Heer Ranjha (Punjabi: ਹੀਰ ਰਾਂਝਾ, ہیر رانجھا, hīr rānjhā) is one of several popular tragic romances of Punjab. The others are Mirza Sahiba and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' by Waris Shah written in 1766. It tells the story of the love of Heer and her lover Ranjha.
Heer Ranjha was written by Waris Shah. Some historians say that the story was the original work of Shah, written after he had fallen in love with a girl named Bhag Bhari. Others say that Heer and Ranjha were real personalities who lived under the Lodi dynasty and that Waris Shah later utilised these personalities for his story. Shah states that the story has a deeper meaning, referring to the unrelenting quest that man has towards God.
Example from the epic poem
The invocation at the beginning, in one version goes thus
(The Legends of the Panjab by RC Temple, Rupa and Company, Volume two, page 606) Rag Hir Ranjha:
Awal-akhir naam Allah da lena, duja dos Muhammad Miran
Tija naun maat pita da lena, unha da chunga dudh sariran
Chautha naun unn paani da lena, jis khaave man banhe dhiran
Panjman naun Dharti Maata da lena, jis par kadam takiman
Chhewan naun Khwaja Pir da lena, jhul pilave thande niran
Satwan naun Guru Gorakhnath de lena, pataal puje bhojan
Athwan naun lalaanwale da lena, bande bande de tabaq zanjiran
First take the name of Allah and second the Great Muhammad, the prophet (of God)
Third, take the name of father and mother, on whose milk my body thrived
Fourth, take the name of bread and water, by eating which my heart is gladdened
Fifth, take the name of Mother Earth, on whom I place my feet.
Sixth, take the name of Khwaja (Khizr, the Saint), who gives me cold water to drink
Seventh, take the name of Guru Gorakh Nath who is worshiped with a platter of milk and rice
Eighth, take the name of Lalanwala who breaks the bonds and the chains of captives
Summary of the love story
Heer is an extremely beautiful woman, born into a wealthy Rajput family of the Sial tribe in Jhang, which is now Punjab, Pakistan. Ranjha (whose first name is Dheedo; Ranjha is the surname), also a Jat of the Ranjha tribe, is the youngest of four brothers and lives in the village of Takht Hazara, Pakistan by the river Chenab. Being his father's favorite son, unlike his brothers who had to toil in the lands, he led a life of ease, playing the flute ('Wanjhli'/'Bansuri'). After a quarrel with his brothers over land, Ranjha leaves home. In Waris Shah's version of the epic, it is said that Ranjha left his home because his brothers' wives refused to give him food. Eventually he arrives in Heer's village and falls in love with her. Heer's father offers Ranjha a job herding his cattle. Heer becomes mesmerised by the way Ranjha plays his flute and eventually falls in love with him. They meet each other secretly for many years until they are caught by Heer's jealous uncle, Kaido, and her parents Chuchak and Malki. Heer is forced by her family and the local priest or 'Maulvi' to marry another man named Saida Khera.
Ranjha is heartbroken. He wanders the countryside alone, until eventually he meets a Jogi (ascetic). After meeting Gorakhnath, the founder of the "Kanphata" (pierced ear) sect of jogis at Tilla Jogian (the 'Hill of Ascetics', located 50 miles north of the historic town of Bhera, Sargodha District, Punjab), Ranjha becomes a jogi himself, piercing his ears and renouncing the material world. Reciting the name of the Lord (Rabb) he wanders all over Punjab, eventually finding the village where Heer now lives.
The two return to Heer's village, where Heer's parents agree to their marriage. However, on the wedding day, Kaido poisons her food so that the wedding will not take place. Hearing this news, Ranjha rushes to aid Heer, but is too late, as she has already eaten the poison and has died. Brokenhearted once again, Ranjha eats the remaining poisoned Laddu (sweet) which Heer has eaten and dies by her side.
Heer and Ranjha are buried in Heer's hometown, Jhang. Love-smitten couples and others often pay visits to their mausoleum.
In films and TV shows
|Film and release year||Actors||Producer and director||Film songs lyricist and music composer|
|Heer Ranjha (1928)||Zubeida as Heer||Fatima Begum|
|Heer Ranjha (1932)||Rafiq Ghaznavi as Ranjha, Anwari Bai as Heer||Abdul Rashid Kardar||Rafiq Ghaznavi|
|Heer Ranjha (1948)||Mumtaz Shanti as Heer, Ghulam Mohammed as Ranjha||Wali Sahib||Aziz Khan|
|Heer (1955 film)||Swaran Lata as Heer, Inayat Hussain Bhatti as Ranjha||Nazir Ahmed Khan||Hazin Qadri, Safdar Hussain|
|Heer Sial (1962)||Bahar Begum as Heer, Sudhir as Ranjha|
|Heer Sial (1965 film)||Firdaus as Heer, Akmal Khan as Ranjha||Jafar Bukhari||Tanvir Naqvi, Bakhshi Wazir|
|Heer Ranjha (1970 film)||Firdaus as Heer, Ejaz Durrani as Ranjha||Masood Pervez||Ahmad Rahi, Khurshid Anwar|
|Heer Raanjha (1970)||Priya Rajvansh as Heer, Raaj Kumar as Ranjha||Chetan Anand||Kaifi Azmi, Madan Mohan|
|Heer Ranjha (1992 film)||Sridevi as Heer, Anil Kapoor as Ranjha||Harmesh Malhotra||Anand Bakshi, Laxmikant Pyarelal|
|Heer Ranjha (2009)||Neeru Bajwa as Heer, Harbhajan Mann as Ranjha||Harjit Singh||Babu Singh Mann, Gurmeet Singh|
It has been sung by various Pakistani singers, including the classical/traditional artist Ghulam Ali.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heer Ranjha.|
- http://apnaorg.com/research-papers/english/paper-9/page-1.shtml, Heer Ranjha, research paper on epic poem written by Waris Shah in 1766 on Academy of the Punjab in North America website, Retrieved 1 March 2016
- N. Hanif (2000), Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: South Asia, p. 387
- Waqar Pirzada (2014), Chasing Love Up against the Sun, p. 12
- In Waris Shah's version there is an added invocation to the famous Panj peer or five saints
- Shackle, Christopher (1992). "Transition and Transformation in Varis Shah's Hir". In Shackle, Christopher; Snell, Rupert. The Indian Narrative: Perspectives and Patterns. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 243. ISBN 978-3-44703-241-4.
- Shackle, Christopher (2013). "Sacred Love, Lyrical Death". In Sardar, Ziauddin; Yassin-Kassab, Robin. Reclaiming Al-andalus: Love and Death. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84904-307-6.
- Tomb of Heer Ranjha in Jhang.Pakistan Geotagging website link:http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.com/2014/05/tomb-of-heer-ranjha-in-jhang-takht.html, Retrieved 1 March 2016
- Sirhandi, Marcella C. (1999-09-01). "Manipulating Cultural Idioms". Art Journal. 58 (3): 40–47. doi:10.1080/00043249.1999.10791952. ISSN 0004-3249.
- http://www.imdb.com/find?ref_=nv_sr_fn&q=Heer+Ranjha&s=tt, List of many films made on the love story of Heer Ranjha on IMDb website, Retrieved 1 March 2016
- http://www.citwf.com/listFilms.asp?filmName=Heer+Ranjha, List of many films made on the love story of Heer Ranjha on Complete Index To World Film website, Retrieved 1 March 2016
- Read Online Heer Waris Shah By Peeran Dita Targarh in Urdu language.
- Complete Heer Waris Shah in Shahmukhi language.
- Bhera A small historical town in Pakistan