Hedjhotep

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Hedjhotep in hieroglyphs
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Hedjhotep
ḥḏ-ḥtp

Hedjhotep (also Hedj-hotep from ḥḏ-ḥtp) was a minor[1] ancient Egyptian deity, a god of fabrics and clothes[2][3] and, to a lesser extent, of weaving and the deceased.[4] Hedjhotep is sometimes described as a goddess rather than a god,[5] holding a wadj-scepter and ankh sign.[6] He possibly originated from the northern part of Middle Egypt.[7]

The earliest attestations of Hedjhotep date back to the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, when he appears in spells of the Coffin Texts including spells 779 and 908.[1][8]

A cult center of Hedjhotep might have existed at the time east of the Faiyum in el Lahun.[1] It is in nearby Harageh that archaeological excavations unearthed the only stele known to be dedicated explicitely to Hedjhotep, stele AEIN 1540,[9][10] from the tomb of a man named Nebipu who held the titles of "libationer" and "keeper of clothing".[7] The onomastic of individuals who lived in the region of Heracleopolis Magna during the Middle Kingdom indicates that Hedjhotep then benefitted from a growing cult and dedicated priesthood.[7] In spite of this, Hedjhotep does not seem to have been honoured by dedicated priests in subsequent periods of Ancient Egyptian history, during which he appears only sporadically on sarcophagi and liturgical contexts centered on rituals devoted to the king.[11]

In parallel with these developments, the New Kingdom sees Hedjhotep being given medicinal roles. He is invoked with Shezmu, the god of the preparation of ungents, in the treatment of headache and stomach-ache,[12] and in the making of amulets where he is in charge of their cords.[12] Another papyrus of the same time period presents Hedjhotep as a dichotomy: beneficial as a god of clothing but harmful as a deity who committed an offence against Montu,[13] possibly running away with one of his divine wives[14] or having forced a sexual relation on him similar to what happens in The Contendings of Horus and Seth.[15] From this time onwards, Hedjhotep is often associated with a goddess of weaving named Tayt as well as with Renenutet.

Hedjhotep is more frequently honoured during the Late Period, Ptolemaic Kingdom andRoman period, when he is shown replacing Horus as the son of Isis in scenes of cloth-offerings. The latest period sees the development of a syncretism with the god Shu, making of Hedjhotep a son of Ra and the first to have dressed the naked, having invented clothing. Hedjhotep nonetheless remains primarily the god who creates the clothes of the king, the gods and the deceased, thereby stimulating their resurrection.[16]

References and sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Zecchi 2001, p. 5.
  2. ^ Zecchi 2001, p. 10.
  3. ^ Lorton 2001, p. 67.
  4. ^ Zecchi 2001, p. 18.
  5. ^ Boeser 1915, p. 6, tav. Vd.
  6. ^ Zecchi 2001, p. 9.
  7. ^ a b c Zecchi 2001, p. 6.
  8. ^ Faulkner 1977, pp. 154 & 305.
  9. ^ Engelbach & Gunn 1923, p. 26, pl. XXIV.2 & LXXI.
  10. ^ Koefoed-Petersen 1948, pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ Zecchi 2001, pp. 6–7.
  12. ^ a b Zecchi 2001, p. 7.
  13. ^ Abd El-Mohsen 1966, p. 28, pl. XVIII.
  14. ^ Borghouts 1981, p. 11–22.
  15. ^ Zecchi 2001, p. 8.
  16. ^ Zecchi 2001, p. 19.

Sources[edit]

Abd El-Mohsen, Bakir (1966). The Cairo Calendar No. 86637. Cairo: General Organisation for Government Printing Offices : Antiquities Department of Egypt. OCLC 1024642203.
Backes, Burkhard (2001): Rituelle Wirklichkeit, Über Erscheinung und Wirkungsbereich des Webergottes Hedjhotep und den gedanklichen Umgang mit einer Gottes-Konzeption im Alten Ägypten, Brussels, ISBN 978-2-503-51285-3
Boeser, P.A.A. (1915). Beschreibung der aegyptischen Sammlung des Niederländischen Reichsmuseums der Altertümer in Leiden. VII: Die Denkmäler der saïtischen, grie-chisch römischen und Koptischen zeit. Leiden: E.J. Brill. OCLC 492998807.
Borghouts, J. F. (1981). "Monthu and matrimonial squabbles". Revue d'Égyptologie. 33: 11&ndash, 22.
Engelbach, Reginald; Gunn, Battiscombe (1923). "Harageh". 28. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Acount. OCLC 166061822.
Faulkner, R. O. (1977). The ancient Egyptian coffin texts, Volume II, Spells 355-787. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. ISBN 9780856680519.
Koefoed-Petersen, Otto (1948). Les stèles égyptiennes (in French). 1. Copenhagen: Publications de la Glyptothèque Ny Carlsberg. OCLC 884603485.
Lorton, Claude Traunecker (2001). The gods of Egypt (translation from the French by David ed.). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-3834-9.
Zecchi, Marco (2001). "The god Hedjhotep". Chronique d'Égypte. LXXVI: 5&ndash, 19.