Jump to content


Coordinates: 31°49′14″N 117°13′38″E / 31.8206°N 117.2273°E / 31.8206; 117.2273
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Swan Lake CBD
Baogong Park
Lord Bao Temple
Temple on Chao Lake
Hua Tuo Statue
Location of Hefei City jurisdiction in Anhui
Location of Hefei City jurisdiction in Anhui
Hefei is located in Eastern China
Location in Eastern China
Hefei is located in China
Hefei (China)
Coordinates (Hefei municipal government): 31°49′14″N 117°13′38″E / 31.8206°N 117.2273°E / 31.8206; 117.2273
County-level divisions7
Municipal seatShushan District
 • TypePrefecture-level city
 • BodyHefei Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryYu Aihua
 • Congress ChairmanWang Weidong
 • MayorLuo Yunfeng
 • CPPCC ChairmanHan Bing
 • Prefecture-level city11,434.25 km2 (4,414.79 sq mi)
 • Urban
838.5 km2 (323.7 sq mi)
 • Metro
7,055.6 km2 (2,724.2 sq mi)
37 m (123 ft)
 (2022 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city9,465,881
 • Density830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 1.141 trillion
US$ 145.0 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 120,579
US$ 18,691
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
Area code551
ISO 3166 codeCN-AH-01
License plate prefixes皖A
City trees
Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.)
City flowers
Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.)
Blossom of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Literal meaning"Junction of the Fei Rivers"

Hefei (/həˈf/; Chinese: 合肥) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.[3] A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Its population was 9,369,881 as of the 2020 census. Its built-up (or metro) area is made up of four urban districts plus Feidong, Feixi and Changfeng counties being urbanized, was home to 7,754,481 inhabitants.[clarification needed] Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Wuhu to the southeast, Tongling to the south, Anqing to the southwest and Lu'an to the west. A natural hub of communications, Hefei is situated to the north of Chao Lake and stands on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which forms the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers.[4]

The present-day city dates from the Song dynasty. Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative centre and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It has gone through a growth in infrastructure in recent years.[5] Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.

Hefei is a world leading city for scientific research, with its ranking placed at 13th globally, 8th in the Asia-Pacific and 6th in China (behind Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Wuhan), as tracked by the Nature Index in 2023.[6] The city is represented by several major universities, including the University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui University, Anhui Agricultural University and Anhui Medical University.[7] Notably, the University of Science and Technology of China is one of the top 100 comprehensive public research universities in the world.[8][9][10][11][12]


Old Hefei Map with wall

From the 8th to the 6th centuries BC, Hefei was the site of many small states, later a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made. The name 'Hefei' was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC.

In the 3rd century AD, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford was fought at Xiaoyao Ford (逍遙津) in Hefei. Zhang Liao, a general of the Wei state, led 800 picked cavalry to defeat the 200,000-strong army from Wei's rival state Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle.

During the 4th to the 6th centuries AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over; its name and administrative status were consequently often changed. During the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture—a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou.

The present city dates from the Song dynasty (960–1126), the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. In the 10th year of Xining (熙宁, 1077 AD), the taxes collected from the Luchow Prefecture were 50315 Guan, approximately 25 million today's Chinese Yuan, with a ranking of the amount of taxes was the 11th(following Kaifeng, Hangzhou, Qinzhou, Chuzhou, Chengdu, Zizhou, Xingyuan, Mianzhou, Zhenzhou, Suzhou) among all the prefectures of Song Dynasty. During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom (902–938) and was an important center of the Southern Tang state (937–975).

After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty (1126–1279) against the Jin (Jurchen) invaders in the Jin–Song wars, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states. When the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, and the city took the name of Hefei. The city was known as Luchow or Liu-tcheou[13] (庐州, p Luzhou) during the Ming and Qing dynasties (after the 14th century to the 19th century). Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862. It was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui.

Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It was a collecting center for grain, beans, cotton, and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, leather, bamboo goods, and ironware.

The construction in 1912 of the Tianjin–Pukou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, and much of its importance passed to Bengbu. In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou (on the Yangtze opposite Wuhu) to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built primarily to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it also did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing.

Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years. The city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1945, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city.

Hefei was designated the provincial capital in 1952.[14]: 122 

A cotton mill was opened in 1958, and a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s. It also became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries.

Hefei's development was advanced by the Third Front construction.[15]: 185  In 1970, the University of Science and Technology of China relocated to Hefei.[14]: 125–126  It is one of the best technological universities in the country.[15]: 185 

In 1978, the Chinese Academy of Sciences opened a Hefei branch.[14]: 126  Several electronics institutes were moved from Beijing to Hefei in the early 1980s.[14]: 126  The establishment of these educational and research and development institutions in Hefei were a foundations for its subsequent growth in innovation.[14]: 126 

In 1991, Hefei was one of the first Chinese cities to establish a High-Tech Industrial Zone.[14]: 129 

A period of rapid growth began in 2005, when Hefei party secretary Sun Jinlong initiated a strategy of industry-based city building.[14]: 127  Sun prioritized the automobile, electric appliance, and equipment manufacturing sectors of the city's economy.[14]: 127  The city government established a department for attracting investment and sent teams around the country to recruit businesses to Hefei.[14]: 127  Sun also launched a construction program of neighborhood redevelopment, road system improvement, rail system, and a new international airport.[14]: 127  Hefei's GDP grew at the highest rate of any Chinese provincial capital during Sun's tenure.[14]: 127–128 

Since the 2010s, Hefei has developed high-tech industries and an innovation-driven economy,[14]: 129  including semi-conductors and alternative energy economic sectors.[15]: 185 



Hefei is located 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Nanjing in south-central Anhui. Chao Lake, a lake 15 km (9 mi) southeast of the city, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in China. Though, the lake has unfortunately been polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus, in recent decades,[16] the situation is improving due to efforts by both the government and the people.



Hefei features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. Hefei's annual average temperature is 16.6 °C (61.9 °F). Its annual precipitation is just slightly over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), being heavier from May through August. Winters are damp and cold, with January lows dipping just below freezing and January averaging 2.8 °C (37.0 °F). The city sees irregular snowfalls that rarely turn significant. Occasional cold spells from Siberia that usually happen during winter months such as December, January, February. Sometimes November and March which can bring snow and heavier snowfall. (Springs are generally relatively pleasant if somewhat erratic. Summers are hot and humid, with a July average of 28.6 °C (83.5 °F). In the months of June, July, August, and often September, daily temperatures can reach or surpass 37 °C (99 °F) with high humidity levels being the norm. Autumn in Hefei sees a gradual cooling and drying. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 35 percent in March to 50 percent in August, the city receives 1,868 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) on 6 January 1955, to 41.1 °C (106 °F) on 27 July 2017.[17]

Climate data for Hefei (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 7.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −0.1
Record low °C (°F) −20.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.0 8.8 10.3 9.8 10.4 10.5 11.8 11.9 8.1 8.3 8.2 6.8 113.9
Average snowy days 4.3 2.6 1.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1.5 10
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 71 70 71 77 80 81 77 74 75 73 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 109.2 113.7 143.2 173.9 182.9 155.9 186.2 176.8 150.0 151.3 140.4 126.9 1,810.4
Percent possible sunshine 34 36 38 45 43 37 43 43 41 43 45 41 41
Source: China Meteorological Administration[18][19][20]

Air pollution


Air quality typically diminishes in May and June when the city is blanketed by smog caused by the smoke generated as farmers outside the city burn their fields in preparation for planting the next crop.

Administrative divisions and demographics



Historical population
1953 183,570—    
1964 431,490+135.1%
1982 535,681+24.1%
1990 714,242+33.3%
2000 1,549,476+116.9%
2010 3,098,727+100.0%
2020 5,055,978+63.2%
Source: Census in China[21]

The majority of the population in Hefei are Han Chinese. There are a comparatively small number of Hui Chinese living in the city, for whom a few mosques have been constructed. Of the more than five million people in the city, some are migrant workers from other parts of Anhui.



The prefecture-level city of Hefei administers 9 county-level divisions, including 4 districts, 1 County-city and 4 counties.

Hefei subdivisions area (km2), population (According to 2010 Census) and population density (per km2).[22]

Division code[23] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[24] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[25]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
340100 Hefei 合肥市 Héféi Shì 11434.25 Shushan District 230000 45 65 19 1 736 1102
340102 Yaohai District 瑶海区 Yáohǎi Qū 142.90 Mingguang Road Subdistrict (明光路街道) 230000 13 2 1 118 18
340103 Luyang District 庐阳区 Lúyáng Qū 139.32 Bozhou Road Subdistrict (亳州路街道) 230000 11 1 84 14
340104 Shushan District 蜀山区 Shǔshān Qū 261.36 Sanli'an Subdistrict (三里庵街道) 230000 8 2 92 17
340111 Baohe District 包河区 Bāohé Qū 294.94 Luogang Subdistrict (骆岗街道) 230000 7 2 77 38
340121 Changfeng County 长丰县 Chángfēng Xiàn 1928.45 Shuihu (水湖镇) 231100 8 6 80 193
340122 Feidong County 肥东县 Féidōng Xiàn 2205.92 Dianbu (店埠镇) 231600 10 4 95 249
340123 Feixi County 肥西县 Féixī Xiàn 2082.66 Shangpai (上派镇) 231200 12 6 1 90 241
340124 Lujiang County 庐江县 Lújiāng Xiàn 2347.48 Lucheng (庐城镇) 231500 17 38 194
340181 Chaohu 巢湖市 Cháohú Shì 2031.22 Woniushan Subdistrict (卧牛山街道) 238000 6 11 1 62 138


Swan Lake CBD area

As of 2021, the GDP of Hefei is CN¥1,141.28 billion. The GDP per capita of the city is ¥121,187 (US$18,784), ranking within the top 20 of cities in China.[26]

As of 2023, the GDP of Hefei is CN¥1,267.38 billion.[27]

Investments and state-owned enterprises


Hefei's city government is highly engaged in business, both through state-owned enterprises and investment.[14]: 128  This approach has helped drive economic growth and re-structure the cities economic base.[14]: 128 

In 2008, the local government spent US$3.5 billion for a controlling ownership stake in BOE Technology (Jingdongfang).[15]: 185  BOE Technology subsequently grew to be one of the world's leading manufacturers of semiconductor products for telecommunications.[15]: 185  It is also the world's largest manufacturer of liquid crystal displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and flexible displays.[14]: 128 

Also in 2008, Hefei invested heavily in iFlytek, a voice-recognition technology firm spun off from USTC.[14]: 128 

The local government invested heavily in NIO in order to integrate it with Hefei Changan Automobile, a legacy enterprise from the Third Front construction.[15]: 185  NIO was on the brink of bankruptcy in 2020 when Hefei obtained a 25% stake in the company in exchange for RMB 7 billion.[28]: 101  NIO moved its headquarters to Hefei, where the government helped it obtain loans from local banks to expand its supply chains.[28]: 101  As of 2022, NIO is China's most successful electric vehicle manufacturer.[15]: 184 

Analysis of growth


Hefei has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Ma'anshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[29]

Hefei was identified by The Economist in December 2012 as the world's No.1 fastest growing metropolitan economy.[30]


Hefei South Railway Station

Hefei has been the provincial capital since 1945 (before it was Lihuang, which is today's Jinzhai) and is a natural center of transportation, being situated to the north of Chao Lake and standing on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which form the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers. From Hefei there is easy water transport via the lake to the Yangtze River opposite Wuhu.



There are two main train stations in Hefei. The newest one is Hefei South railway station (Hefeinan station, 合肥火车南站) where most high-speed trains pass through. The alternative station is Hefei railway station (合肥火车站) which is smaller and older.

There are some small stations such as Feidong Station (肥东火车站), Feixi Station (肥西火车站), Shuijiahu Station (水家湖火车站), Chaohu Station (巢湖火车站), Chaohu East railway station (Chaohudong station; 巢湖火车东站), Hefeibeicheng Station (Hefei Northtown Station 合肥北城火车站), Lujiang Station (庐江火车站) and so on. These stations are mostly located in small towns and connect commuters with the main city.



Hefei Xinqiao International Airport replaced the old Hefei Luogang International Airport and started its operation on 30 May 2013, 00:00. This new domestic aviation hub is located in Gaoliu Village situated in the northwestern part of Hefei City. The first arriving flight was China Eastern Airlines flight MU5172 from Beijing Capital International Airport. The first departing flight was China Eastern Airlines MU5468 to Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport provides scheduled passenger service to major airports in China and other international cities. Destinations include Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore, Taipei (Taoyuan, Songshan), Kaohsiung, Taichung, Seoul, Cheongju, Yangyang, Jeju, Osaka, Nagoya, Shizuoka, Okayama, Boracay Island, Bali Island, Frankfurt, Siem Reap, Bangkok, Phuket Island and Krabi Island.


Entrance to Hefei South Railway South Square Station

Hefei Metro is a rapid transit rail network under construction that will eventually serve both urban and rural areas of Hefei. As planned, Line 1 covers a total distance of 24 kilometres (15 miles) starting from Hefei Railway Station. It was inaugurated in December 2016.

In February 2013, Metro Line 2 also began its construction. It is being built alongside the Changjiang Dong Road, Changjiang Zhong Road and Changjiang Xi Road, which is a major passenger corridor in the east–west direction. It will pass through the city center area and connect to a transit point where passengers will be able to take the shuttle bus to Hefei Xinqiao International Airport. The Line 2 was opened on 26 December 2017.

In November 2015, Metro Line 3 construction began. Line 3 was opened on 26 December 2019. Line 3 connects the New Station Exploitative-experimental Zone and the Economic Technology Development District, from the vocational education town to the university town. In 2016, Metro Line 4 construction began. Line 4 was opened on 26 December 2021. Line 4 connects the New Station Exploitative-experimental Zone and the High Technology Development District. In 2017, Metro Line 5 construction began. The south part of Line 5 was opened on 26 December 2020. Line 5 connects Binhu New District and the Beicheng (North city) New District. The north part of Line 5 is expected to open at the end of 2022.

Alongside Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4 and Line 5, Hefei is also planning to build other 12 metro lines, 4 lines of intra-metropolitan rail transit (to Lu'an, Huainan, Lujiang and Chaohu) and 3 lines of tram and hopefully accomplish the project by 2030.



There is an extensive public bus system in the city, including eight bus rapid transit lines. There are several commuter lines which only run at designated time or having a large interval.[31]



Hefei plays an important role in scientific research in China. It has seven national laboratories, second only to Beijing: The National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (Chinese: 国家同步辐射实验室; pinyin: Guójiā tóngbù fúshè shíyàn shì), the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale (Chinese: 微尺度物质科学国家实验室; pinyin: Wēi chǐdù wùzhí kēxué guójiā shíyàn shì), both of which are under the University of Science and Technology of China. It also has the Institute of Solid State Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Institute of Intelligent Machines, High Magnetic Field Laboratory (founded in 2008), Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, all of which are under the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science which belongs to the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.

The No. 105 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, located in Hefei, is reportedly the site of the first human trials using CRISPR genome editing, doing so in 2015.[32]

As of 2017, Hefei had 60 universities and more than 564 research institutes.[14]: 126 

Hefei is a world leading city for scientific research, with its ranking placed at 13th globally, 8th in the Asia-Pacific and 6th in China (behind Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Wuhan), as tracked by the Nature Index in 2023.[6]

Hefei was one of the four national science centers identified in China's 14th Five-Year Plan.[14]: 126 


An older (c.2007) view of University of Science and Technology of China, including the Teaching Building II and the old library (now an administrative building)

The city is represented by several major universities, including the University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui University, Anhui Agricultural University and Anhui Medical University.[7] Notably, the University of Science and Technology of China is one of the top 100th comprehensive public research universities in the world.[8][9][10][11][12]

Yicheng Prison


Yicheng Prison is located within the city. It was built during the 1983 "Strike Hard" campaign and was formerly Hefei Zhenxing Machine Parts Factory. On 15 June 1984, the Prov. Justice Dept. decided to change the name of the Machine Parts Factory's Internal Dept. to the Prov. Independent LRC. On 17 March 1986, the city's Party Committee and government agreed to the change. On 26 April more than 400 inmates were transferred to Hefei Shangzhangwei Farm and Baihu Farm. In February 1992 a secondary country level prison was created at the Shangzhangwei Farm. In August 1992 the Hefei City LRD level was upgraded by the government. June 1996 the prison was changed to its present name. It is currently controlled by Hefei city. It mainly houses prisoners with sentences of less than 5 years and houses up to 1000 prisoners a year. In the past 20 years, nearly 20,000 inmates have completed their sentences here. The prison mainly cultivates vegetables and rice but also cooperates with the Zhejiang Rongguang Group and produces soccer training shoes, soccer balls, tourism products, and other products.[33]



Hefei had its own football team called Anhui Jiufang, who in the 2007–08 season were promoted from the Chinese Football Association Yi League to the Chinese Football Association Jia League which is the second highest tier of Chinese football. It was acquired by Tianjin Runyulong in 2011.

Sites of interest

Former Residence of Li Hongzhang
Hefei Olympic Sports Center Stadium
Hefei Grand Theatre
  • Chao Lake, is the largest lake in Anhui and one of the five major freshwater lakes in China.
  • Sanhe Town, ancient town which has a history of more than 2,500 years.
  • Xiaoyaojin Park, a public park sitting on the ancient site of the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford.
  • Temple of Lord Bao, built in 1066 near the tomb of Lord Bao.
  • Li Hongzhang's Former Residence (Chinese: 李鸿章故居; pinyin: Lǐhóngzhāng gùjū), built in the late 19th century and fully restored by the 1990s.
  • Hui Garden (Chinese: 徽园; pinyin: Huī yuán) (Opened to the public in September 2001)
  • Children's Welfare Institute (a.k.a. "Social Welfare Institute"), children's orphanage
  • Anhui Laomingguang Stadium, the home ground of Anhui Jiufang, but also used for other public sporting events.
  • Hefei Olympic Sports Center Stadium, football stadium with a capacity of 60,000 people
  • Hefei Grand Theatre, opera house

Notable people


Sister cities


See also



  1. ^ "China: Ānhuī (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) – Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ "《安徽统计年鉴2022》电子查阅版". tjj.ah.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  3. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  4. ^ "Hefei | China". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  5. ^ "The Economist Intelligence Unit". country.eiu.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Leading 200 science cities | Nature Index 2023 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.nature.com. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  7. ^ a b "US News Best Global Universities Rankings in Hefei". U.S. News & World Report. 26 October 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  8. ^ a b "QS Ranking: University of Science and Technology of China". Top Universities. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Institution outputs | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  10. ^ a b "University of Science and Technology of China". Times Higher Education (THE). 17 September 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  11. ^ a b "University of Science and Technology of China". NTU Ranking. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  12. ^ a b "World University Rankings – 2020 | China Universities in Top 1000 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2020 | Shanghai Ranking – 2020". www.shanghairanking.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  13. ^ Inter alia: Mitchell Sr., S.A. A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics Of The World. "China. Archived 2012-06-29 at the Wayback Machine" Entered 1850, Published 1853.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hu, Richard (2023). Reinventing the Chinese City. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-21101-7.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Marquis, Christopher; Qiao, Kunyuan (2022). Mao and Markets: The Communist Roots of Chinese Enterprise. New Haven: Yale University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv3006z6k. ISBN 978-0-300-26883-6. JSTOR j.ctv3006z6k. OCLC 1348572572. S2CID 253067190.
  16. ^ Wang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Wei-Wei; Han, Chao; Hu, Wei-Ping (8 February 2021). "[Distribution of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Chaohu Sediments and Pollution Evaluation]". Huan Jing Ke Xue = Huanjing Kexue. 42 (2): 699–711. doi:10.13227/j.hjkx.202006216. ISSN 0250-3301. PMID 33742864.
  17. ^ "无标题文档". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  18. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  19. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  20. ^ "Experience Template" CMA台站气候标准值(1991-2020) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  21. ^ Spatial Data Lab (2020). "China County Map with 2000-201o Population Census Data". dataverse.harvard.edu. doi:10.7910/DVN/VKGEBX. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  22. ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 (in Chinese (China)). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  24. ^ 《合肥统计年鉴2011》
  25. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  26. ^ National Bureau of Statistics of China
  27. ^ "2023年全市经济运行情况". 4 February 2024.
  28. ^ a b Jin, Keyu (2023). The New China Playbook: Beyond Socialism and Capitalism. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-1-9848-7828-1.
  29. ^ "THE RISE OF THE 'CHAMPS' – NEW REPORT MAPS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA'S FASTEST GROWING CITIES". Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  30. ^ "Metro economies". The Economist. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  31. ^ 合肥公交集团有限公司. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017.
  32. ^ Rana, Preetika; Marcus, Amy Dockser; Fan, Wenxin (21 January 2018). "China, Unhampered by Rules, Races Ahead in Gene-Editing Trials". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018. Later in 2016, news reports said a Chinese hospital had begun the world's first Crispr trial. In fact, it wasn't first—No. 105 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Hefei began testing Crispr on patients in 2015, says Liu Bo, who leads that trial.
  33. ^ "Laogai Handbook 2007–2008" (PDF). Laogao.it. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  34. ^ "Prison for Scaling China's Tallest Skyscraper" Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine 1 August 2007.
  35. ^ 友好都市. Kurume city. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  36. ^ "Hefei, China – Columbus Sister Cities". columbussistercities.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  37. ^ 合肥市缔结友好城市关系情况一览表. hfwqb.hefei.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2019.