Publicity photo (c. 1944)
Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler
November 9, 1914
|Died||January 19, 2000 (aged 85)|
Casselberry, Florida, U.S.
After a brief early film career in Czechoslovakia, including the controversial Ecstasy (1933), she fled from her husband, a wealthy Austrian ammunition manufacturer, and secretly moved to Paris. Traveling to London, she met Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) studio head Louis B. Mayer, who offered her a movie contract in Hollywood. She became a film star with her performance in Algiers (1938). Her MGM films include Lady of the Tropics (1939), Boom Town (1940), H.M. Pulham, Esq. (1941), and White Cargo (1942). Her greatest success was as Delilah in Cecil B. DeMille's Samson and Delilah (1949). She also acted on television before the release of her final film, The Female Animal (1958). She was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960.
At the beginning of World War II, she and composer George Antheil developed a radio guidance system for Allied torpedoes, intended to use frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology to defeat the threat of jamming by the Axis powers. Although the US Navy did not adopt the technology until the 1960s, various spread-spectrum techniques are incorporated into Bluetooth technology and are similar to methods used in legacy versions of Wi-Fi. This work led to their induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2014.
- 1 Early life
- 2 European film career
- 3 Hollywood career
- 4 Inventor
- 5 Marriages and children
- 6 Later years
- 7 Awards
- 8 Filmography
- 9 Television
- 10 Radio appearances
- 11 In popular culture
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Lamarr was born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler in 1914 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, the only child of Gertrud "Trude" Kiesler (née Lichtwitz; 1894–1977) and Emil Kiesler (1880–1935). Her father was born to a Galician-Jewish family in Lemberg (now Lviv in Ukraine) and was a successful bank director. Her mother, Trude, a pianist and Budapest native, had come from an upper-class Hungarian-Jewish family. She converted to Catholicism and raised her daughter Hedy as a Christian as well.:8
As a child, Lamarr showed an interest in acting and was fascinated by theatre and film. At the age of 12, she won a beauty contest in Vienna.
Lamarr helped get her mother out of Austria after the Anschluss and to the United States, where Gertrud later became an American citizen. She put "Hebrew" as her race on her petition for naturalization, a term then often used in Europe.
European film career
Lamarr was taking acting classes in Vienna when one day, she forged a note from her mother and went to Sascha-Film and was able to get herself hired as a script girl. While there, she was able to get a role as an extra in Money on the Street (1930), and then a small speaking part in Storm in a Water Glass (1931). Producer Max Reinhardt then cast her in a play entitled The Weaker Sex, which was performed at the Theater in der Josefstadt. Reinhardt was so impressed with her that he brought her with him back to Berlin.
However, she never actually trained with Reinhardt or appeared in any of his Berlin productions. Instead, she met the Russian theatre producer Alexis Granowsky, who cast her in his film directorial debut, The Trunks of Mr. O.F. (1931), starring Walter Abel and Peter Lorre. Granowsky soon moved to Paris, but Lamarr stayed in Berlin and was given the lead role in No Money Needed (1932), a comedy directed by Carl Boese. Lamarr then starred in the film which made her internationally famous.
In early 1933, at age 18, Lamarr, then working under the name Hedy Kiesler, her maiden name, was given the lead in Gustav Machatý's film Ecstasy (Ekstase in German, Extase in Czech). She played the neglected young wife of an indifferent older man.
The film became both celebrated and notorious for showing Lamarr's face in the throes of an orgasm, which according to Marie Benedict's book "The Only Woman In The Room" was instigated by someone sticking her with a pin. There were also closeups and brief nude scenes, a result of her being "duped" by the director and producer, who used high-power telephoto lenses.[b]
Although she was dismayed and now disillusioned about taking other roles, the film gained world recognition after winning an award in Rome. Throughout Europe, it was regarded as an artistic work. In America it was considered overly sexual and received negative publicity, especially among women's groups. It was banned there and in Germany.
Lamarr had played a number of stage roles, including a starring one in Sissy, a play about Empress Elisabeth of Austria produced in Vienna (in early 1933, just as Ecstasy premiered). It won accolades from critics. Admirers sent roses to her dressing room and tried to get backstage to meet her. She sent most of them away, including a man who was more insistent, Friedrich Mandl. He became obsessed with getting to know her.
Mandl was a Viennese arms merchant and munitions manufacturer who was reputedly the third-richest man in Austria. She fell for his charming and fascinating personality, partly due to his immense wealth. Her parents, both of Jewish descent, did not approve, due to Mandl's ties to Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini, and later, German Führer Adolf Hitler, but they could not stop the headstrong Lamarr.
On August 10, 1933, at the age of 18, Lamarr married Mandl, then 33. The son of a Jewish father and a Catholic mother, Mandl insisted that Lamarr convert to Catholicism before their wedding in the Vienna Karlskirche. In her autobiography Ecstasy and Me, she described Mandl as an extremely controlling husband who strongly objected to her simulated orgasm scene in Ecstasy and prevented her from pursuing her acting career. She claimed she was kept a virtual prisoner in their castle home, Castle Schwarzenau in the remote Waldviertel near the Czech border.
Mandl had close social and business ties to the Italian government, selling munitions to the country, and had ties to the Nazi regime of Germany. This despite his own father being Jewish, just like Lamarr's. Lamarr wrote that both Mussolini and Hitler attended lavish parties at the Mandl home. Lamarr accompanied Mandl to business meetings, where he conferred with scientists and other professionals involved in military technology. These conferences were her introduction to the field of applied science and nurtured her latent talent in science.
Lamarr's marriage to Mandl eventually became unbearable, and she decided to flee her husband as well as her country. In her autobiography, she wrote that she disguised herself as her maid and fled to Paris, but by other accounts, she persuaded Mandl to let her wear all of her jewelry for a dinner party, then disappeared afterward. She writes about her marriage:
I knew very soon that I could never be an actress while I was his wife. ... He was the absolute monarch in his marriage. ... I was like a doll. I was like a thing, some object of art which had to be guarded—and imprisoned—having no mind, no life of its own.:28–29
Louis B. Mayer and MGM
After arriving in London in 1937, she met Louis B. Mayer, head of MGM, who was scouting for talent in Europe. She initially turned down the offer he made her (of $125 a week), but then booked herself onto the same New York bound liner as him, and managed to impress him enough to secure a $500 a week contract. Mayer persuaded her to change her name from Hedwig Kiesler (to distance herself from "the Ecstasy lady" reputation associated with it), choosing the surname "Lamarr" in homage to the beautiful silent film star, Barbara La Marr, on the suggestion of his wife Margaret Shenberg, who admired La Marr.
Mayer brought Lamarr to Hollywood in 1938 and began promoting her as the "world's most beautiful woman". He then introduced her to producer Walter Wanger, who was making Algiers (1938), an American version of the French film, Pépé le Moko (1937). Lamarr was cast in the lead opposite Charles Boyer. The film created a "national sensation", says Shearer.:77 She was billed as an unknown but well-publicized Austrian actress, which created anticipation in audiences. Mayer hoped she would become another Greta Garbo or Marlene Dietrich.:77 According to one viewer, when her face first appeared on the screen, "everyone gasped ... Lamarr's beauty literally took one's breath away.":2
In future Hollywood films, she was invariably typecast as the archetypal glamorous seductress of exotic origin. Her second American film was to be I Take This Woman, co-starring with Spencer Tracy under the direction of regular Dietrich collaborator, Josef von Sternberg. Von Sternberg was fired during the shoot, replaced by Frank Borzage. The film was put on hold, and Lamarr was put into Lady of the Tropics (1939), where she played a mixed-race seductress in Saigon opposite Robert Taylor. She returned to I Take This Woman, re-shot by W. S. Van Dyke. The resulting film was a flop.
Far more popular was Boom Town (1940) with Clark Gable, Claudette Colbert and Spencer Tracy; it made $5 million. MGM promptly reteamed Lamarr and Gable in Comrade X (1940), a comedy film in the vein of Ninotchka (1939), which was another hit.
Lamarr was teamed with James Stewart in Come Live with Me (1941), playing a Viennese refugee. Stewart was also in Ziegfeld Girl (1941), where Lamarr, Judy Garland and Lana Turner played aspiring showgirls – a big success.
Lamarr was top-billed in H. M. Pulham, Esq. (1941), although the film's protagonist was the title role played by Robert Young. She made a third film with Tracy, Tortilla Flat (1942). It was successful at the box office, as was Crossroads (1942) with William Powell.
Lamarr played the seductive native girl Tondelayo in White Cargo (1942), top-billed over Walter Pidgeon. It was a huge hit. White Cargo contains arguably her most memorable film quote, delivered with provocative invitation: "I am Tondelayo. I make tiffin for you?" This line typifies many of Lamarr's roles, which emphasized her beauty and sensuality while giving her relatively few lines. The lack of acting challenges bored Lamarr. She reportedly took up inventing to relieve her boredom.
She was reunited with Powell in a comedy The Heavenly Body (1944), then was borrowed by Warner Bros for The Conspirators (1944). This was an attempt to repeat the success of Casablanca (1943), and RKO borrowed her for a melodrama Experiment Perilous (1944).
Back at MGM Lamarr was teamed with Robert Walker in the romantic comedy Her Highness and the Bellboy (1945), playing a princess who falls in love with a New Yorker. It was very popular, but would be the last film she made under her MGM contract.
Her off-screen life and personality during those years was quite different from her screen image. She spent much of her time feeling lonely and homesick. She might swim at her agent's pool, but shunned the beaches and staring crowds. When asked for an autograph, she wondered why anyone would want it. Writer Howard Sharpe interviewed her and gave his impression:
Hedy has the most incredible personal sophistication. She knows the peculiarly European art of being womanly; she knows what men want in a beautiful woman, what attracts them, and she forces herself to be these things. She has magnetism with warmth, something that neither Dietrich nor Garbo has managed to achieve.
Of all the European émigrés who escaped Nazi Germany and Nazi Austria, she was one of the very few who succeeded in moving to another culture and becoming a full-fledged star herself. There were so very few who could make the transition linguistically or culturally. She really was a resourceful human being–I think because of her father's strong influence on her as a child.
Lamarr wanted to join the National Inventors Council, but was reportedly told by NIC member Charles F. Kettering and others that she could better help the war effort by using her celebrity status to sell war bonds.
She participated in a war bond-selling campaign with a sailor named Eddie Rhodes. Rhodes was in the crowd at each Lamarr appearance, and she would call him up on stage. She would briefly flirt with him before asking the audience if she should give him a kiss. The crowd would say yes, to which Hedy would reply that she would if enough people bought war bonds. After enough bonds were purchased, she would kiss Rhodes and he would head back into the audience. Then they would head off to the next war bond rally.
She and Chertok then made Dishonored Lady (1947), another thriller starring Lamarr, which also went over budget – but was not a commercial success. She tried a comedy with Robert Cummings, Let's Live a Little (1948).
Lamarr enjoyed her greatest success playing Delilah opposite Victor Mature as the biblical strongman in Cecil B. DeMille's Samson and Delilah, the highest-grossing film of 1950. The film also won two Academy Awards, for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design. She won critical acclaim for her portrayal of Delilah. Showmen's Trade Review previewed the film before its release and commended Lamarr's performance: "Miss Lamarr is just about everyone's conception of the fair-skinned, dark-haired, beauteous Delilah, a role tailor-made for her, and her best acting chore to date." Photoplay wrote, "As Delilah, Hedy Lamarr is treacherous and tantalizing, her charms enhanced by Technicolor."
Lamarr returned to MGM for a film noir with John Hodiak, A Lady Without Passport (1950), which flopped. More popular were two pictures she made at Paramount, a Western with Ray Milland, Copper Canyon (1950), and a Bob Hope spy spoof, My Favorite Spy (1951).
Her career went into decline. She went to Italy to play multiple roles in Loves of Three Queens (1954), which she also produced. However she lacked the experience necessary to make a success of such an epic production, and lost millions of dollars when she was unable to secure distribution of the picture.
She was Joan of Arc in Irwin Allen's critically panned epic, The Story of Mankind (1957) and did episodes of Zane Grey Theatre ("Proud Woman") and Shower of Stars ("Cloak and Dagger"). Her last film was a thriller The Female Animal (1958).
Lamarr was signed to act in the 1966 film Picture Mommy Dead, but was let go when she collapsed during filming from nervous exhaustion. She was replaced in the role of Jessica Flagmore Shelley by Zsa Zsa Gabor.
Although Lamarr had no formal training and was primarily self-taught, she worked in her spare time on various hobbies and inventions, which included an improved traffic stoplight and a tablet that would dissolve in water to create a carbonated drink. The beverage was unsuccessful; Lamarr herself said it tasted like Alka-Seltzer.
Among the few who knew of Lamarr's inventiveness was aviation tycoon Howard Hughes. She suggested he change the rather square design of his aeroplanes (which she thought looked too slow) to a more streamlined shape, based on pictures of the fastest birds and fish she could find. Lamarr discussed her relationship with Hughes during an interview, saying that while they dated, he actively supported her inventive "tinkering" hobbies. He put his team of scientists and engineers at her disposal, saying they would do or make anything she asked for.
During World War II, Lamarr learned that radio-controlled torpedoes, an emerging technology in naval war, could easily be jammed and set off course. She thought of creating a frequency-hopping signal that could not be tracked or jammed. She contacted her friend, composer and pianist George Antheil, to help her develop a device for doing that, and he succeeded by synchronizing a miniaturized player-piano mechanism with radio signals. They drafted designs for the frequency-hopping system, which they patented. Antheil recalled:
We began talking about the war, which, in the late summer of 1940, was looking most extremely black. Hedy said that she did not feel very comfortable, sitting there in Hollywood and making lots of money when things were in such a state. She said that she knew a good deal about munitions and various secret weapons ... and that she was thinking seriously of quitting MGM and going to Washington, DC, to offer her services to the newly established National Inventors Council.
Their invention was granted a patent under US Patent 2,292,387 on August 11, 1942 (filed using her married name Hedy Kiesler Markey). However, it was technologically difficult to implement, and at that time the U.S. Navy was not receptive to considering inventions coming from outside the military. In 1962 (at the time of the Cuban missile crisis), an updated version of their design at last appeared on Navy ships.
In 1997, Lamarr and Antheil received the Electronic Frontier Foundation Pioneer Award and the Bulbie Gnass Spirit of Achievement Bronze Award, given to individuals whose creative lifetime achievements in the arts, sciences, business, or invention fields have significantly contributed to society. Lamarr was featured on the Science Channel and the Discovery Channel. In 2014, Lamarr and Antheil were posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Marriages and children
Lamarr was married and divorced six times and had three children:
- Friedrich Mandl (married 1933–37), chairman of the Hirtenberger Patronen-Fabrik
- Gene Markey (married 1939–41), screenwriter and producer. She adopted a child, James Lamarr Markey (born January 9, 1939) during her marriage with Markey. (He was later adopted by Loder and was thereafter known as James Lamarr Loder.) Lamarr and Markey lived at 2727 Benedict Canyon Drive in Beverly Hills, California during their marriage.
- John Loder (married 1943–47), actor. Children: Denise Loder (born January 19, 1945), married Larry Colton, a writer and former baseball player; and Anthony Loder (born February 1, 1947), married Roxanne who worked for illustrator James McMullan. Anthony Loder was featured in the 2004 documentary film Calling Hedy Lamarr.
- Ernest "Ted" Stauffer (married 1951–52), nightclub owner, restaurateur, and former bandleader
- W. Howard Lee (married 1953–60), a Texas oilman (who later married film actress Gene Tierney)
- Lewis J. Boies (married 1963–65), Lamarr's divorce lawyer
Following her sixth and final divorce in 1965, Lamarr remained unmarried for the last 35 years of her life.
Throughout, she claimed that James Lamarr Markey/Loder was biologically unrelated and adopted during her marriage to Gene Markey. However, years later James found documentation that he was the out-of-wedlock son of Lamarr and actor John Loder, whom she later married as her third husband. She had two more children with him: Denise (born 1945) and Anthony (born 1947) during their marriage.
Lamarr became a naturalized citizen of the United States at age 38 on April 10, 1953. Her autobiography, Ecstasy and Me, was published in 1966, although she said on TV that it was not written by her, and much of it was fictional. Lamarr later sued the publisher, saying that many details were fabricated by its ghost writer, Leo Guild. Lamarr, in turn, was sued by Gene Ringgold, who asserted that the book plagiarized material from an article he had written in 1965 for Screen Facts magazine.
In 1966, Lamarr was arrested in Los Angeles for shoplifting. The charges were eventually dropped. In 1991, she was arrested on the same charge in Florida, this time for stealing $21.48 worth of laxatives and eye drops. She pleaded no contest to avoid a court appearance, and the charges were dropped in return for her promise to refrain from breaking any laws for a year. The shoplifting charges coincided with a failed attempt to return to the screen.
The 1970s were a decade of increasing seclusion for Lamarr. She was offered several scripts, television commercials, and stage projects, but none piqued her interest. In 1974, she filed a $10 million lawsuit against Warner Bros., claiming that the running parody of her name ("Hedley Lamarr") in the Mel Brooks comedy Blazing Saddles infringed her right to privacy. Brooks said he was flattered; the studio settled out of court for an undisclosed nominal sum and an apology to Lamarr for "almost using her name". Brooks said that Lamarr "never got the joke". With her eyesight failing, Lamarr retreated from public life and settled in Miami Beach, Florida, in 1981.
A large Corel-drawn image of Lamarr won CorelDRAW's yearly software suite cover design contest in 1996. For several years, beginning in 1997, it was featured on boxes of the software suite. Lamarr sued the company for using her image without her permission. Corel countered that she did not own rights to the image. The parties reached an undisclosed settlement in 1998.
Lamarr became estranged from her adopted son, James Lamarr Loder, when he was 12 years old. Their relationship ended abruptly, and he moved in with another family. They did not speak again for almost 50 years. Lamarr left James Loder out of her will, and he sued for control of the US$3.3 million estate left by Lamarr in 2000. He eventually settled for US$50,000.
In the last decades of her life, the telephone became Lamarr's only means of communication with the outside world, even with her children and close friends. She often talked up to six or seven hours a day on the phone, but she spent hardly any time with anyone in person in her final years. A documentary, Calling Hedy Lamarr, was released in 2004 and featured her children, Anthony Loder and Denise Loder-DeLuca.
In 1997, Lamarr and George Antheil were jointly honored with the Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer Award and Lamarr also was the first woman to receive the Invention Convention's BULBIE Gnass Spirit of Achievement Award, known as the "Oscars of inventing".
|1930||Money on the Street||Young Girl||Georg Alexander||Original title: Geld auf der Straße|
|1931||Storm in a Water Glass||Secretary||Paul Otto||Original title: Sturm im Wasserglas|
|1931||The Trunks of Mr. O.F.||Helene||Alfred Abel||Original title: Die Koffer des Herrn O.F.|
|1932||No Money Needed||Käthe Brandt||Heinz Rühmann||Original title: Man braucht kein Geld|
|1933||Ecstasy||Eva Hermann||Aribert Mog||Original title: Ekstase|
|1939||Lady of the Tropics||Manon deVargnes Carey||Robert Taylor|
|1940||I Take This Woman||Georgi Gragore Decker||Spencer Tracy|
|1940||Boom Town||Karen Vanmeer||Clark Gable|
|1940||Comrade X||Golubka/ Theodore Yahupitz/ Lizvanetchka "Lizzie"||Clark Gable|
|1941||Come Live With Me||Johnny Jones||James Stewart|
|1941||Ziegfeld Girl||Sandra Kolter||James Stewart|
|1941||H.M. Pulham, Esq.||Marvin Myles Ransome||Robert Young|
|1942||Tortilla Flat||Dolores Ramirez||Spencer Tracy|
|1942||Crossroads||Lucienne Talbot||William Powell|
|1942||White Cargo||Tondelayo||Walter Pidgeon|
|1944||The Heavenly Body||Vicky Whitley||William Powell|
|1944||The Conspirators||Irene Von Mohr||Paul Henreid|
|1944||Experiment Perilous||Allida Bederaux||George Brent|
|1945||Her Highness and the Bellboy||Princess Veronica||Robert Walker|
|1946||The Strange Woman||Jenny Hager||George Sanders||and Producer|
|1947||Dishonored Lady||Madeleine Damien||Dennis O'Keefe||and Producer|
|1948||Let's Live a Little||Dr. J.O. Loring||Robert Cummings||and Producer|
|1949||Samson and Delilah||Delilah||Victor Mature||Her first film in Technicolor|
|1950||A Lady Without Passport||Marianne Lorress||John Hodiak|
|1950||Copper Canyon||Lisa Roselle||Ray Milland|
|1951||My Favorite Spy||Lily Dalbray||Bob Hope|
|1954||Loves of Three Queens||Helen of Troy,
Joséphine de Beauharnais,
Genevieve of Brabant
|Original title: L'amante di Paride|
|1957||The Story of Mankind||Joan of Arc||Ronald Colman|
|1958||The Female Animal||Vanessa Windsor||George Nader|
|1957||Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre||"Proud Woman"|
Hedy Lamarr starred in the following radio dramas:
|1941||Lux Radio Theatre||"Algiers"|
|1941||Lux Radio Theatre||"The Bride Came C.O.D."|
|1942||The Screen Guild Theater||"Too Many Husbands"|
|1942||Lux Radio Theatre||"H. M. Pulham, Esq."|
|1942||Lux Radio Theatre||"Love Crazy"|
|1943||The Screen Guild Theater||"Come Live with Me"|
|1944||Lux Radio Theatre||"Casablanca"|
|1944||Silver Theater||"She Looked Like an Angel"|
|1945||Radio Hall of Fame||"Experiment Perilous"|
|1951||Lux Radio Theatre||"Samson and Delilah"|
In popular culture
The Mel Brooks 1974 western parody Blazing Saddles features a male villain named "Hedley Lamarr". As a running gag, various characters mistakenly refer to him as "Hedy Lamarr" prompting him to testily reply "That's Hedley."
In the 1982 off-Broadway musical Little Shop of Horrors and subsequent film adaptation (1986), Audrey II says to Seymour in the song "Feed Me" that he can get Seymour anything he wants, including "A date with Hedy Lamarr."
In 2008, an off-Broadway play, Frequency Hopping, features the lives of Lamarr and Antheil. The play was written and staged by Elyse Singer, and the script won a prize for best new play about science and technology from STAGE.
Also during 2010, the New York Public Library exhibit Thirty Years of Photography at the New York Public Library included a photo of a topless Lamarr (c. 1930) by Austrian-born American photographer Trude Fleischmann.
In 2011, the story of Lamarr's frequency-hopping spread spectrum invention was explored in an episode of the Science Channel show Dark Matters: Twisted But True, a series that explores the darker side of scientific discovery and experimentation, which premiered on September 7. Her work in improving wireless security was part of the premiere episode of the Discovery Channel show How We Invented the World.
Also during 2011, Anne Hathaway revealed that she had learned that the original Catwoman was based on Lamarr, so she studied all of Lamarr's films and incorporated some of her breathing techniques into her portrayal of Catwoman in the 2012 film The Dark Knight Rises.
In 2015, on November 9, the 101st anniversary of Lamarr's birth, Google paid tribute to Lamarr's work in film and her contributions to scientific advancement with an animated Google Doodle.
In 2017, actress Celia Massingham portrayed Lamarr on The CW television series Legends of Tomorrow in the sixth episode of the third season, titled "Helen Hunt". The episode is set in 1937 "Hollywoodland" and references Lamarr's reputation as an inventor. The episode aired on November 14, 2017.
Also during 2017, Bombshell: The Hedy Lamarr Story, written and directed by Alexandra Dean and produced by Susan Sarandon, a documentary about Lamarr's career as an actress and later as an inventor, premiered at the 2017 Tribeca Film Festival. It was released in theaters on November 24, 2017, and aired on PBS American Masters in May 2018.
Asteroid 32730 Lamarr, discovered by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in 1951, was named in her memory. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on August 27, 2019 (M.P.C. 115894).
Batman co-creator Bob Kane was a great movie fan and his love for film provided the impetus for several Batman characters, among them, Catwoman. Among Kane's inspiration for Catwoman were Lamarr and actress Jean Harlow.
- According to Lamarr biographer Stephen Michael Shearer (pp. 8, 339), she was born in 1914, not 1913.
- When Lamarr applied for the role, she had little experience nor understood the planned filming. Anxious for the job, she signed the contract without reading it. When, during an outdoor scene, the director told her to disrobe, she protested and threatened to quit, but he said that if she refused, she would have to pay for the cost of all the scenes already filmed. To calm her, he said they were using "long shots" in any case, and no intimate details would be visible. At the preview in Prague, sitting next to the director, when she saw the numerous close-ups produced with telephoto lenses, she screamed at him for tricking her. She left the theater in tears, worried about her parents' reaction and that it might have ruined her budding career.
- "Hedy Lamarr: Inventor of more than the 1st theatrical-film orgasm". Los Angeles Times. November 28, 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "Hedy Lamarr's Great Escape". Archived from the original on April 4, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- Severo, Richard (January 20, 2000). "Hedy Lamarr, Sultry Star Who Reigned in Hollywood Of 30's and 40's, Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
- Haskell, Molly (December 10, 2010). "European Exotic". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "Hedy Lamarr". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
- "Movie Legend Hedy Lamarr to be Given Special Award at EFF's Sixth Annual Pioneer Awards" (Press release). Electronic Frontier Foundation. March 11, 1997. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- "short history of spread spectrum". Electronic Engineering (EE) Times. January 26, 2012. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018.
- "Hollywood star whose invention paved the way for Wi-Fi", New Scientist, December 8, 2011; retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Craddock, Ashley (March 11, 1997). "Privacy Implications of Hedy Lamarr's Idea". Wired. Condé Nast Digital. Archived from the original on August 5, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "Hedy Lamarr Inventor" (PDF). The New York Times. October 1, 1941. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 10, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- "Spotlight – National Inventors Hall of Fame". invent.org. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Shearer, Stephen Michael (2010). Beautiful: The Life of Hedy Lamarr. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-55098-1.
- Barton 2010, pp. 12–13.
- "USA Science Festival". Role Models in Science & Engineering Achievement. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Barton 2010, pp. 16–19.
- Barton 2010, pp. 21–22.
- Barton 2010, p. 25.
- "A Candid Portrait of Hedy Lamarr", Liberty magazine, December 1938, pp. 18–19.
- "Czech Film Series 2009–2010 – Gustav Machatý: Ecstasy" (PDF). Russian & East European Institute, Indiana University. September 2, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- Extraordinary Women: Hedy Lamarr, documentary, 2011.
- "Photo of Hedy Lamarr as "Queen Sissy"". Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017 – via Pinterest.
- Rhodes, Richard (2011). Hedy's Folly: The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr, the Most Beautiful Woman in the World. New York: Doubleday Publishing Group.
- "A Movie Star, Some Player Pianos, and Torpedoes". Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. November 12, 2015. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017.
- "Happy 100th birthday, Hedy Lamarr, movie star who paved way for Wi-Fi". CNET. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Friedrich, Otto (1997). City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s (reprint ed.). University of California Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-520-20949-4.
- Donnelley, Paul. Fade to Black: 1500 Movie Obituaries, Omnibus Press (2010), p. 639.
- Katz, Ephraim. The Film Encyclopedia, 3rd ed. HarperPerennial (1998), p. 780.
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
- "'Most Beautiful Woman' By Day, Inventor By Night". NPR. November 22, 2011. Archived from the original on April 29, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Hedy Lamarr Archived July 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, TCM Full Filmography
- "Bombshell: Interview with Richard Rhodes on Hedy Lamarr" Archived April 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Sloan Science and Film, April 18, 2017.
- Scholtz, Robert A. (May 1982). "The Origins of Spread-Spectrum Communications". IEEE Transactions on Communications. 30 (5): 822. Bibcode:1982ITCom..30..822S. doi:10.1109/tcom.1982.1095547.
- Price, Robert (January 1983). "Further Notes and Anecdotes on Spread-Spectrum Origins". IEEE Transactions on Communications. 31 (1): 85. doi:10.1109/tcom.1983.1095725.
- Wayne, Robert L. "Moses" Speaks to His Grandchildren, Dog Ear Publishing (2014); ISBN 978-1-4575-3321-1, pg. 19.
- Balio, Tino (2009). United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-23004-3. p203
- "The Box-Office Slant: Samson and Delilah". Showmen's Trade Review. 51 (17): 16–17. October 22, 1949. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Branden, Elsa (February 1950). "Shadow Stage". Photoplay. 37 (2): 26. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Martin, Betty. "Duo Slated for 5 Pictures", Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif], January 21, 1966: c6.
- "Hedy Lamarr Fired From Comeback Film: HEDY LAMARR Berman", Art. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif], February 4, 1966: 3.
- O'Brien, Elle. "5 facts about Hedy Lamarr, star, inventor, wartime code maker". Massive Science. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
- "How Inventive “Genius” Hedy Lamarr Became a Hollywood Tragedy" Archived April 23, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Vanity Fair, April 20, 2017.
- "Hedy Lamarr – actor, inventor, amateur engineer". The Science Show. July 5, 2014. 7 minutes in. Radio National. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014.
- video: "Hedy Lamarr: Actress and inventor", ABC, 4 min.
- "Hedy Lamarr: Movie star, inventor of WiFi". CBS News. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- USPTO. "Patent 2,292,387 Full Text". United States Patent and Trademark Office. USPTO. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Long, Tony (August 11, 2011). "This Day in Tech: Aug. 11, 1942: Actress + Piano Player=New Torpedo". Wired. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Honorary grave for Hollywood pin-up". Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
- "Hedy Lamarr: Secret Communication System". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Ivanis, Daniel J. "The stars come out: Recruiting ad featuring Hedy Lamarr creates 'buzz't". Boeing Frontiers. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- 1940 US Census via Ancestry.com
- To Tell The Truth – Hedy Lamarr + Anthony Loder + Denise Loder Deluca. YouTube. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- "Calling Hedy Lamarr". Mischief Films. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- "Hedy Lamarr Adopts Baby Boy", nytimes.com; accessed June 3, 2017.
- "Hedy News: Lamarr's Son not Adopted". New York Post. February 5, 2001. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "Hedy Lamarr Biography". Archived from the original on December 30, 2011.
- Hedy Lamarr, 1969 TV Interview Archived October 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine on The Merv Griffin Show with Woody Allen, 1969
- "Hedy Lamarr Loses Fight to Stop Autobiography". The Tuscaloosa News. September 27, 1966. p. 12 – via Google Newspapers.
- "Hedy Lamarr Loses Suit to Halt Book", The New York Times, September 27, 1966, p. 74.
- "Lamarr Autobiography Prompts Plagiarism Suit", The New York Times, February 7, 1967, p. 18.
- "Hedy Lamarr in 1950s Aspen" by Tim Willoughby, The Aspen Times Weekly (March 22, 2012)
- Barton 2010, p. 194.
- "Aspen Filmfest Docu Sheds Light on Aspen's Most Beautiful and Brilliant Part-Time Resident" by David Stillman Meyer, Aspen Peak, October 10, 2017
- "Google Doodle of the day: Who is Hedy Lamarr?" Archived April 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Palm Beach Post, November 9, 2015.
- Salamone, Debbie (October 24, 1991). "Hedy Lamarr Won't Face Theft Charges If She Stays In Line" Archived March 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Orlando Sentinel; retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Interview: Mel Brooks. Blazing Saddles (DVD). Burbank, California: Warner Brothers Pictures/Warner Home Video, 2004; ISBN 0-7907-5735-4.
- Barton 2010, p. 220.
- "Hedy Lamarr Sues Corel". April 7, 1998. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
- Sprenger, Polly (November 30, 1998). "Corel Caves to Actress Hedy Lamarr". Wired News. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013.
- "Hedy Lamarr". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "Hedy Lamarr". Los Angeles Times Hollywood Star Project. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "Court To Weigh Plea Of Lamarr's Estranged Son". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Hedy Lamarr's Adopted Son Trades Claim To Estate For $50,000". Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Moore, Roger (January 20, 2000). "Hedy Lamar: 1913-2000". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on November 15, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Honorary grave for Hollywood pin-up". thelocal.at. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- "Philly's Best". Boxoffice: 30–C. January 7, 1939.
- "Anna Neagle's Film Award". The Mercury (May 10, 1951). Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Privacy Implications of Hedy Lamarr's ,Idea". WIRED. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- "1940's Film Goddess Hedy Lamarr Responsible For Pioneering Spread Spectrum". inventionconvention.com. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- "Hedy Lamarr: Invention of Spread Spectrum Technology". www.women-inventors.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- "Inductee Detail". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- Barton 2010, p. 198.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: Algiers (July 7, 1941)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: The Bride Came C.O.D. (December 29, 1941)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: H.M. Pulham, Esq. (July 13, 1942)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: Love Crazy (October 5, 1942)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Screen Guild Theater: Come Live With Me (August 2, 1943)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: Casablanca (January 24, 1944)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Your Radio Hall Of Fame: Experiment Perilous (February 4, 1945)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "Lux Radio Theatre: Samson And Delilah (November 19, 1951)". YouTube. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Alan Menken (Ft. Lee Wilkof & Ron Taylor) – Sudden Changes/ Feed Me (Git it), archived from the original on October 31, 2018, retrieved October 30, 2018
- "Frequency Hopping". Hourglass Group. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- "BCS launches celebrity film campaign to raise profile of the IT industry". BCS. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- "Trude Fleischmann (American, 1895–1990): "Hedy Lamarr"". Recollection: Thirty Years of Photography at the New York Public Library. New York Public Library. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
- "Positively Poisonous, Medusa's Heroin, Beauty and Brains". Dark Matters: Twisted But True. Season 2. September 7, 2011. Science Channel. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- Genzlinger, Neil (March 18, 2013). "On the Origins of Gadgets". New York Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "'Dark Knight Rises' star Anne Hathaway: 'Gotham City is full of grace'". Los Angeles Times. December 29, 2011. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Hedy Lamarr's 101st birthday". Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- 'HEDY! The Life & Inventions of Hedy Lamarr' Extended by Popular Demand Archived January 31, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, broadwayworld.com, October 28, 2016.
- C. E. Gerber, "Hedy! : The Life and Inventions of Hedy Lamarr Review – Simple and Effective" Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, lasplash.com, November 14, 2016.
- "Stand Still & look Stupid – A play in three acts". The Life Story of Hedy Lamarr. Archived from the original on March 14, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Varnum, Janet (March 5, 2018). "Stand Still and Look Stupid". The Ark Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Topel, Fred (August 6, 2015). "Exclusive: 'Marvel's Agent Carter' Producers on Season Two Villain, Hollywood Setting, and Action". /Film. Archived from the original on August 8, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- Legends of Tomorrow ("Helen Hunt" on IMDb
- Thorpe, Vanessa (November 12, 2017). "Film tells how Hollywood star Hedy Lamarr helped to invent wifi". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- Timeless ("Hollywoodland") on IMDb
- Nast, Condé. "Gal Gadot Will Play Hedy Lamarr in a New Showtime Limited Series". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
- "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 32730 Lamarr (1951 RX)" (2019-05-11 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- Barton, Ruth (2010). Hedy Lamarr: The Most Beautiful Woman in Film. Lexington, Kentucky: The University of Kentucky Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8131-2604-3. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
- Lamarr, Hedy (1966). Ecstasy and Me: My Life as a Woman. New York: Bartholomew House. ASIN B0007DMMN8.
- Rhodes, Richard (2012). Hedy's Folly: The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-307-74295-7.
- Shearer, Stephen Michael (2010). Beautiful: The Life of Hedy Lamarr. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-55098-1.
- Young, Christopher (1979). The Films of Hedy Lamarr. New York: Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-0579-4.
- Benedict, Marie (2019). The Only Woman in the Room. Thorndike Press. ISBN 978-1-4328-5790-5.
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Hedy Lamarr on IMDb
- 107525|68054 Hedy Lamarr at the TCM Movie Database
- Official website
- Hedy Lamarr Foundation website
- Hedy Lamarr profile at the National Inventors Hall of Fame
- Patent 2292387, owned by Hedy Kiesler Markey AKA Hedy Lamarr
- Profile, women-inventors.com
- Hedy Lamarr at Reel Classics
- Happy 100th Birthday Hedy Lamarr, Movie Star who Paved the Way for Wifi at CNet
- "Most Beautiful Woman" by Day, Inventor by Night at NPR
- Hedy Lamarr at Inventions
- Hedy Lamarr: Q&A with Author Patrick Agan, Andre Soares, Alt Film Guide, c. 2013
- Hedy at a Hundred – the centenary of Lamarr's birth, in the Ames Tribune, November 2014
- "The unlikely life of inventor and Hollywood star Hedy Lamarr" (article and audio excerpts), Alex McClintock and Sharon Carleton, Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, July 14, 2014
- Episode 6: Hedy Lamarr from Babes of Science podcasts
- "Hedy Lamarr". American Actress and Inventor. Find a Grave. March 18, 2001. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Hedy Lamarr before she came to Hollywood and Hedy Lamarr – brains, beauty and bad judgment at aenigma