Easily||Mrs. Peets|
|1932||The Unwritten Law||Jean Evans|
|1933||Men Must Fight||Mrs. Chase|
|1933||The Barbarian||Mrs. Loway, American Tourist|
|1933||Pilgrimage||Mrs. Worth (Gary Worth's mother)|
|1933||Beauty for Sale||Madame Sonia Barton|
|1934||Little Man, What Now?||Nurse||Uncredited|
|1935||One Frightened Night||Laura Proctor|
|1935||Alice Adams||Mrs. Palmer|
|1935||I Live My Life||Alvin's Mother|
|1936||The Dark Hour||Mrs. Tallman|
|1936||Dracula's Daughter||Lady Esme Hammond|
|1936||Bunker Bean||Mrs. Dorothy Kent|
|1937||You Can't Buy Luck||Mrs. Agnes White|
|1937||Artists and Models||Mrs. Townsend|
|1937||Vogues of 1938||Mrs. Van Klettering||Uncredited|
|1937||Nothing Sacred||Dowager on Ship||Uncredited|
|1938||Tarzan's Revenge||Penny Reed|
|1938||Maid's Night Out||Mrs. Harrison|
|1938||Dangerous to Know||Mrs. Emily Carson|
|1938||Thanks for the Memory||Polly Griscom|
|1939||The Women||Dolly Dupuyster|
|1939||What a Life||Mrs. Aldrich|
|1939||That's Right - You're Wrong||Hedda Hopper - Newspaper Columnist||Uncredited|
|1939||Laugh It Off||Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rockingham|
|1940||Queen of the Mob||Mrs. Emily Sturgis|
|1940||Cross-Country Romance||Mrs. North|
|1941||Life with Henry||Mrs. Aldrich|
|1941||I Wanted Wings||Mrs. Young||Uncredited|
|1942||Reap the Wild Wind||Aunt Henrietta Beresford|
|1960||Pepe||Herself, Cameo appearance|
|1951-1963||What's My Line?||Herself - Mystery Guest||7 episodes|
|1953||Goodyear Television Playhouse||Hostess||Episode: "A. Fadeout"|
|1955||I Love Lucy||Herself||Episode: "The Hedda Hopper Story"|
|1955||The Colgate Comedy Hour||Herself - Gossip Columnist||2 episodes|
|1956||The Bob Hope Show||Herself||2 episodes|
|1956||The Tennessee Ernie Ford Show||Herself||Episode #1.19|
|1957||Playhouse 90||Various roles||2 episodes|
|1957||The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour||Herself||Episode: "Lucy Takes a Cruise to Havana"|
|1958||The Garry Moore Show||Herself||Episode #1.5|
|1959||Small World||Herself||Episode #2.8|
|1959||Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse||Herself||Episode: "The Desilu Revue"|
|1960||Hedda Hopper's Hollywood||Host||Television special|
|1960||The Steve Allen Show||Herself||Episode: "The Movie Premiere of 'Can-Can'"|
|1961||Here's Hollywood||Herself||October 31, 1961 episode|
|1964||The Beverly Hillbillies||Herself||Episode: "Hedda Hopper's Hollywood"|
|1966||The New Alice in Wonderland||Hedda, the Mad Hatter (Voice)||Television film|
In popular culture
In 1995, Cynthia Adler portrayed Hedda Hopper in the documentary Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business.
In 2002 by Ingrid van Bergen in The Man in the Moon. A Radio-ballett with Charlie Chaplin. A piece for Acoustic Stage Dt. Der Mann im Mond. Ein Radio-Ballett mit Charlie Chaplin. Stück für Akustische Bühne. Written by Evelyn Dörr, on WDR in 2002.
In 2016, Tilda Swinton played in Hail, Caesar! the double part of Thora and Thessaly Thacker, two identical twin sister gossip columnists (mimicking the rivalry between Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons, but both heavily based on Hopper herself).
The New York City Opera announced that it will stage the East Coast premiere of Stewart Wallace's Hopper's Wife — a 1997 chamber opera about an imagined marriage between painter Edward Hopper and Hedda Hopper—at Harlem Stage from April 28 through May 1, 2016.
- LIFE - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 1944-11-20. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
- Amy Fine Collins (1997-04-01). "The Powerful Rivalry of Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
- Hedda Hopper Timeline Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Karen Krizanovich (2015-11-05). "Hedda Hopper: the woman who scared Hollywood". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Richard Lemon (1985-05-13). "The Warrior Queens of Gossip". People Magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
- Silvester, Christopher (2002). The Grove Book of Hollywood. Grove Press. p. 352. ISBN 0-8021-3878-0.
- Stephens, Autumn (1998). Drama Queens: Wild Women of the Silver Screen. Conari. p. 202. ISBN 1-57324-136-9.
- Kanfer, Stefan (2011). Tough Without A Gun: The Life and Extraordinary Afterlife of Humphrey Bogart. Borzoi Books (Random House). p. 86. ISBN 978-0-307-27100-6.
- Eells, George (1972). Hedda and Louella. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 260–262.
- Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. (1988). The Salad Days[ISBN missing]
- Liz Smith (2012-07-24). "Kirk Douglas' Juicy And Informative New Memoir On How An Epic—And An End To Blacklisting—Came To Be". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Frost, Jennifer (2011). Hedda Hopper’s Hollywood: Celebrity Gossip and American Conservatism. NYU Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780814728246.
- Sellers, Robert (2011). Don't Let the Bastards Grind You Down: How One Generation of British Actors Changed the World. Random House. p. 403. ISBN 9781409049913.
- David M. Jordan, FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944 (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2011), pp. 231-232
- Frost, Jennifer (2011). Hedda Hopper's Hollywood: Celebrity Gossip and American Conservatism. NYU Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-814-72824-3.
- Andrew O'Hehir (2015-11-04). ""Trumbo" and the long, dark shadow of the blacklist: How a Hollywood gossip columnist launched the culture wars". Salon Magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Larry Ceplair, Steve Englund (1983). The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960. University of California Press. p. 211.
- Manchel, Frank (1990). Film Study: An Analytical Bibliography. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 1081. ISBN 978-0-8386-3412-7. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Stephen Farber (2001-04-23). "Spartacus". Criterion.com. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Mark Frankel. "Spartacus (1960)". TCM.com. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- FROST, JENNIFER (2007). [www.jstor.org/stable/41054077 "'GOOD RIDDANCE TO BAD COMPANY': HEDDA HOPPER, HOLLYWOOD GOSSIP, AND THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST CHARLIE CHAPLIN, 1940-1952"] Check
|url=value (help). Australasian Journal of American Studies. 26 (2): 74–88.
- John Sbardellati & Tony Shaw (2003). "Booting a Tramp: Charlie Chaplin, the FBI, and the Construction of the Subversive Image in Red Scare America" (PDF). Pacific Historical Review, University of California Press. p. 507-508. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
- Town & Country
- Dunning, John. (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. P. 118.
- Donnelley, Paul (2005). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus. p. 497. ISBN 1-84449-430-6.
- Houseman, Victoria (1991). Made in Heaven: The Marriages and Children of Hollywood Stars. Bonus Books. p. 150. ISBN 0-929387-24-4.
- "Hedda Hopper, Columnist, Dies; Chronicled Gossip of Hollywood; Confidante of Leading Stars Noted for Flamboyant Hats and Caustic Comments". Associated Press in The New York Times. February 2, 1966. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
Hedda Hopper, the Hollywood gossip columnist, died in Cedars of Lebanon Hospital today of double pneumonia with heart complications. She was 75 (sic) years old.
- Donnelley, Paul (2005). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus. p. 498. ISBN 1-84449-430-6.
- O'Toole, Christine (2012). Pennsylvania Off the Beaten Path®, 11th: A Guide to Unique Places. Globe Pequot. p. 158. ISBN 0-762-78615-9.
- "Hollywood Star Walk". latimes.com. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hedda Hopper.|
- Frost, Jennifer. "Hedda Hopper, Hollywood Gossip, and the Politics of Racial Representation in Film, 1946–1948," Journal of African American History, 93 (Winter 2008), 36–63.